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(i) (i) (i)

‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib Arabic : علي ابن أبي طالب‎‎

TRIBE Quraysh ( Banu Hashim )

FATHER Abu Talib ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib

MOTHER Fatimah
Fatimah
bint Asad

RELIGION Islam
Islam

Part of a series on

ALI

Views

* Sunni view of Ali * Shi\'a view of Ali
Ali

Life

* Marital life * Birthplace * First Fitna * Assassination * Timeline of Ali\'s life * Alids * Hadith of the pond of Khumm

Legacy

* Nahj al-Balagha * Al-Ghadir * Qalam-e-Mowla * Zulfiqar * Imam Ali Mosque * Ghurar al-Hikam wa Durar al-Kalim

Perspectives

* Military career of Ali * Ali
Ali
as Caliph
Caliph
* The Fourteen Infallibles * Imam
Imam
( The Twelve Imams ) * Ali
Ali
in the Qur\'an

Related articles

* Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliph
Caliph
( Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliph
Caliph
) * Succession to Muhammad
Succession to Muhammad

* Category
Category
* Islam
Islam
portal

* v * t * e

ALI (/ˈɑːli, ɑːˈliː/ ; Arabic : علي‎, translit. ʿAlī‎, Arabic pronunciation: ; 13 Rajab
Rajab
, 21 BH – 21 Ramadan , 40 AH (c. 594 – 29 January 661) was the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad
Muhammad
, the prophet of Islam
Islam
. He ruled as the fourth caliph from 656 to 661, and was first Imam
Imam
of Shia Islam
Islam
from 632 to 661.

Born to Abu Talib and Fatimah
Fatimah
bint Asad , Ali
Ali
was the only child believed to have been born in the sacred sanctuary of the Ka‘bah (Arabic : كَـعـبَـة‎‎) in Mecca
Mecca
, the holiest place in Islam
Islam
, according to many classical Islamic sources, especially Shia ones. Ali
Ali
was the first young male who accepted Islam
Islam
. After migrating to Medina , he married Muhammad's daughter Fatimah
Fatimah
. Ali took part in the early caravan raids from Mecca
Mecca
and later in almost all the battles fought by the nascent Muslim community. He was appointed caliph by Muhammad's Companions ( Sahaba ) in 656, after Caliph
Caliph
Uthman ibn Affan was assassinated. Ali's reign saw civil wars and in 661, he was attacked and assassinated by a Kharijite while praying in the Great Mosque
Mosque
of Kufa
Kufa
, dying two days later.

Ali
Ali
is important to both Sunni and Shi\'ite denominations, politically and spiritually. The numerous biographical sources about Ali
Ali
are often biased according to sectarian lines, but they agree that he was a pious Muslim, devoted to the cause of Islam
Islam
and a just ruler in accordance with the Qur\'an and the Sunnah
Sunnah
. While Sunnis consider Ali
Ali
the fourth and final of the Rashidun
Rashidun
(rightly guided) caliphs , Shi'ites regard Ali
Ali
as the first Imam
Imam
after Muhammad
Muhammad
due to their interpretation of the events at Ghadir Khumm . Shias also believe that Ali
Ali
and the other Shi\'ite Imams (all of whom are members of the Bayṫ (Arabic : بَـيـت‎‎, Household) of Muhammad) are the rightful successors to Muhammad. This disagreement split the Ummah (Arabic : أُمَّـة‎‎, Muslim Community) into the Sunni and Shia branches.

CONTENTS

* 1 Life in Mecca
Mecca

* 1.1 Early years * 1.2 Acceptance of Islam
Islam
and aftermath * 1.3 Migration to Medina

* 2 Life in Medina

* 2.1 Muhammad\'s era

* 2.1.1 Family life * 2.1.2 Military career * 2.1.3 Missions for Islam
Islam
* 2.1.4 Incident of the Mubahalah * 2.1.5 Ghadir Khumm

* 2.2 After Muhammad
Muhammad

* 2.2.1 Succession to Muhammad
Succession to Muhammad
* 2.2.2 Ali
Ali
and the Rashidun
Rashidun
caliphs

* 3 Caliphate
Caliphate

* 3.1 Election * 3.2 Inaugural address in Medina * 3.3 The First Fitnah

* 3.4 Policies

* 3.4.1 Anti-corruption campaign and egalitarian policies * 3.4.2 Forming coalitions * 3.4.3 Governance doctrine

* 3.5 Assassination in Kufa
Kufa

* 4 Aftermath

* 4.1 Burial in Najaf
Najaf

* 5 Virtues

* 5.1 Prophetic knowledge * 5.2 Theosophy

* 5.3 Eloquence

* 5.3.1 The sermons without dots and alephs

* 5.4 Compassion * 5.5 Works

* 6 Descendants

* 7 Views

* 7.1 Muslim views

* 7.1.1 Ali in the Quran * 7.1.2 Shi\'ite * 7.1.3 Sunni * 7.1.4 Sufi * 7.1.5 Titles

* 7.2 As a "deity"

* 7.2.1 Alawites
Alawites
* 7.2.2 Ali-Illahism * 7.2.3 Druze
Druze

* 8 Historiography * 9 See also * 10 Footnotes * 11 Notes * 12 References

* 13 Bibliography

* 13.1 Original sources * 13.2 Secondary sources

* 14 External links

LIFE IN MECCA

EARLY YEARS

Main articles: Family tree of Ali
Family tree of Ali
and Birthplace of Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib

Ali's father, Abu Talib, was the custodian of the Ka'bah and a sheikh (Arabic : شَـيـخ‎‎) of Banu Hashim , an important branch of the powerful Quraysh tribe. He was also an uncle of Muhammad. Ali's mother, Fatima bint Asad, also belonged to Banu Hashim, making Ali
Ali
a descendant of Ismā‘īl (Arabic : إِسـمَـاعِـيـل‎‎, Ishmael ) the son of Ibrāhīm (Arabic : إِبـرَاهِـيـم‎‎, Abraham
Abraham
). Many sources, especially Shi'i ones, attest that Ali
Ali
was born inside the Kaaba in the city of Mecca, where he stayed with his mother for three days. His mother reportedly felt the beginning of her labour pain while visiting Ka'ba and entered Ka'ba where her son was born. Some Shia sources contain miraculous descriptions of the entrance of Ali's mother into Ka'ba. Ali's birth in Ka'ba is regarded as a unique event proving his "high spiritual station" among Shia, while among various Sunni scholars it is considered a great, if not unique, distinction.

According to a tradition, Muhammad
Muhammad
was the first person whom Ali
Ali
saw as he took the newborn in his hands. Muhammad
Muhammad
named him Ali, meaning "the exalted one" . Muhammad
Muhammad
had a close relationship with Ali's parents. When Muhammad
Muhammad
was orphaned and later lost his grandfather Abdul Muttalib , Ali's father took him into his house. Ali
Ali
was born two or three years after Muhammad
Muhammad
married Khadijah bint Khuwaylid
Khadijah bint Khuwaylid
. When Ali
Ali
was five or six years old, a famine occurred in and around Mecca, affecting the economic conditions of Ali's father, who had a large family to support. Muhammad
Muhammad
took Ali
Ali
into his home to raise him.

ACCEPTANCE OF ISLAM AND AFTERMATH

See also: Identity of the first male Muslim and Hijra (Islam)

The second period of Ali's life began in 610 when he declared Islam at the age of 10, and ended with the Hijra of Muhammad
Muhammad
to Medina in 622. When Muhammad
Muhammad
reported that he had received a divine revelation , Ali, then only about ten years old, believed him and professed to Islam. According to Ibn Ishaq and some other authorities, Ali
Ali
was the first male to embrace Islam
Islam
. Tabari adds other traditions making the similar claim of being the first Muslim in relation to Zayd ibn Harithah or Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
. Some historians and scholars believe Ali's conversion is not worthy enough to consider him the first male Muslim because he was a child at the time. Shia doctrine asserts that in keeping with Ali's divine mission, he accepted Islam
Islam
before he took part in any pre-Islamic Meccan traditional religion rites, regarded by Muslims as polytheistic (see shirk ) or paganistic . Hence the Shia say of Ali
Ali
that his face is honoured, as it was never sullied by prostrations before idols. The Sunnis also use the honorific Karam Allahu Wajhahu, which means "God's Favour upon his Face." The reason his acceptance is often not called a conversion is because he was never an idol worshipper like the people of Mecca. He was known to have broken idols in the mould of Abraham
Abraham
and asked people why they worshipped something they made themselves. Ali\'s grandfather , along with some members of the Bani Hashim clan, were Hanifs , or followers of a monotheistic belief system prior to the coming of Islam.

Muhammad
Muhammad
invited people to Islam
Islam
in secret for three years before he started inviting them publicly. When he was commanded to invite his closer relatives to come to Islam
Islam
he gathered the Banu Hashim clan in a ceremony. According to al-Tabari , Ibn Athir and Abu al-Fida , Muhammad
Muhammad
announced at invitational events that whoever assisted him in his invitation would become his brother, trustee and successor. Only Ali, who was thirteen or fourteen years old, stepped forward to help him. This invitation was repeated three times, but Ali
Ali
was the only person who answered Muhammad. Recognizing ‘Ali's continual and singular response to his call, Muhammad
Muhammad
declared that Ali
Ali
was his brother, inheritor and vice-regent and people must obey him. Most of the adults present were uncles of Ali
Ali
and Muhammad, and Abu Lahab laughed at them and declared to Abu Talib that he must bow down to his own son, as Ali
Ali
was now his Emir
Emir
. This event is known as the Hadith of Warning . During the persecution of Muslims and boycott of the Banu Hashim in Mecca, Ali
Ali
stood firmly in support of Muhammad.

MIGRATION TO MEDINA

See also: Hijra (Islam)

In 622, the year of Muhammad's migration to Yathrib (now Medina), Ali risked his life by sleeping in Muhammad's bed to impersonate him and thwart an assassination plot so that Muhammad
Muhammad
could escape in safety. This night is called Laylat al-Mabit. According to some ahadith , a verse was revealed about Ali
Ali
concerning his sacrifice on the night of Hijra which says "And among men is he who sells his nafs (self) in exchange for the pleasure of Allah
Allah
."

Ali
Ali
survived the plot, but risked his life again by staying in Mecca to carry out Muhammad's instructions: to restore to their owners all the goods and properties that had been entrusted to Muhammad
Muhammad
for safekeeping. ‘ Ali
Ali
then went to Medina with his mother, Muhammad's daughter Fatimah, and two other women.

LIFE IN MEDINA

ʿAlī bin Abī Ṭālib

ʿAlī bin Abī Ṭālib by Hakob Hovnatanyan (c. 19th century)

Sunnism : Rightly-Guided Caliph Shiism : First Imam All Islam
Islam
: Ahl al-Bayt, Ṣaḥābī , Martyr; Commander of the Faithful, One Promised Paradise , The Door to the City of Knowledge, One whom God
God
Favored, The Great News, Leader of the God-conscious, Lion
Lion
of God, Brave-heart, Leader of the Knights of God, Father of the Dust, King of the Saints, Leader of the Saints

VENERATED IN All Islam
Islam
(Salafis honor rather than venerate him).

MAJOR SHRINE Imam Ali Mosque , Najaf
Najaf
, Iraq
Iraq

MUHAMMAD\'S ERA

See also: Muhammad
Muhammad
in Medina and Military career of Ali

Ali
Ali
was 22 or 23 years old when he migrated to Medina. When Muhammad was creating bonds of brotherhood among his companions , he selected Ali
Ali
as his brother. For the ten years that Muhammad
Muhammad
led the community in Medina, Ali
Ali
was extremely active in his service as his secretary and deputy, serving in his armies, the bearer of his banner in every battle, leading parties of warriors on raids, and carrying messages and orders. As one of Muhammad's lieutenants, and later his son-in-law, Ali
Ali
was a person of authority and standing in the Muslim community.

Family Life

Main article: Ali marital life See also: Ahl al-Bayt
Ahl al-Bayt
, Hadith
Hadith
of the Event of the Cloak , and The verse of purification
The verse of purification

This section IS INCOMPLETE. (June 2017)

In 623, Muhammad
Muhammad
told ‘ Ali
Ali
that God
God
ordered him to give his daughter Fatimah
Fatimah
Zahra to Ali
Ali
in marriage. Muhammad
Muhammad
said to Fatimah: "I have married you to the dearest of my family to me." This family is glorified by Muhammad
Muhammad
frequently and he declared them as his Ahl al-Bayt in events such as Mubahala and hadith like the Hadith
Hadith
of the Event of the Cloak . They were also glorified in the Qur’an in several cases such as "the verse of purification ".

Ali
Ali
had four children born to Fatimah, the only child of Muhammad
Muhammad
to have surviving progeny. Their two sons (Hasan and Husain ) were cited by Muhammad
Muhammad
to be his own sons, honoured numerous times in his lifetime and titled "the leaders of the youth of Jannah" (Heaven, the hereafter.)

At the beginning they were extremely poor. For several years after his marriage, Fatimah
Fatimah
did all of the household work by herself. The shoulder on which she carried pitchers of water from the well was swollen and the hand with which she worked the handmill to grind grain was often covered with blisters. Fatimah
Fatimah
vouched to take care of the household work, make dough, bake bread, and clean the house; in return, Ali
Ali
vouched to take care of the outside work such as gathering firewood, and bringing food. Their circumstances were akin to many of the Muslims at the time and only improved following the Battle of Khaybar
Khaybar
when the wealth of Khaybar
Khaybar
was distributed among the poor. When the economic situations of the Muslims became better, Fatimah gained some maids but treated them like her family and performed the house duties with them.

Their marriage lasted until Fatimah's death ten years later. Although polygamy was permitted, Ali
Ali
did not marry another woman while Fatimah was alive, and his marriage to her possesses a special spiritual significance for all Muslims because it is seen as the marriage between two great figures surrounding Muhammad. After Fatimah's death, Ali
Ali
married other women and fathered many children.

Military Career

* v * t * e

Campaigns of Ali
Ali

* Badr * Banu Qaynuqa * Uhud * Banu Nadir * Trench * Banu Qurayza
Banu Qurayza
* Hudaybiyyah * Khaybar
Khaybar
* Mu\'tah * Mecca
Mecca
* Hunayn * Autas * Ta\'if * The Camel * Siffin * Nahrawan

Main articles: Military career of Ali and List of expeditions of Muhammad
Muhammad

With the exception of the Battle of Tabouk , ‘ Ali
Ali
took part in all battles and expeditions fought for Islam. As well as being the standard-bearer in those battles, Ali
Ali
led parties of warriors on raids into enemy lands.

Ali
Ali
first distinguished himself as a warrior in 624 at the Battle of Badr . He defeated the Umayyad champion Walid ibn Utba as well as many other Meccan soldiers. According to Muslim traditions Ali
Ali
killed between twenty and thirty-five enemies in battle, most agreeing with twenty-seven.

Ali
Ali
was prominent at the Battle of Uhud , as well as many other battles where he wielded a bifurcated sword known as Zulfiqar . He had the special role of protecting Muhammad
Muhammad
when most of the Muslim army fled from the battle of Uhud and it was said "There is no brave youth except Ali
Ali
and there is no sword which renders service except Zulfiqar." He was commander of the Muslim army in the Battle of Khaybar
Khaybar
. Following this battle Mohammad gave Ali
Ali
the name Asadullah , which in Arabic means " Lion
Lion
of God". ‘ Ali
Ali
also defended Muhammad in the Battle of Hunayn in 630.

Missions For Islam

Arabic calligraphy which means "There is no brave youth except Ali
Ali
and there is no sword which renders service except Zulfiqar ."

Muhammad
Muhammad
designated ‘ Ali
Ali
as one of the scribes who would write down the text of the Quran, which had been revealed to Muhammad
Muhammad
during the previous two decades. As Islam
Islam
began to spread throughout Arabia, Ali helped establish the new Islamic order. He was instructed to write down the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah , the peace treaty between Muhammad
Muhammad
and the Quraysh in 628. Ali
Ali
was so reliable and trustworthy that Muhammad asked him to carry the messages and declare the orders. In 630, Ali recited to a large gathering of pilgrims in Mecca
Mecca
a portion of the Quran
Quran
that declared Muhammad
Muhammad
and the Islamic community were no longer bound by agreements made earlier with Arab polytheists . During the Conquest of Mecca
Mecca
in 630, Muhammad
Muhammad
asked Ali
Ali
to guarantee that the conquest would be bloodless. He ordered Ali
Ali
to break all the idols worshipped by the Banu Aus , Banu Khazraj , Tayy , and those in the Ka‘bah to purify it after its defilement by the polytheism of the pre-Islamic era . Ali
Ali
was sent to Yemen
Yemen
one year later to spread the teachings of Islam. He was also charged with settling several disputes and putting down the uprisings of various tribes.

Incident Of The Mubahalah

Main article: Event of Mubahala See also: Ahl al-Bayt
Ahl al-Bayt

According to hadith collections, in 631, an Arab Christian
Christian
envoy from Najran (currently in northern Yemen
Yemen
and partly in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
) came to Muhammad
Muhammad
to argue which of the two parties erred in its doctrine concerning Jesus. After likening Jesus' miraculous birth to Adam's creation, Muhammad
Muhammad
called them to mubahala (conversation), where each party should bring their knowledgeable men, women and children, and ask God
God
to curse the lying party and their followers. Muhammad, to prove to them that he was a prophet, brought his daughter Fatimah, ‘ Ali
Ali
and his grandchildren Hasan and Husayn. He went to the Christians and said "this is my family" and covered himself and his family with a cloak. According to Muslim sources, when one of the Christian
Christian
monks saw their faces, he advised his companions to withdraw from Mubahala for the sake of their lives and families. Thus the Christian
Christian
monks vanished from the Mubahala place. Allameh Tabatabaei explains in Tafsir al-Mizan that the word "Our selves" in this verse refers to Muhammad
Muhammad
and Ali. Then he narrates that Imam Ali al-Rida , eighth Shia Imam
Imam
, in discussion with Al-Ma\'mun , Abbasid
Abbasid
caliph, referred to this verse to prove the superiority of Muhammad's progeny over the rest of the Muslim community, and considered it the proof for Ali's right for caliphate due to God
God
having made Ali
Ali
like the self of Muhammad.

Ghadir Khumm

Main articles: Hadith of the pond of Khumm and Hadith
Hadith
of the two weighty things The Investiture of Ali, at Ghadir Khumm (MS Arab 161 , fol. 162r, 1307/8 Ilkhanid
Ilkhanid
manuscript illustration).

As Muhammad
Muhammad
was returning from his last pilgrimage in 632, he made statements about Ali
Ali
that are interpreted very differently by Sunnis and Shias. He halted the caravan at Ghadir Khumm , gathered the returning pilgrims for communal prayer and began to address them.

According to Encyclopedia of Islam
Islam
:

Taking Ali
Ali
by the hand, he asked of his faithful followers whether he, Muhammad, was not closer (awlā) to the Believers than they were to themselves; the crowd cried out: "It is so, O Apostle of God!"; he then declared: "He of whom I am the mawla , of him Ali
Ali
is also the mawla (man kuntu mawlāhu fa-ʿAlī mawlāhu)".

Shias regard these statements as constituting the designation of Ali as the successor of Muhammad
Muhammad
and as the first Imam
Imam
; by contrast, Sunnis take them only as an expression of close spiritual relationship between Muhammad
Muhammad
and Ali, and of his wish that Ali, as his cousin and son-in-law, inherit his family responsibilities upon his death, but not necessarily a designation of political authority. Many Sufis also interpret the episode as the transfer of Muhammad's spiritual power and authority to Ali, whom they regard as the wali par excellence. On the basis of this hadith, Shias say that Ali
Ali
later insisted that his religious authority was superior to that of Abu Bakr and Umar
Umar
.

AFTER MUHAMMAD

Succession To Muhammad

See also: Origin and development of the Quran , Succession to Muhammad
Muhammad
, Saqifah , Rashidun
Rashidun
, and Hadith
Hadith
of position

Another part of Ali's life started in 632, after the death of Muhammad
Muhammad
and lasted until the assassination of ‘ Uthman ibn ‘Affan, the third caliph in 656. During those 24 years, Ali
Ali
neither took part in any battle or conquest , nor did he assume any executive position. He withdrew from political affairs, especially after the death of his wife, Fatimah
Fatimah
Zahra. He used his time to serve his family and worked as a farmer. Ali
Ali
dug a lot of wells and planted gardens near Medina and endowed them for public use. These wells are known today as Abar Ali
Ali
("Ali's wells").

Ali
Ali
compiled a complete version of the Quran, mus\'haf , six months after the death of Muhammad. The volume was completed and carried by camel to show to other people of Medina. The order of this mus'haf differed from that which was gathered later during the Uthmanic era. This book was rejected by several people when he showed it to them. Despite this, Ali
Ali
made no resistance against standardised mus\'haf .

Ali
Ali
And The Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphs

See also: The election of Uthman and Siege of Uthman Ambigram depicting Muhammad
Muhammad
(right) and Ali
Ali
(left) written in a single word. The 180 degree inverted form shows both words.

After uniting the Arabian tribes into a single Muslim religious polity in the last years of his life, Muhammad's death in 632 signalled disagreement over who would succeed him as leader of the Muslim community. While Ali
Ali
and the rest of Muhammad's close family were washing his body for burial, at a gathering attended by a small group of Muslims at Saqifah , a close companion of Muhammad
Muhammad
named Abu Bakr was nominated for the leadership of the community. Others added their support and Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
was made the first caliph. The choice of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
was disputed by some of Muhammad's companions, who held that Ali
Ali
had been designated his successor by Muhammad
Muhammad
himself.

Later when Fatimah
Fatimah
and Ali
Ali
sought aid from the Companions in the matter of his right to the caliphate, they answered 'O daughter of the Messenger of God! We have given our allegiance to Abu Bakr. If Ali
Ali
had come to us before this, we would certainly not have abandoned him'. Ali
Ali
said, 'Was it fitting that we should wrangle over the caliphate even before the Prophet was buried?'

Following his election to the caliphate, Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and Umar
Umar
with a few other companions headed to Fatimah\'s house to force Ali
Ali
and his supporters who had gathered there to give their allegiance to Abu Bakr. Then, it is alleged that Umar
Umar
threatened to set the house on fire unless they came out and swore allegiance to Abu Bakr. Fatimah
Fatimah
, in support of her husband, started a commotion and threatened to "uncover her hair", at which Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
relented and withdrew. Ali
Ali
is reported to have repeatedly said that had there been forty men with him he would have resisted. Ali
Ali
did not actively assert his own right because he did not want to throw the nascent Muslim community into strife. Other sources say that Ali
Ali
accepted the selection of Umar
Umar
as caliph and even gave one of his daughters, Umm Kulthūm, to him in marriage. 18th century mirror writing in Ottoman calligraphy . Depicts the phrase ' Ali
Ali
is the vicegerent of God' in both directions.

This contentious issue caused Muslims to later split into two groups, Sunni and Shia. Sunnis assert that even though Muhammad
Muhammad
never appointed a successor, Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
was elected first caliph by the Muslim community. The Sunnis recognise the first four caliphs as Muhammad\'s rightful successors . Shias believe that Muhammad
Muhammad
explicitly named Ali as his successor at Ghadir Khumm and Muslim leadership belonged to him which had been determined by divine order.

According to Wilferd Madelung , Ali
Ali
himself was firmly convinced of his legitimacy for caliphate based on his close kinship with Muhammad, his intimate association and his knowledge of Islam
Islam
and his merits in serving its cause. He told Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
that his delay in pledging allegiance (bay\'ah ) as caliph was based on his belief of his own prior title. Ali
Ali
did not change his mind when he finally pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and then to Umar
Umar
and to Uthman but had done so for the sake of the unity of Islam, at a time when it was clear that the Muslims had turned away from him. Ali
Ali
also believed that he could fulfill his role of Imam'ate without this fighting.

At the beginning of Abu Bakr's Caliphate, there was a controversy about Muhammad's endowment to his daughter, especially Fadak , between Fatimah
Fatimah
and Ali
Ali
on one side and Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
on the other side. Fatimah asked Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
to turn over their property, the lands of Fadak and Khaybar
Khaybar
. But Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
refused and told her that prophets did not have any legacy and that Fadak belonged to the Muslim community. Abu Bakr said to her, "Allah's Apostle said, we do not have heirs, whatever we leave is Sadaqa ." Together with Umm Ayman , Ali
Ali
testified to the fact that Muhammad
Muhammad
granted it to Fatimah
Fatimah
Zahra, when Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
requested her to summon witnesses for her claim. Fatimah
Fatimah
became angry and stopped speaking to Abu Bakr, and continued assuming that attitude until she died.

‘Aishah also said that "When Allah's Apostle died, his wives intended to send ‘ Uthman to Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
asking him for their share of the inheritance." Then 'Aisha said to them, "Didn't Allah's Apostle say, 'Our (Apostles') property is not to be inherited, and whatever we leave is to be spent in charity?'".

According to some sources, ‘ Ali
Ali
did not give his oath of allegiance to Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
until some time after the death of his wife, Fatimah
Fatimah
in the year 633. ‘ Ali
Ali
participated in the funeral of Abu Bakr.

He pledged allegiance to the second caliph ‘ Umar
Umar
ibn Khattab and helped him as a trusted advisor. ‘ Umar
Umar
particularly relied upon Ali as the chief judge of Medina. He also advised Umar
Umar
to set Hijra as the beginning of the Islamic calendar
Islamic calendar
. ‘ Umar
Umar
used ‘Ali's suggestions in political issues as well as religious ones.

Ali
Ali
was one of the electoral council to choose the third caliph which was appointed by ‘Umar. Although ‘ Ali
Ali
was one of the two major candidates, the council's arrangement was against him. Sa\'d ibn Abi Waqqas and Abdur Rahman bin Awf
Abdur Rahman bin Awf
, who were cousins, were naturally inclined to support Uthman, who was Abdur Rahman's brother-in-law. In addition, Umar
Umar
gave the casting vote to Abdur Rahman. Abdur Rahman offered the caliphate to Ali
Ali
on the condition that he should rule in accordance with the Quran, the example set by Muhammad
Muhammad
, and the precedents established by the first two caliphs. Ali
Ali
rejected the third condition while Uthman accepted it. According to Ibn Abi al-Hadid\'s Comments on the Peak of Eloquence Ali
Ali
insisted on his prominence there, but most of the electors supported Uthman and Ali was reluctantly urged to accept him.

Uthman ibn ‘Affan expressed generosity toward his kin, Banu Abd-Shams , who seemed to dominate him, and his supposed arrogant mistreatment toward several of the earliest companions such as Abu Dharr al-Ghifari , Abd- Allah
Allah
ibn Mas\'ud and Ammar ibn Yasir provoked outrage among some groups of people. Dissatisfaction and resistance openly arose since 650–651 throughout most of the empire. The dissatisfaction with his rule and the governments appointed by him was not restricted to the provinces outside Arabia
Arabia
. When Uthman's kin, especially Marwan , gained control over him, the noble companions, including most of the members of elector council , turned against him or at least withdrew their support, putting pressure on the caliph to mend his ways and reduce the influence of his assertive kin.

At this time, ‘ Ali
Ali
had acted as a restraining influence on Uthman without directly opposing him. On several occasions Ali
Ali
disagreed with Uthman in the application of the Hudud ; he had publicly shown sympathy for Abu Dharr al-Ghifari and had spoken strongly in the defence of Ammar ibn Yasir. He conveyed to Uthman the criticisms of other Companions and acted on Uthman's behalf as negotiator with the provincial opposition who had come to Medina; because of this some mistrust between Ali
Ali
and Uthman's family seems to have arisen. Finally, he tried to mitigate the severity of the siege by his insistence that Uthman should be allowed water.

There is controversy among historians about the relationship between Ali
Ali
and Uthman. Although pledging allegiance to Uthman, Ali
Ali
disagreed with some of his policies. In particular, he clashed with Uthman on the question of religious law. He insisted that religious punishment had to be done in several cases such as Ubayd Allah
Allah
ibn Umar
Umar
and Walid ibn Uqba . In 650 during pilgrimage , he confronted Uthman with reproaches for his change of the prayer ritual. When Uthman declared that he would take whatever he needed from the fey\' , Ali
Ali
exclaimed that in that case the caliph would be prevented by force. Ali endeavoured to protect companions from maltreatment by the caliph such as Ibn Mas\'ud . Therefore, some historians consider Ali
Ali
one of the leading members of Uthman's opposition, if not the main one. But Wilferd Madelung rejects their judgment due to the fact that Ali
Ali
did not have the Quraysh's support to be elected as a caliph. According to him, there is even no evidence that Ali
Ali
had close relations with rebels who supported his caliphate or directed their actions. Some other sources say Ali
Ali
had acted as a restraining influence on Uthman without directly opposing him. However, Madelung narrates Marwan told Zayn al-Abidin , the grandson of Ali, that

No one was more temperate toward our master than your master.

CALIPHATE

Caliphate
Caliphate
خِلافة

Main caliphates

* Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphate
Caliphate
* Umayyad Caliphate
Caliphate
* Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliphate
Caliphate
* Ottoman Caliphate
Caliphate

Parallel caliphates

* Fatimid Caliphate
Caliphate
* Caliphate
Caliphate
of Córdoba * Almohad Caliphate
Caliphate
* Sokoto Caliphate
Caliphate

Islam
Islam
portal

* v * t * e

See also: Rashidun
Rashidun
Empire and Ali as caliph Domains of Rashidun caliphate under four caliphs . The divided phase relates to the Rashidun
Rashidun
caliphate of ‘ Ali
Ali
during the First Fitna . Strongholds of the Rashidun
Rashidun
caliphate of Ali
Ali
during the First Fitna Region under the control of Muawiyah I
Muawiyah I
during the First Fitna Region under the control of Amr ibn al-As during the First Fitna

Ali
Ali
was caliph between 656 and 661, during one of the most turbulent periods in Muslim history, which also coincided with the First Fitnah. Since the conflicts in which Ali
Ali
was involved were perpetuated in polemical sectarian historiography, biographical material is often biased. But the sources agree that he was a profoundly religious man, devoted to the cause of Islam
Islam
and the rule of justice in accordance with the Qur’an and the Sunnah
Sunnah
; he engaged in war against erring Muslims as a matter of religious duty. The sources abound in notices on his austerity, rigorous observance of religious duties, and detachment from worldly goods. Thus some authors have pointed out that he lacked political skill and flexibility.

ELECTION

Uthman's assassination meant that rebels had to select a new caliph. This met with difficulties since the rebels were divided into several groups comprising the Muhajirun , Ansar , Egyptians , Kufans and Basrites . There were three candidates: Ali, Talhah and Al-Zubayr . First the rebels approached Ali, requesting him to accept being the fourth caliph. Some of Muhammad's companions tried to persuade Ali
Ali
to accept the office, but he turned down the offer, suggesting to be a counsellor instead of a chief. Talhah, Zubayr and other companions also refused the rebels' offer of the caliphate. Therefore, the rebels warned the inhabitants of Medina to select a caliph within one day, or they would apply drastic action. In order to resolve the deadlock, the Muslims gathered in Al-Masjid an-Nabawi (Arabic : الـمَـسـجـد الـنَّـبـوي‎‎, "The Masjid
Masjid
of the Prophet") on June 18, 656, to appoint the caliph. Initially, ‘ Ali
Ali
refused to accept it, simply because his most vigorous supporters were rebels. However, when some notable companions of Muhammad, in addition to the residents of Medina, urged him to accept the offer, he finally agreed. According to Abu Mekhnaf 's narration, Talhah was the first prominent companion who gave his pledge to ‘Ali, but other narrations claimed otherwise, stating they were forced to give their pledge. Also, Talhah and Az-Zubayr later claimed they supported him reluctantly. Regardless, Ali
Ali
refuted these claims, insisting they recognised him as caliph voluntarily. Wilferd Madelung believes that force did not urge people to give their pledge and they pledged publicly in the mosque. While the overwhelming majority of Medina's population as well as many of the rebels gave their pledge, some important figures or tribes did not do so. The Umayyads, kinsmen of Uthman, fled to the Levant
Levant
, or remained in their houses, later refusing ‘Ali's legitimacy. Sa\'ad ibn Abi Waqqas was absent and ‘Abdullah ibn ‘ Umar
Umar
abstained from offering his allegiance, but both of them assured ‘ Ali
Ali
that they would not act against him.

Ali
Ali
thus inherited the Rashidun
Rashidun
caliphate — which extended from Egypt
Egypt
in the west to the Iranian highlands in the east—while the situation in the Hejaz
Hejaz
and the other provinces on the eve of his election was unsettled. Soon after Ali
Ali
became caliph, he dismissed provincial governors who had been appointed by Uthman, replacing them with trusted aides. He acted against the counsel of Mughira ibn Shu\'ba and Ibn ‘Abbas , who had advised him to proceed with his governing cautiously. Madelung says Ali
Ali
was deeply convinced of his right and his religious mission, unwilling to compromise his principles for the sake of political expediency, and ready to fight against overwhelming odds. Muawiyah I, the kinsman of Uthman and governor of the Levant, refused to submit to Ali's orders; he was the only governor to do so.

INAUGURAL ADDRESS IN MEDINA

The name of Ali
Ali
with Islamic calligraphy
Islamic calligraphy
.

When he was appointed caliph, Ali
Ali
stated to the citizens of Medina that Muslim polity had come to be plagued by dissension and discord; he desired to purge Islam
Islam
of any evil. He advised the populace to behave as true Muslims, warning that he would tolerate no sedition and those who were found guilty of subversive activities would be dealt with harshly.

THE FIRST FITNAH

* v * t * e

First Fitna

* The Camel * Siffin * Nahrawan

See also: First Fitna

A\'ishah , Talhah , Al-Zubayr and the Umayyads, especially Muawiyah I and Marwan I , wanted ‘ Ali
Ali
to punish the rioters who had killed Uthman . They encamped close to Basra. The talks lasted for many days and the subsequent heated exchange and protests during the parley turned from words to blows, leading to loss of life on both sides. In the confusion the Battle of the Camel started in 656, where Ali emerged victorious. However some historians believe that they used this issue to seek their political ambitions because they found Ali's caliphate against their own benefit. On the other hand, the rebels maintained that Uthman had been justly killed, for not governing according to Quran
Quran
and Sunnah, hence no vengeance was to be invoked. Historians disagree on Ali's position. Some say the caliphate was a gift of the rebels and Ali
Ali
did not have enough force to control or punish them, while others say Ali
Ali
accepted the rebels' argument or at least did not consider Uthman a just ruler.

Under such circumstances, a schism took place which led to the first civil war in Muslim history. Some Muslims, known as Uthmanis, considered Uthman a rightful and just caliph till the end, who had been unlawfully killed. Some others, who are known as party of Ali, believed Uthman had fallen into error, he had forfeited the caliphate and been lawfully executed for his refusal to mend his ways or step down; thus Ali
Ali
was the just and true Imam
Imam
and his opponents are infidels. This was not the position of Ali
Ali
himself. This civil war created permanent divisions within the Muslim community regarding who had the legitimate right to occupy the caliphate. The First Fitna, 656–661, followed the assassination of Uthman , continued during the caliphate of Ali, and was ended by Muawiyah's assumption of the caliphate. This civil war (often called the Fitna ) is regretted as the end of the early unity of the Islamic ummah (nation).

Ali
Ali
appointed \'Abd Allah
Allah
ibn al\'-Abbas governor of Basra and moved his capital to Kufa
Kufa
, the Muslim garrison city in Iraq. Following the Roman-Persian Wars and the Byzantine–Sasanian wars that lasted for hundreds of years, there were deep rooted differences between Iraq, formally under the Persian Sassanid Empire
Sassanid Empire
and Syria formally under the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire. The Iraqis wanted the capital of the newly established Islamic State to be in Kufa
Kufa
so as to bring revenues into their area and oppose Syria. They convinced Ali
Ali
to come to Kufa
Kufa
and establish the capital in Kufa, in Iraq.

Later Muawiyah I, the governor of Levant
Levant
and the cousin of Uthman , refused Ali's demands for allegiance. Ali
Ali
opened negotiations hoping to regain his allegiance, but Muawiyah insisted on Levant
Levant
autonomy under his rule. Muawiyah replied by mobilising his Levantine supporters and refusing to pay homage to Ali
Ali
on the pretext that his contingent had not participated in his election. Ali
Ali
then moved his armies north and the two armies encamped themselves at Siffin for more than one hundred days, most of the time being spent in negotiations. Although Ali
Ali
exchanged several letters with Muawiyah, he was unable to dismiss the latter, nor persuade him to pledge allegiance. Skirmishes between the parties led to the Battle of Siffin in 657.

After a week of combat was followed by a violent battle known as laylat al-harir (the night of clamour), Muawiyah's army was on the point of being routed when Amr ibn al-Aas advised Muawiyah to have his soldiers hoist mus\'haf (either parchments inscribed with verses of the Quran, or complete copies of it) on their spearheads in order to cause disagreement and confusion in Ali's army. Ali
Ali
saw through the stratagem, but only a minority wanted to pursue the fight. The two armies finally agreed to settle the matter of who should be caliph by arbitration. The refusal of the largest bloc in Ali's army to fight was the decisive factor in his acceptance of the arbitration. The question as to whether the arbiter would represent Ali
Ali
or the Kufans caused a further split in Ali's army. Ash\'ath ibn Qays and some others rejected Ali's nominees, \'Abd Allah
Allah
ibn \'Abbas and Malik al-Ashtar , and insisted on Abu Musa Ash\'ari , for his neutrality. Finally, Ali
Ali
was urged to accept Abu Musa. Amr ibn al-As was appointed by Muawiyah as an arbitrator. Seven months later the two arbitrators met at Adhruh about 10 miles north west of Maan in Jordan in February 658. Amr ibn al-As convinced Abu Musa Ash\'ari that both Ali
Ali
and Muawiyah should step down and a new caliph be elected. Ali
Ali
and his supporters were stunned by the decision which had lowered the caliph to the status of the rebellious Muawiyah. Ali
Ali
was therefore outwitted by Muawiyah and Amr ibn al-As . When the arbitrators assembled at Daumet-ul-Jandal , a series of daily meetings were arranged for them to discuss the matters in hand. When the time arrived for taking a decision about the caliphate , Amr bin al-A'as convinced Abu Musa al-Ashari into entertaining the opinion that they should deprive both Ali
Ali
and Muawiya of the caliphate, and give to the Muslims the right to elect the caliph. Abu Musa al-Ashari also decided to act accordingly. According to Poonawala, it seems that the arbiters and other eminent persons, with the exclusion of Ali's representatives, met in January 659 to discuss the selection of the new caliph. Amr supported Muawiyah, while Abu Musa preferred his son-in-law, Abdullah ibn Umar
Umar
, but the latter refused to stand for election in default of unanimity. Abu Musa then proposed, and Amr agreed, to depose both Ali
Ali
and Muawiyah and submit the selection of the new caliph to a Shura . In the public declaration that followed Abu Musa observed his part of the agreement, but Amr declared Ali
Ali
deposed and confirmed Muawiya as caliph.

Ali
Ali
refused to accept the verdict of him stepping down and for an election to be held and found himself technically in breach of his pledge to abide by the arbitration. ‘ Ali
Ali
protested, stating that it was contrary to the Qur'an and the Sunnah
Sunnah
and hence not binding. Then he tried to organise a new army, but only the Ansar , the remnants of the Qurra led by Malik Ashtar , and a few of their clansmen remained loyal. This put Ali
Ali
in a weak position even amongst his own supporters. The arbitration resulted in the dissolution of ‘Ali's coalition, and some have opined that this was Muawiyah's intention.

The most vociferous opponents in Ali's camp were the very same people who had forced Ali
Ali
into the ceasefire. They broke away from Ali's force, rallying under the slogan "arbitration belongs to God
God
alone." This group came to be known as the Kharijites ("those who leave"). They considered everyone to be their enemy. In 659 Ali's forces and the Kharijites met in the Battle of Nahrawan . The Qurra then became known as the Kharijites . The Kharijites then started killing Ali's supporters and other Muslims. They considered anyone who was not part of their group as an unbeliever. Although ‘ Ali
Ali
won the battle by a huge margin, the constant conflict had begun to affect his standing. While dealing with the Iraqis, ‘ Ali
Ali
found it hard to build a disciplined army and effective state institutions. He also spent a lot of time fighting the Kharijites . As a result, ‘Ali found it hard to expand the state on its eastern front.

At about the same time, unrest was brewing in Egypt. The governor of Egypt, Qais, was recalled, and Ali
Ali
had him replaced with Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abi Bakr (the brother of Aisha and the son of Islam's first caliph Abu Bakr). Muawiyah allowed \'Amr ibn al-\'As to conquer Egypt
Egypt
and 'Amr did so successfully. Amr had first taken Egypt
Egypt
eighteen years earlier from the Romans but had been dismissed by Uthman. Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abi Bakr had no popular support in Egypt
Egypt
and managed to get together 2000 men but they dispersed without a fight.

In the following years, Muawiyah's army occupied many cities of Iraq, which Ali's governors could not prevent, and people did not support him to fight with them. Muawiyah overpowered Egypt, Hijaz
Hijaz
, Yemen
Yemen
and other areas. In the last year of Ali's caliphate, the mood in Kufa and Basra changed in his favour as the people became disillusioned with Muawiyah's reign and policies. However, the people's attitude toward Ali
Ali
differed deeply. Just a small minority of them believed that Ali
Ali
was the best Muslim after Muhammad
Muhammad
and the only one entitled to rule them, while the majority supported him due to their distrust and opposition to Muawiyah. A grand view of Ali
Ali
Mausoleum, Najaf, Iraq
Iraq

POLICIES

Anti-corruption Campaign And Egalitarian Policies

Ali
Ali
is said to have vowed and forewarned of an uncompromising campaign against financial corruption and unfair privileges in the ranks of the caliphate after he was pressed by the public to succeed the caliphate following the death of Uthman . Shias argue that his determination in pushing these reforms despite their unpopularity with the elite have been the cause of hostilities from the rich and the privileged former companions of the Prophet. In a famous letter to one of his governors, Malik Ashtar , he articulates his pro-poor anti-elitist approach:

Remember that displeasure and disapproval of common men, have-nots and depressed persons more than overbalances the approval of important persons and displeasure of a few big will be excused by the Lord if the general public and masses of your subjects are happy with you. The common men, the poor, apparently less important sections of your subjects are the pillars of Islam….be more friendly with them and secure their confidence and sympathy”.

Ali
Ali
recovered the land granted by ‘ Uthman and swore to recover anything that elites had acquired before his election. Ali
Ali
opposed the centralisation of capital control over provincial revenues, favouring an equal distribution of taxes and booty amongst the Muslim citizens; he distributed the entire revenue of the treasury among them. ‘Ali refrained from nepotism , including with his brother ‘Aqeel ibn Abu Talib . This was an indication to Muslims of his policy of offering equality to Muslims who served Islam
Islam
in its early years and to the Muslims who played a role in the later conquests .

Forming Coalitions

Ali
Ali
succeeded in forming a broad coalition, especially after the Battle of the Camel . His policy of equal distribution of taxes and booty gained the support of Muhammad's companions, especially the Ansar who were subordinated by the Quraysh leadership after Muhammad, the traditional tribal leaders, and the Qurra or Qur’anic reciters that sought pious Islamic leadership. The successful formation of this diverse coalition seems to be due to Ali's charismatic character. This diverse coalition became known as Shi'a Ali, meaning "party" or "faction of Ali". However, according to Shia, as well as non-Shia reports, the majority of those who supported ‘ Ali
Ali
after his election as caliph, were shia politically, not religiously. Although at this time there were many who were counted as political Shia, few of them believed Ali's religious leadership.

Governance Doctrine

His policies and ideas of governing are manifested in the letter he sent to Malik al-Ashtar after appointing him governor of Egypt. This instruction, which has historically been viewed as the ideal constitution for Islamic governance alongside the Constitution of Medina , involved detailed description of duties and rights of the ruler and various functionaries of the state and the main classes of society at that time. Ali
Ali
wrote in his instructions to Malik al-Ashtar:

Infuse your heart with mercy, love and kindness for your subjects. Be not in face of them a voracious animal, counting them as easy prey, for they are of two kinds: either they are your brothers in faith or in creation. Error catches them unaware, deficiencies overcome them, (evil deeds) are committed by them intentionally and by mistake. So grant them your pardon and your forgiveness to the same extent that you hope God
God
will grant you His pardon and His forgiveness. For you are above them, and he who appointed you is above you, and God
God
is above him who appointed you. God
God
has sought from you the fulfillment of their requirements and He is trying you with them.

Since the majority of ‘Ali's subjects were nomads and peasants, he was concerned with agriculture. He instructed to Malik to give more attention to development of the land than to the collection of the tax, because tax can only be obtained by the development of the land and whoever demands tax without developing the land ruins the country and destroys the people. This Masjid
Masjid
in Najaf
Najaf
, Iraq
Iraq
, is widely considered by Shi'ites to be the final burial place of Ali.

ASSASSINATION IN KUFA

Main article: Assassination of Ali Martyrdom of Ali
Ali
ibn AbI Talib - Painting by: Yousef Abdinejad

On 19 Ramadan 40 AH, which would correspond to 27 January 661, while praying in the Great Mosque
Mosque
of Kufa
Kufa
, Ali
Ali
was attacked by the Kharijite Abd-al-Rahman ibn Muljam . He was wounded by ibn Muljam's poison-coated sword while prostrating in the Fajr prayer. ‘Ali ordered his sons not to attack the Kharijites, instead stipulating that if he survived, ibn Muljam would be pardoned whereas if he died, ibn Muljam should be given only one equal hit (regardless of whether or not he died from the hit). ‘ Ali
Ali
died two days later on 29 January 661 (21 Ramadan 40 A.H). Al-Hasan fulfilled Qisas and gave equal punishment to ibn Muljam upon Ali's death.

AFTERMATH

See also: Umayyad dynasty and Umayyad tradition of cursing Ali Inside view of Imām Alī Shrine
Shrine
(before the renovations in 2008)

After Ali's death, Kufi Muslims pledged allegiance to his eldest son Hasan without dispute, as Ali
Ali
on many occasions had declared that just People of the House of Muhammad
Muhammad
were entitled to rule the Muslim community. At this time, Muawiyah held both the Levant
Levant
and Egypt
Egypt
and, as commander of the largest force in the Muslim Empire, had declared himself caliph and marched his army into Iraq, the seat of Hasan's caliphate.

War ensued during which Muawiyah gradually subverted the generals and commanders of Hasan's army with large sums of money and deceiving promises until the army rebelled against him. Finally, Hasan was forced to make peace and to yield the caliphate to Muawiyah. In this way Muawiyah captured the Islamic caliphate and tuned it to a secular kingdom ( Sultanate ). Umayyad caliphate later became a centralised monarchy by Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan .

Umayyads placed the severest pressure upon Ali's family and his Shia , in every way possible. Regular public cursing of Imam
Imam
Ali
Ali
in the congregational prayers remained a vital institution which was not abolished until 60 years later by Umar
Umar
ibn Abd al-Aziz .

Madelung writes:

Umayyad highhandedness, misrule and repression were gradually to turn the minority of Ali's admirers into a majority. In the memory of later generations Ali
Ali
became the ideal Commander of the Faithful . In face of the fake Umayyad claim to legitimate sovereignty in Islam
Islam
as God's Vice-regents on earth, and in view of Umayyad treachery, arbitrary and divisive government, and vindictive retribution, they came to appreciate his honesty, his unbending devotion to the reign of Islam, his deep personal loyalties, his equal treatment of all his supporters, and his generosity in forgiving his defeated enemies.

BURIAL IN NAJAF

Ali's shrine in Arbaeen 2015. Rawze-e-Sharif , the Blue Mosque, in Mazari Sharif , Afghanistan – where a minority of Muslims believe Ali
Ali
ibn Abu Talib is buried.

According to Al-Shaykh Al-Mufid , Ali
Ali
did not want his grave to be desecrated by his enemies and consequently asked his friends and family to bury him secretly. This secret gravesite was revealed later during the Abbasid
Abbasid
caliphate by Imam
Imam
Ja\'far al-Sadiq , his descendant and the sixth Shia Imam. Most Shias accept that Ali
Ali
is buried at the Tomb of Imam
Imam
Ali
Ali
in the Imam Ali Mosque at what is now the city of Najaf
Najaf
, which grew around the mosque and shrine called Masjid
Masjid
Ali.

However another story, usually maintained by some Afghans, notes that his body was taken and buried in the Afghan city of Mazar-E-Sharif at the famous Blue Mosque
Mosque
or Rawze-e-Sharif .

VIRTUES

See also: Nahj al-Balagha

Ali
Ali
is respected not only as a warrior and leader, but as a writer and religious authority. A numerous range of disciplines from theology and exegesis to calligraphy and numerology , from law and mysticism to Arabic grammar and rhetoric are regarded as having been first adumbrated by Ali.

PROPHETIC KNOWLEDGE

According to a hadith which is narrated by Shia and Sufis, Muhammad told about him "I'm the city of knowledge and Ali
Ali
is its gate ..." Muslims regard Ali
Ali
as a major authority on Islam. Ali
Ali
himself gives this testimony:

Not a single verse of the Quran
Quran
descended upon (was revealed to) the Messenger of God
God
which he did not proceed to dictate to me and make me recite . I would write it with my own hand , and he would instruct me as to its tafsir (the literal explanation) and the ta\'wil (the spiritual exegesis), the nasikh (the verse which abrogates) and the mansukh (the abrogated verse), the muhkam and the mutashabih (the fixed and the ambiguous), the particular and the general ...

THEOSOPHY

According to Seyyed Hossein Nasr , Ali
Ali
is credited with having established Islamic theology and his quotations contain the first rational proofs among Muslims of the Unity of God
God
. Ibn Abi al-Hadid has quoted

As for theosophy and dealing with matters of divinity, it was not an Arab art. Nothing of the sort had been circulated among their distinguished figures or those of lower ranks. This art was the exclusive preserve of Greece, whose sages were its only expounders. The first one among Arabs to deal with it was Ali.

In later Islamic philosophy , especially in the teachings of Mulla Sadra and his followers, like Allameh Tabatabaei, Ali's sayings and sermons were increasingly regarded as central sources of metaphysical knowledge, or divine philosophy. Members of Sadra\'s school regard Ali as the supreme metaphysician of Islam. According to Henry Corbin, the Nahj al-Balagha may be regarded as one of the most important sources of doctrines professed by Shia thinkers, especially after 1500. Its influence can be sensed in the logical co-ordination of terms, the deduction of correct conclusions, and the creation of certain technical terms in Arabic which entered the literary and philosophical language independently of the translation into Arabic of Greek texts.

In addition, some hidden or occult sciences such as jafr , Islamic numerology , and the science of the symbolic significance of the letters of the Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
, are said to have been established by Ali
Ali
through his having studied the texts of al- Jafr and al-Jamia .

ELOQUENCE

Ali
Ali
was also a great scholar of Arabic literature
Arabic literature
and pioneered in the field of Arabic grammar and rhetoric. Numerous short sayings of Ali
Ali
have become part of general Islamic culture and are quoted as aphorisms and proverbs in daily life. They have also become the basis of literary works or have been integrated into poetic verse in many languages. Already in the 8th century, literary authorities such as \'Abd al-Hamid ibn Yahya al-\'Amiri pointed to the unparalleled eloquence of Ali's sermons and sayings, as did al-Jahiz in the following century. Even staffs in the Divan
Divan
of Umayyad recited Ali's sermons to improve their eloquence. The most famous selection of Ali's utterances and writings has been gathered in a book called Nahj al-Balagha (Peak of Eloquence) by a 10th-century Shia scholar, Al-Sharif al-Radi , who selected them for their singular rhetorical beauty.

The Sermons Without Dots And Alephs

Of note among sermons quoted in the book, is the undotted sermon as well as the sermon without Aleph
Aleph
. According to narrations, some companions of the Muhammad
Muhammad
had gathered somewhere discussing the role of letters in speaking. They concluded that Aleph
Aleph
had the greatest contribution in speaking and that dotted letters were also important. Meanwhile, Ali
Ali
read two long impromptu sermons, one without using Aleph
Aleph
letter and the other without dotted letters, containing deep and eloquent concepts, according to Langroudi, a Shia author. George Jordac , a Christian
Christian
author, said that sermons without Aleph
Aleph
and dot had to be regarded as literary masterpiece.

COMPASSION

Ali
Ali
is revered for the deep sympathy and support he shown for the poor and orphans, and the egalitarian policies he pursued during his caliphate with aim of achieving social justice. He is quoted as saying:

If God
God
grants wealth and prosperity to any person, he should show kindness to his deserving kith and kin, should provide for the poor, should come the assistance of those are oppressed with calamities, misfortunes and reverses, should help the poor and have-nots and should assist honest people to liquidate their loans...

WORKS

One of the first copies of the Qur’an ever transcribed in the Islamic world by ‘ Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib.

The compilation of sermons, lectures and quotations attributed to Ali are compiled in the form of several books.

* Nahj al-Balagha (Peak of Eloquence) contains eloquent sermons, letters and quotations attributed to Ali
Ali
which is compiled by ash- Sharif
Sharif
ar-Radi (d. 1015). Reza Shah Kazemi states: "Despite ongoing questions about the authenticity of the text, recent scholarship suggests that most of the material in it can in fact be attributed to Ali" and in support of this he makes reference to an article by Mokhtar Jebli. This book has a prominent position in Arabic literature
Arabic literature
. It is also considered an important intellectual, political and religious work in Islam. The Urdu
Urdu
translator of Nahjul Balagha Syed Zeeshan Haider Jawadi has compiled a list of 61 books and name of their writers from 204 to 488 AH , and provided the sources in which compilation work of Sharif Razi can be traced out. Masadir Nahj al-Balagha wa asaniduh, written by al- Sayyid
Sayyid
\'Abd al-Zahra\' al-Husayni al-Khatib , introduces some of these sources. Also, Nahj al-sa'adah fi mustadrak Nahj al-balaghah by Muhammad
Muhammad
Baqir al-Mahmudi represents all of Ali's extant speeches, sermons, decrees, epistles, prayers, and sayings that have been collected. It includes the Nahj al-balagha and other discourses which were not incorporated by ash- Sharif
Sharif
ar-Radi or were not available to him. Apparently, except for some of the aphorisms, the original sources of all the contents of the Nahj al-balagha have been determined. There are several Comments on the Peak of Eloquence by Sunnis and Shias such as Comments of Ibn Abi al-Hadid and comments of Muhammad
Muhammad
Abduh . * Supplications (Du\'a ), translated by William Chittick . * Ghurar al-Hikam wa Durar al-Kalim (Exalted aphorisms and Pearls of Speech) which is compiled by Abd al-Wahid Amidi (d. 1116) consists of over ten thousand short sayings of Ali. * Divan-i Ali
Ali
ibn Abu Talib (poems which are attributed to Ali
Ali
ibn Abu Talib).

DESCENDANTS

Main articles: Descendants of Ali ibn Abi Talib
Descendants of Ali ibn Abi Talib
and Alavi (surname)

Ali
Ali
initially married Fatimah, who was his most beloved wife. After she died, he got married again. He had four children with Fatimah
Fatimah
, Hasan ibn Ali
Hasan ibn Ali
, Husayn ibn Ali
Husayn ibn Ali
, Zaynab bint Ali
Zaynab bint Ali
and Umm Kulthum bint Ali
Ali
. His other well-known sons were al- Abbas ibn Ali , born to Fatima binte Hizam (Um al-Banin), and Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Hanafiyyah . Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Hanafiyyah was Ali's son from another wife from Hanifa clan of central Arabia
Arabia
named Khawlah bint Ja\'far .

Hasan, born in 625, was the second Shia Imam
Imam
and he also occupied the outward function of caliph for about six months. In the year 50 A.H., he was poisoned and killed by a member of his own household who, as has been accounted by historians, had been motivated by Mu'awiyah.

Husayn, born in 626, was the third Shia Imam. He lived under severe conditions of suppression and persecution by Mu'awiyah. On the tenth day of Muharram
Muharram
, of the year 680, he lined up before the army of the caliph with his small band of followers and nearly all of them were killed in the Battle of Karbala
Battle of Karbala
. The anniversary of his death is called the Day of Ashura
Day of Ashura
and it is a day of mourning and religious observance for Shia Muslims. In this battle some of Ali's other sons were killed. Al-Tabari has mentioned their names in his history: Al-Abbas ibn Ali, the holder of Husayn's standard, Ja'far, Abdallah and Uthman, the four sons born to Fatima binte Hizam; Muhammad
Muhammad
and Abu Bakr. The death of the last one is doubtful.

Some historians have added the names of Ali's other sons who were killed at Karbala, including Ibrahim, Umar
Umar
and Abdallah ibn al-Asqar.

His daughter Zaynab—who was in Karbala—was captured by Yazid's army and later played a great role in revealing what happened to Husayn and his followers.

Ali's descendants by Fatimah
Fatimah
are known as sharifs , sayeds or sayyids . These are honorific titles in Arabic, sharif meaning 'noble' and sayed or sayyid meaning 'lord' or 'sir'. As Muhammad's only descendants, they are respected by both Sunni and Shia.

VIEWS

MUSLIM VIEWS

Main article: Ali in Muslim culture

Except for Muhammad, there is no one in Islamic history about whom as much has been written in Islamic languages as Ali. In Muslim culture , Ali
Ali
is respected for his courage, knowledge, belief, honesty, unbending devotion to Islam, deep loyalty to Muhammad, equal treatment of all Muslims and generosity in forgiving his defeated enemies, and therefore is central to mystical traditions in Islam
Islam
such as Sufism
Sufism
. Ali
Ali
retains his stature as an authority on Quranic exegesis , Islamic jurisprudence and religious thought. Ali
Ali
holds a high position in almost all Sufi orders which trace their lineage through him to Muhammad. Ali's influence has been important throughout Islamic history . Sunni and Shia scholars agree that the verse of Wilayah was narrated in honour of Ali, but there are differing interpretations of wilayah and the Imamate . The Sunni scholars believe that the verse is about Ali
Ali
but does not recognise him as an Imam
Imam
while, in the Shia Muslim view, Ali
Ali
had been chosen by God
God
as successor of Muhammad.

Ali
Ali
In The Quran

Main article: Ali in the Quran

There are many verses interpreted by Shi'a scholars as referring to Ali
Ali
or other Shi\'a Imams . Responding to this question that why the names of the Imams are not mentioned in Quran
Quran
expressly Muhammad al-Baqir answers: " Allah
Allah
revealed Salat to his Prophet but never said of three or four Rakats , revealed Zakat but did not mention to its details, revealed Hajj
Hajj
but did not count its Tawaf and the Prophet interpreted their details. Allah
Allah
revealed this verse and Prophet said this verse is about Ali, Hasan , Husayn and other the twelve Imams." According to Ali
Ali
one quarter of Qur’anic verses are stating the station of Imams. Momen has listed many of these verses in his An Introduction to Shi'i Islam. However, there are few verses that some Sunni commentators interpret as referring to Ali, among which are The verse of Wilayah (Quran, 5:55) that Sunni and Shiite scholars believe refers to the incident where Ali
Ali
gave his ring to a beggar who asked for alms while performing ritual prayers in the mosque . The verse of Mawadda (Quran, 42:23) is another verse which Shiite scholar along with Sunni ones like Al-Baydawi and Al-Zamakhshari and Fakhr ad-Din ar-Razi believe that the phrase Kinship refers to Ali, Fatimah and their sons, Hasan and Husayn .

The verse of purification
The verse of purification
(Quran, 33:33) is also among the verses both Sunni and Shiite conjoined the name of Ali
Ali
with it along with some other names. The aforementioned verse of Mubahala , and also the verse 2:269 in which Ali
Ali
is honoured with unique wisdom by both Shiite and Sunni commentators are other verses of this kind.

Shi\'ite

Main article: Shia view of Ali Zulfiqar with, and without the shield. The Fatimid depiction of Ali's sword as carved on the Gates of Old Islamic Cairo
Islamic Cairo
, namely Bab al-Nasr Ali's Sword and shield carved on Bab al-Nasr gate wall, Cairo

The Shia regard Ali
Ali
as the most important figure after Muhammad. According to them, Muhammad
Muhammad
suggested on various occasions during his lifetime that Ali
Ali
should be the leader of Muslims after his death. This is supported by numerous hadiths which have been narrated by Shias, including Hadith of the pond of Khumm , Hadith
Hadith
of the two weighty things , Hadith
Hadith
of the pen and paper , Hadith
Hadith
of the Cloak , Hadith
Hadith
of position , Hadith
Hadith
of the invitation of the close families , and Hadith
Hadith
of the Twelve Successors .

According to this view, Ali
Ali
as the successor of Muhammad
Muhammad
not only ruled over the community in justice, but also interpreted the Sharia Law and its esoteric meaning . Hence he was regarded as being free from error and sin (infallible ), and appointed by God
God
by divine decree (nass ) through Muhammad. It is believed in Twelver and Ismaili Shī'ah Islam
Islam
that \'aql , divine wisdom, was the source of the souls of the Prophets and Imams and gave them esoteric knowledge called ḥikmah and that their sufferings were a means of divine grace to their devotees. Although the Imam
Imam
was not the recipient of a divine revelation , he had a close relationship with God, through which God
God
guides him, and the Imam
Imam
in turn guides the people. His words and deeds are a guide and model for the community to follow; as a result it is a source of sharia law .

Shia pilgrims usually go to Mashad Ali in Najaf
Najaf
for Ziyarat , pray there and read " Ziyarat Amin Allah" or other Ziyaratnamehs. Under the Safavid Empire , his grave became the focus of much devoted attention, exemplified in the pilgrimage made by Shah Ismail I
Shah Ismail I
to Najaf
Najaf
and Karbala .

Sunni

Main article: Sunni view of Ali

Sunnis view Ali
Ali
as the fourth caliph . Ali
Ali
is also known as one of the greatest warrior champions of Islam
Islam
Examples include taking on the Quraish champion at the Battle of the Trench
Battle of the Trench
when nobody else dared. After multiple failed attempts of breaking the fort in the Battle of Khaybar
Khaybar
, Ali
Ali
was summoned, miraculously healed and conquered the fort.

Sufi

Almost all Sufi orders trace their lineage to Muhammad
Muhammad
through Ali, an exception being Naqshbandi , who go through Abu Bakr. Even in this order, there is Ja\'far al-Sadiq , the great great grandson of Ali. Sufis believe that Ali
Ali
inherited from Muhammad
Muhammad
the saintly power wilayah that makes the spiritual journey to God
God
possible.

Eminent Sufis such as Ali Hujwiri claim that the tradition began with Ali
Ali
and Junayd of Baghdad regarded Ali
Ali
as the Sheikh
Sheikh
of the principles and practices of Sufism.

Sufis recite Manqabat Ali
Ali
in the praise of Ali.

Titles

Ali
Ali
is known by various titles, some given due to his personal qualities and others due to events in his life:

* Al- Murtaza (Arabic : الـمُـرتـضى‎‎, "The Chosen One") * Amir al-Mu’minin (Arabic : أَمـيـر الـمُـؤمـنـيـن‎‎, " Commander of the Faithful Ones") * Bab-e Madinatul-‘Ilm (Arabic : بَـابِ مَـديـنـةُ الـعِـلـم‎‎, "Door of City of the Knowledge") * Abu Turab (Arabic : أَبـو تُـراب‎‎, "Father of the Soil") * Asadullah (Arabic : أَسَـدُ الله‎‎, " Lion
Lion
of God
God
") * Haydar (Arabic : حَـيـدر‎‎, "Braveheart" or "Lion") * Walad al-Ka'ba (Arabic : ولد الکعبه‎‎, "The baby of Ka'ba")

AS A "DEITY"

Main article: Ghulat

Ali
Ali
is recorded in some traditions as having forbidden those who sought to worship him in his own lifetime.

Alawites

Some groups such as the Alawites
Alawites
(Arabic: علوية‎‎ Alawīyyah) are claimed to believe that Ali
Ali
was God
God
incarnate . They are described as ghulat (Arabic : غُلاة‎‎, "exaggerators") by the majority of Islamic scholars. These groups have, according to traditionalist Muslims, left Islam
Islam
due to their exaggeration of a human being's praiseworthy traits.

Ali-Illahism

In Ali-Illahism , a syncretic religion centres on the belief that there have been successive incarnations of their Deity
Deity
throughout history, and reserves particular reverence for ‘Ali, the son-in-law of Muhammad, who is considered one such incarnation.

Druze

The Druze
Druze
, a syncretic religion, believe that God
God
was incarnated in human beings, especially Ali
Ali
and his descendants, including Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah
Allah
.

HISTORIOGRAPHY

See also: Historiography of early Islam
Islam

The primary sources for scholarship on the life of Ali
Ali
are the Qur’an and ahadith, as well as other texts of early Islamic history . The extensive secondary sources include, in addition to works by Sunni and Shī'a Muslims, writings by Christian
Christian
Arabs , Hindus , and other non-Muslims from the Middle East and Asia and a few works by modern western scholars. However, many of the early Islamic sources are coloured to some extent by a positive or negative bias towards Ali.

There had been a common tendency among the earlier western scholars against these narrations and reports gathered in later periods due to their tendency towards later Sunni and Shī'a partisan positions; such scholars regarding them as later fabrications. This leads them to regard certain reported events as inauthentic or irrelevant. Leone Caetani considered the attribution of historical reports to Ibn Abbas and Aisha as mostly fictitious while proffering accounts reported without isnad by the early compilers of history like Ibn Ishaq. Wilferd Madelung has rejected the stance of indiscriminately dismissing everything not included in "early sources" and in this approach tendentiousness alone is no evidence for late origin. According to him, Caetani's approach is inconsistent. Madelung and some later historians do not reject the narrations which have been compiled in later periods and try to judge them in the context of history and on the basis of their compatibility with the events and figures.

Until the rise of the Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliphate
Caliphate
, few books were written and most of the reports had been oral. The most notable work previous to this period is The Book of Sulaym ibn Qays , written by Sulaym ibn Qays , a companion of Ali
Ali
who lived before the Abbasid. When paper was introduced to Muslim society, numerous monographs were written between 750 and 950. According to Robinson, at least twenty-one separate monographs have been composed on the Battle of Siffin. Abi Mikhnaf is one of the most renowned writers of this period who tried to gather all of the reports. 9th and 10th century historians collected, selected and arranged the available narrations. However, most of these monographs do not exist any more except for a few which have been used in later works such as History of the Prophets and Kings by Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Jarir al-Tabari (d.923).

Shia of Iraq
Iraq
actively participated in writing monographs but most of those works have been lost. On the other hand, in the 8th and 9th century Ali's descendants such as Muhammad
Muhammad
al Baqir and Jafar as Sadiq narrated his quotations and reports which have been gathered in Shia hadith books. The later Shia works written after the 10th century are about biographies of The Fourteen Infallibles and Twelve Imams . The earliest surviving work and one of the most important works in this field is Kitab al-Irshad by Shaykh Mufid (d. 1022). The author has dedicated the first part of his book to a detailed account of Ali. There are also some books known as Manāqib which describe Ali's character from a religious viewpoint. Such works also constitute a kind of historiography.

SEE ALSO

* Book: Sahabah

* Islam
Islam
portal * Shia Islam
Islam
portal

* Alevi * Ali in the Quran * Al-Farooq (Title) * Birthplace of Ali ibn Abi Talib * Hashemites Royal Family of Jordan Ahl al-Bayt * Iʿtikāf * Idris I The First King of Morocco Founded 788, Ahl al-Bayt * List of expeditions of Ali
Ali
during Muhammad\'s era * List of Muslim reports
List of Muslim reports
* Wali
Wali
* Talut * Zulfiqar

FOOTNOTES

* ^ Full name: ALI IBN ABI TALIB (Arabic : علي ابن أبي طالب‎, translit. ʿAlī bin Abī Ṭālib‎), Arabic pronunciation: . * ^ See at-Tabari: at-Tarikh, vol.6, p.186; as-Suyuti: ad-Durru 'lmanthur, vol.2, pp. 293–4; ar-Razi: at-Tafsiru 'l Kabir, vol.12, p.26: az-Zamakhshari: at- Tafsir al-Kashshaf, vol.1, p.469; al-Jassas:Ahkamu 'l-Quran, vol.2, pp. 542–3; al-khazin: at-Tafsir, vol.2, p.68 Imamate: The vicegerency of the Holy Prophet By Sayyid Saeed Akhtar Rizv p24 * ^ see al-Bahrani, Ghayat al-Marum, p. 126:al-Suyuti, al-Durr al-Manthur, Vol. V, p.199; Ahmad ibn Hanbal, al Musnad, Vol. I, p.331; Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, al- Tafsir al-Kabir, Vol. I, p.783; Ibn Hajar, al-Sawa'iq p.85

NOTES

* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z AA AB AC AD AE AF AG AH Nasr, Seyyed Hossein . "Ali". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Archived from the original on October 18, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-12. * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y "Alī ibn Abu Talib". Encyclopædia Iranica. Archived from the original on April 29, 2011. Retrieved December 16, 2010. * ^ A B C Al-Islam. "The Life of the Commander of the Faithful Ali Ibn Abu Talib (as)". Retrieved 6 December 2015. * ^ Rahim, Husein A.; Sheriff, Ali
Ali
Mohamedjaffer (1993). Guidance From Qur\'an. Khoja Shia Ithna-asheri Supreme Council. Retrieved 11 April 2017. * ^ Shad, Abdur Rahman. Ali
Ali
Al-Murtaza. Kazi Publications; 1978 1st Edition. Mohiyuddin, Dr. Ata. Ali
Ali
The Superman. Sh. Muhammad
Muhammad
Ashraf Publishers; 1980 1st Edition. Lalljee, Yousuf N. Ali
Ali
The Magnificent. Ansariyan Publications; January 1981 1st Edition. * ^ Sallaabee, Ali
Ali
Muhammad. Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib (volume 2) (PDF). p. 621. Retrieved 15 December 2015. * ^ "Ali" Archived October 6, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
.. Random House Webster\'s Unabridged Dictionary . * ^ A B Biographies of the Prophet's companions and their successors, Ṭabarī, translated by Ella Landau-Tasseron, pp. 37–40, Vol:XXXIX. * ^ Sallabi, Dr Ali
Ali
M (2011). Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib (volume 1) (PDF). pp. 52–53. * ^ A B Sahih Muslim, Book
Book
21, Hadith
Hadith
57. * ^ Kelen 2001 , p. 29. * ^ A B Watt 1953 , p. xii. * ^ A B C Ashraf 2005 , p. 119 and 120 * ^ A B C Madelung 1997 , pp. 141–145 * ^ Lapidus 2002 , p. 47. * ^ Holt, Lambton & Lewis 1970 , pp. 70–72. * ^ Tabatabaei 1979 , pp. 50–75 and 192. * ^ A B C Gleave, Robert M. " Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib". Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE. Brill Online. Archived from the original on April 2, 2013. Retrieved March 29, 2013. * ^ A B Dakake 2008 , pp. 34–39. * ^ A B Veccia Vaglieri, Laura . "G̲h̲adīr K̲h̲umm". Encyclopædia of Islam, Second Edition. Brill Online. Archived from the original on March 31, 2013. Retrieved March 28, 2013. * ^ Ashraf 2005 , p. 5. * ^ Illustrated Dictionary of the Muslim World. Marshall Cavendish Reference. 2011. ISBN 9780761479291 . Retrieved 11 April 2017. * ^ Al-Jubouri, I. M. N. (2010-10-12). Islamic Thought: From Mohammed to September 11, 2001. Xlibris Corporation. ISBN 9781453595831 . Retrieved 11 April 2017. * ^ Faramarz Haj, Manouchehri; Matthew, Melvin-Koushki; Shah-Kazemi, Reza; Bahramian, Ali; Pakatchi, Ahmad; Muhammad
Muhammad
Isa, Waley; Daryoush, Mohammad; Tareh, Masoud; Brown, Keven; Jozi, Mohammad Reza; Sajjadi, Sadeq; Gholami, Rahim; Bulookbashi, Ali
Ali
A.; Negahban, Farzin; Alizadeh, Mahbanoo; Gholami, Yadollah. "ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib.". Encyclopaedia Islamica. Brill . Archived from the original on June 30, 2016. * ^ Ashraf 2005 , p. 6 and 7. * ^ A B C D E F G H Tabatabaei 1979 , p. 191. * ^ Ashraf 2005 , p. 7. * ^ Ashraf 2005 , p. 14. * ^ A B C D E F Steigerwald, Diana. "Alī ibn Abu Talib". Encyclopaedia of Islam
Islam
and the Muslim world; vol.1. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-02-865604-5 . * ^ Gleave 2015 . * ^ * See also:** Ibn Majah
Ibn Majah
in Sunan ibn Majah
Sunan ibn Majah
, Ibn Majah, al-Sunan, Vol. I, p. 44;** Hakim al-Nishaburi in Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain , al-Hakim, al-Mustadrak, Vol. III, p. 112;** Ibn Hisham in As-Sirah an-Nabawiyyah , Ibn Hisham, al-Sirah, Vol. I, p.245. * ^ Watt 1953 , p. 86. * ^ "Ali". Imamali. Archived from the original on March 20, 2015. Retrieved March 20, 2015. * ^ Quran
Quran
26:214. * ^ See:* Momen 1985 , p. 12* Tabatabaei 1979 , p. 39. * ^ Ashraf 2005 , pp. 16–26. * ^ Ashraf 2005 , p. 28 and 29. * ^ Quran
Quran
2:207. * ^ Tabatabaei, Sayyid
Sayyid
Mohammad Hosayn. " Tafsir al-Mizan, Volume 3: Surah Baqarah, Verses 204–207". almizan.org. Archived from the original on June 17, 2009. Retrieved November 25, 2010. * ^ Ashraf 2005 , pp. 30–32.

* ^ See:

* Momen 1985 , p. 13 and 14 * Ashraf 2005 , pp. 28–118.

* ^ Mehboob Desia. Islam
Islam
and non-violence. Gyan Book
Book
Pvt Ltd. p. 150. ISBN 81-212-1026-7 . * ^ Singh 2003 , p. 175. * ^ Quran
Quran
33:33. * ^ Madelung 1997 , p. 14 and 15.

* ^ See:

* Sahih al-Bukhari
Sahih al-Bukhari
, 5:57:89 * Sahih al-Bukhari
Sahih al-Bukhari
, 5:57:96 * Sahih al-Bukhari
Sahih al-Bukhari
, 5:57:89 * Sahih al-Bukhari
Sahih al-Bukhari
, 9:88:220 * Sahih Muslim
Sahih Muslim
, 31:5915.

* ^ "Hasan ibn Ali". Encyclopædia Iranica. Archived from the original on January 1, 2014. Retrieved January 1, 2014. * ^ Ashraf 2005 , p. 42 and 43. * ^ Qazwini 1992 , p. 140. * ^ A B Vaglieri, Veccia. "Fatima". Encyclopedia of Islam. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. p. Vol. 2 844–850. ISSN 1573-3912 .

* ^ See:

* Ashraf 2005 , p. 36 * Merrick 2005 , p. 247.

* ^ Khatab, Amal (May 1, 1996). Battles of Badr and Uhud. Ta-Ha Publishers. ISBN 978-1-897940-39-6 . * ^ Ibn Al Atheer, In his Biography, vol 2 p 107 "لا فتی الا علي لا سيف الا ذوالفقار"

* ^ See:

* Ashraf 2005 , pp. 66–68 * Zeitlin 2007 , p. 134

* ^ Quran
Quran
3:59. * ^ A B Quran
Quran
3:61.

* ^ See:

* Sahih Muslim
Sahih Muslim
, Chapter of virtues of companions, section of virtues of Ali, 1980 Edition Pub. in Saudi Arabia, Arabic version, v4, p1871, the end of tradition No. 32 * Sahih al-Tirmidhi, v5, p654 * Madelung 1997 , p. 15 and 16.

* ^ Tabatabaei, Sayyid
Sayyid
Mohammad Hosayn. " Tafsir al-Mizan, v.6, Al Imran, verses 61–63". almizan.org. Archived from the original on June 17, 2009. Retrieved November 25, 2010.

* ^ See:

* Dakake 2008 , pp. 34–37 * Ibn Taymiyyah, Minhaaj as- Sunnah
Sunnah
7/319

"من كنت مولاه فهذا علي مولاه" * ^ See also:

* Dakake 2008 , pp. 43–48 * Tabatabaei 1979 , p. 40.

* ^ Dakake 2008 , pp. 33–35. * ^ Madelung 1997 , p. 253. * ^ " Abar Ali mosque". IRCICAARCH data. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved May 23, 2015. * ^ Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2007). "Quran". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Archived from the original on October 16, 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-04.

* ^ See:

* Tabatabaei 1987 , p. chapter 5 * Observations on Early Quran
Quran
Manuscripts in San'a * The Quran
Quran
as Text, ed. Wild, Brill, 1996 ISBN 978-90-04-10344-3

* ^ Lapidus 2002 , p. 31 and 32

* ^ See:

* Holt, Lambton Vol. II, p.5. * ^ A B Madelung 1997 , p. 43

* ^ See:

* Madelung 1997 , p. 141 and 270 * Ashraf 2005 , p. 99 and 100

* ^ Chirri 1982

* ^ See:

* Madelung 1997 , p. 50 and 51 * Qazwini A.D. 632, June 7.

* ^ Ashraf 2005 , pp. 107–110

* ^ See:

* Madelung 1997 , pp. 70–72 * Dakake 2008 , p. 41 * Momen 1985 , p. 21

* ^ Madelung 1997 , p. 87 and 88 * ^ Madelung 1997 , p. 90 * ^ Madelung 1997 , pp. 92–107 * ^ Madelung 1997 , p. 109 and 110

* ^ See:

* Holt, Lambton & Lewis 1970 , p. 67 and 68 * Madelung 1997 , p. 107 and 111

* ^ A B Madelung 1997 , p. 334

* ^

* Nahj Al-Balagha Nahj Al-Balagha Sermon 3 Archived September 23, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * For Isnad of this sermon and the names of scholars who narrate it see Nahjul Balagha, Mohammad Askari Jafery (1984), pp. 108–112

* ^ Ashraf 2005 , p. 119 * ^ Madelung 1997 , pp. 141–143 * ^ Hamidullah 1988 , p. 126 * ^ Madelung 1997 , p. 148 and 149 * ^ A B Ashraf 2005 , p. 121 * ^ Nahj al Balagha Sermon 72 Archived May 7, 2013, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "Medieval Islamic Civilization".

* ^ See:

* Lapidus (2002), p.47 * Holt (1977a), p. 70–72 * Tabatabaei (1979), p. 50–53 * Nahj Al-Balagha Sermons 8, 31, 171, 173, Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
.

* ^ See:

* Madelung 1997 , p. 147 and 148 * Lewis 1991 , p. 214

* ^ Lewis 1991 , p. 214

* ^ See:

* Lapidus 2002 , p. 47 * Holt, Lambton & Lewis 1970 , p. 72 * Tabatabaei 1979 , p. 57

* ^ See:

* Lapidus 2002 , p. 47 * Holt, Lambton ">'Abd Allah
Allah
ibn al-'Abbas". Encyclopædia Britannica. I: A-Ak - Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, Illinois: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2010. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8 . * ^ A B Iraq
Iraq
a Complicated State: Iraq's Freedom War By Karim M. S. Al-Zubaidi, p. 32

* ^ A B See:

* Lapidus 2002 , p. 47 * Holt, Lambton & Lewis 1970 , pp. 70–72 * Tabatabaei 1979 , p. 53 and 54

* ^ Mikaberidze, Alexander . Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia. p. 836. * ^ "Ground Warfare". * ^ A B C D A Chronology of Islamic History 570–1000 CE By H U Rahman Page 59 * ^ A B A Chronology of Islamic History 570–1000 CE By H U Rahman Page 60 * ^ Mikaberidze, Alexander (2011). Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World A Historical Encyclopedia A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 836. ISBN 978-1-59884-337-8 . * ^ Sandler, Stanley (2002). Ground Warfare An International Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-344-5 . Retrieved 2013-04-30.

* ^ See:

* Madelung 1997 , pp. 241–259 * Lapidus 2002 , p. 47 * Holt, Lambton & Lewis 1970 , pp. 70–72 * Tabatabaei 1979 , p. 53 and 54

* ^ Timani, Hussam S. (2008). Modern Intellectual Readings of the Kharijites. Peter Lang. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-8204-9701-3 . * ^ A B Timani, Hussam S. (2008). Modern Intellectual Readings of the Kharijites. Peter Lang. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-8204-9701-3 . * ^ A Chronology of Islamic History 570–1000 By H. U. Rahman * ^ A B C A Chronology of Islamic History 570–1000 By H. U. Rahman Page 62 * ^ Madelung 1997 , pp. 267–269 and 293–307 * ^ A B Madelung 1997 , p. 309 * ^ "Politics in two Schools". Al-Islam.org. Retrieved 2017-04-11. * ^ A B C "Hazrat Ali
Ali
(A.S.): His Poor Subjects and Pro-Poor Government Imam
Imam
Reza (A.S.) Network". www.imamreza.net. Archived from the original on April 12, 2017. Retrieved April 11, 2017.

* ^ See:

* Lapidus 2002 , p. 46 * Madelung 1997 , p. 150 and 264

* ^ Shaban 1971 , p. 72 * ^ Momen 1985 , p. 63 * ^ Shah-Kazemi 2007 , p. 81 * ^ United Nations Development Program, Arab human development report, (2002), p. 107 * ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1989 , p. 75 * ^ Lambton 1991 , p. xix and xx * ^ A B Tabatabaei 1979 , p. 192 * ^ Kelsay 1993 , p. 92 * ^ Madelung 1997 , p. 313 and 314

* ^ Madelung 1997 , pp. 319–325

* Robinson 2011 , pp. 208–211 * Holt, Lambton ">' Ali
Ali
ibn Abu Talib". Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-96691-7 . , Pages 36 and 37 * ^ "Silk Road Seattle - Balkh". Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. * ^ Momen 1985 , p. 14 * ^ World of Tasawwuf * ^ Corbin 1993 , p. 46 * ^ Nasr 2006 , p. 120 * ^ Nasr, Dabashi ">\'" (in Persian). Archived from the original on April 6, 2017. Retrieved April 6, 2017. * ^ Ehsani far langroudi, Mohammad (2003). "Two masterpieces by Ali". Hadith
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Sciences (29). Archived from the original on April 10, 2017. Retrieved April 9, 2017. * ^ "Sermons without dot/ Christian
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George Jordac: This sermon is a masterpiece". www.khabaronline.ir (in Persian). Archived from the original on April 28, 2016. Retrieved April 9, 2017. * ^ A B Mutahhari, 1997 The Glimpses of Nahj al Balaghah Part I – Introduction * ^ Shah-Kazemi 2007 , p. 3 * ^ Nahj al-Balagha (in Urdu
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Archived January 3, 2014, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Ali
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ibn Abi Talib (1990). Supplications (Du'a). Muhammadi Trust. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-9506986-4-9 . * ^ Shah-Kazemi 2007 , p. 4 * ^ Stearns & Langer 2001 , p. 1178 * ^ After Fatima's death, Ali
Ali
married Khawla bint Ja'far of the Bani Hanifa tribe (source: ali-muawiya Archived April 16, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
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. by Khansari "فرزندان اميراالمؤمنين(ع): 1-ابوبكربن علي(شهادت او مشكوك است). 2-جعفربن علي. 3-عباس بن علي(ابولفضل) 4-عبدالله بن علي. 5-عبدالله بن علي العباس بن علي. 6-عبدالله بن الاصغر. 7-عثمان بن علي. 8-عمر بن علي. 9-محمد الاصغر بن علي. 10-محمدبن العباس بن علي." * ^ "Zaynab Bint ʿAlĪ". Encyclopedia of Religion. Gale Group. 2004. Archived from the original on December 24, 2008. Retrieved April 10, 2008. * ^ Rizvi & al. (2006) , p. 24. * ^ Steigerwald (2008) , p. 375. * ^ Naseri, AliAkbar. Imamat and Shifa'at. pp. 203–204. * ^ Feyrahi, Davoud. "General coordinates of Imaamat". Shia Studies Quarterly (3 and 4). Archived from the original on December 10, 2015. * ^ A B C Leaman, Oliver (2006). The Quran: an Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis e-Library. pp. 28–31. ISBN 978-0-415-32639-1 . * ^ Momen 1985 , pp. 150–151 * ^ Akhtar Rizvi, Sayyid
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Saeed (1988). Imamate: The vicegerency of the Holy Prophet. Bilal Muslim Mission of Tanzania. pp. 24–. ISBN 978-9976-956-13-9 . Archived from the original on June 17, 2016. * ^ Cornille, Catherine; Conway, Christopher (1 July 2010). Interreligious Hermeneutics. Wipf and Stock Publishers. pp. 124–. ISBN 978-1-63087-425-4 . * ^ Momen 1985 , p. 152 * ^ A B C Hamid, Mavani (2013). Religious Authority and Political Thought in Twelver Shi'ism. New York and London: Routledge. pp. 68–73. ISBN 978-0-415-62440-4 . * ^ Ibn Kathir
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* ^ "Fāṭima." Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Brill Online, 2014. Reference. 08 April 2014 * ^ Momen 1985 , p. 16 * ^ "Yawm-e Ali". TheIsmaili.org. 2011-06-10. Retrieved 2011-06-10.

* ^ A B Nasr 1979 , p. 10 preface * ^ Nasr 1979 , p. 15 preface * ^ Corbin 1993 , pp. 45–51 * ^ Gleave, Robert. "Imamate". Encyclopaedia of Islam
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bin Abu Talib - Ali, The Father of Sufism". Alim.org. Archived from the original on November 13, 2013. Retrieved December 31, 2013. * ^ Flaskerud, Ingvild. Visualizing Belief and Piety in Iranian Shiism. A&C Black. ISBN 9781441149077 . Retrieved 11 April 2017.

* ^ A B See:

* Peters 2003 , pp. 320–321 * Halm 2004 , pp. 154–159

* ^ Layard, Austen Henry, Discoveries in the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon, Page 216 * ^ Madelung 1997 , p. xi, 19 and 20 * ^ Lawson 2005 , p. 59 * ^ Robinson 2003 , p. 28 and 34 * ^ "A Glance at Historiography in Shiite Culture". Al-Islam.org.

REFERENCES

* Ahmed, M. Mukarram (2005). Encyclopaedia of Islam. Anmol Publications PVT. LTD. ISBN 978-81-261-2339-1 . * Gleave, Robert M. (2015). Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE. Brill. ISSN 1573-3912 . * Al-Shaykh Al-Mufid (1986). Kitab Al-Irshad: The Book
Book
of Guidance into the Lives of the Twelve Imams. Routledge Kegan & Paul. ISBN 978-0-7103-0151-2 . * Al-Tabari, Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Jarir (1990). History of the Prophets and Kings , translation and commentary issued by R. Stephen Humphreys. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-0154-5 . (volume XV.) * Ashraf, Shahid (2005). Encyclopedia of Holy Prophet and Companions. Anmol Publications PVT. LTD. ISBN 978-81-261-1940-0 . * Kelen, Betty (2001). Muhammad: The Messenger of God. Taylor Production. ISBN 978-0-929093-12-3 . * Chirri, Mohammad (1982). The Brother of the Prophet Mohammad. Islamic Center of America, Detroit, Michigan. Alibris. ISBN 978-0-942778-00-7 . * Corbin, Henry (1993) . History of Islamic Philosophy. London: Kegan Paul International in association with Islamic Publications for The Institute of Ismaili Studies. ISBN 978-0-7103-0416-2 . Translated by Liadain Sherrard, Philip Sherrard. * Dakake, Maria Massi (2008). The Charismatic Community: Shi'ite Identity in Early Islam. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-7033-6 . * Halm, Halm (2004). Shi'ism. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-1888-0 . * Hamidullah, Muhammad
Muhammad
(1988). The Prophet's Establishing a State and His Succession. University of California. ISBN 978-969-8016-22-7 .

* Holt, P.M.; Lambton, Ann K.S.; Lewis, Bernard , eds. (1970). Cambridge History of Islam. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-29135-4 . * Kelsay, John (1993). Islam
Islam
and War: A Study in Comparative Ethics. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-25302-8 . * Lambton, Ann K. S. (1991). Landlord and Peasant in Persia. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-1-85043-293-7 . * Lawson, Todd, ed. (2005). Reason and Inspiration in Islam: Theology, Philosophy
Philosophy
and Mysticism in Muslim Thought. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-1-85043-470-2 . * Lapidus, Ira (2002). A History of Islamic Societies (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-77933-3 . * Lewis, Bernard (1991). The Political Language of Islam. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-47693-3 . * Madelung, Wilferd (1997). The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-64696-3 . * Merrick, James L. (2005). The Life and Religion of Mohammed as Contained in the Sheeah Traditions. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4179-5536-7 . * Momen, Moojan (1985). An Introduction to Shi'i Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shi'ism. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-03531-5 . * Nasr, Seyyed Hossein ; Dabashi, Hamid; Nasr, Vali (1989). Expectation of the Millennium. Suny Press. ISBN 978-0-88706-843-0 . * Nasr, Seyyed Hossein; Leaman, Oliver (1996). History of Islamic Philosophy. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-13159-9 . * Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2006). Islamic Philosophy
Philosophy
from Its Origin to the Present. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-6799-2 . * Peters, F. E. (2003). The Monotheists: Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Conflict and Competition. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-11461-3 . * Qazwini, Muhammad
Muhammad
Kazim; Ordoni, Abu Muhammad
Muhammad
(1992). Fatima the Gracious . Ansariyan Publications. OCLC
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61565460 . * Redha, Mohammad (1999). Imam
Imam
Ali
Ali
Ibn Abi Taleb ( Imam
Imam
Ali
Ali
the Fourth Caliph, 1/1 Volume). Dar Al Kotob Al ilmiyah. ISBN 978-2-7451-2532-3 . * Robinson, Chase F. (2003). Islamic Historiography. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-62936-2 . * Shaban, Muḥammad ʻAbd al-Ḥayy (1971). Islamic History. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-29131-6 . * Shah-Kazemi, Reza (2007). Justice and Remembrance: Introducing the Spirituality of Imam
Imam
Ali. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-526-5 . * Stearns, Peter N.; Langer, William Leonard (2001). The Encyclopedia of World History: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern. Houghton Mifflin Books. ISBN 978-0-395-65237-4 . * Tabatabaei, Sayyid
Sayyid
Mohammad Hosayn (1979). Shi'ite Islam. Suny press. ISBN 978-0-87395-272-9 . Translated by Seyyed Hossein Nasr . * Tabatabaei, Sayyid
Sayyid
Mohammad Hosayn (1987). The Quran
Quran
in Islam: Its Impact and Influence on the Life of Muslims. Zahra. ISBN 978-0-7103-0265-6 . * Watt, William Montgomery (1953). Muhammad
Muhammad
at Mecca
Mecca
. Oxford University Press. * Zeitlin, Irving M. (2007). The Historical Muhammad. Polity. ISBN 978-0-7456-3998-7 .

BIBLIOGRAPHY

ORIGINAL SOURCES

* Al-Bukhari, Muhammad
Muhammad
. Sahih Bukhari , Book
Book
4, 5, 8. * Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib (1984). Nahj al-Balagha (Peak of Eloquence), compiled by ash- Sharif
Sharif
ar-Radi . Alhoda UK. ISBN 978-0-940368-43-9 . * Ali ibn al-Athir . In his Biography, vol 2. * Ibn Taymiyyah , Taqi ad-Din Ahmad. Minhaj as- Sunnah
Sunnah
an-Nabawiyyah . (In Arabic) * Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj . Sahih Muslim
Sahih Muslim
, Book
Book
19, 31.

SECONDARY SOURCES

Books

* Abdul Rauf, Muhammad; Seyyed Hossein Nasr (1996). Imam
Imam
' Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib: The First Intellectual Muslim Thinker. Al Saadawi Publications. ISBN 978-1-881963-49-3 . * Al-Tabari, Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Jarir . History of the Prophets and Kings , translation and commentary issued in multiple volumes 1987 to 1996. SUNY Press. volumes 6–17 are relevant. * Motahhari, Morteza (1997). Glimpses of the Nahj Al-Balaghah, translated by Ali
Ali
Quli Qara'i. Islamic Culture and Relations Organization. ISBN 978-964-472-071-0 . * Motahhari, Morteza (1981). Polarization Around the Character of \' Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib. World Organization for Islamic Services, Tehran. * Cleary, Thomas (1996). Living and Dying with Grace: Counsels of Hadrat Ali. Shambhala Publications, Incorporated. ISBN 978-1-57062-211-3 . * Corn, Patricia (2005). Medieval Islamic Political Thought. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-2194-1 . * Gordagh, George (1956). Ali, The Voice of Human Justice. ISBN 978-0-941724-24-1 . (in Arabic) * Khatab, Amal (1996). Battles of Badr and Uhud. Ta-Ha Publishers. ISBN 978-1-897940-39-6 . * Kattani, Sulayman (1983). Imam
Imam
'Ali: Source of Light, Wisdom and Might, translation by I.K.A. Howard. Muhammadi Trust of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ISBN 978-0-9506986-6-3 . * Lakhani, M. Ali.; Reza Shah-Kazemi ; Leonard Lewisohn (2007). The Sacred Foundations of Justice in Islam: The Teachings of Ali
Ali
Ibn Abi Talib, Contributor Dr Seyyed Hossein Nasr. World Wisdom, Inc. ISBN 978-1-933316-26-0 . * Barnaby Rogerson (4 November 2010), The Heirs Of The Prophet Muhammad: And the Roots of the Sunni- Shia Schism, Little, Brown Book Group, ISBN 978-0-7481-2470-1 * Barnaby Rogerson (2008), The Heirs of Muhammad: Islam\'s First Century and the Origins of the Sunni- Shia Split, Overlook, ISBN 978-1-59020-022-3 * Wilferd Madelung (15 October 1998), The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-64696-3

Encyclopedia

* Shah-Kazemi, Reza, Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib, in Muhammad
Muhammad
in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God
God
(2 vols.), Edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2014. ISBN 1-61069-177-6 * Encyclopaedia of Islam
Islam
Online . Brill. 2004. ISSN 1573-3912 . E-. * Encyclopædia Britannica Online . Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. * Martin, Richard C. Encyclopaedia of Islam
Islam
and the Muslim world; vol.1. MacMillan. ISBN 978-0-02-865604-5 . * Encyclopædia Iranica . Center for Iranian Studies, Columbia University. ISBN 978-1-56859-050-9 . * Meri, Josef W.; Jere L. Bacharach (2006). Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-96691-7 . * Jones, Lindsay (2004). Encyclopedia of Religion. Gale Group. ISBN 978-0-02-865733-2 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

Find more aboutALIat's sister projects

* Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Commons * News from Wikinews * Quotations from Wikiquote * Texts from Wikisource * Textbooks from Wikibooks * Learning resources from Wikiversity

Shī'a biography

* The Life of the Commander of the Faithful Ali
Ali
Ibn Abu Talib (as) by Shaykh Mufid in Kitab al-Irshad * Website devoted to the Life of Imam
Imam
Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib * A Biographical Profile of Imam
Imam
Ali
Ali
by Syed Muhammad
Muhammad
Askari Jafari * Online Biography by Witness-Pioneer

Quotes

* A Website featuring validated/referenced quotes of Imam
Imam
Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib * "Shadow of the Sun" published on first Shia Imam, a collection of 110 hadiths from Prophet (s) concerning the character of Ali.

ALI of the Ahl al-Bayt
Ahl al-Bayt
CHIEF OF BANU HASHIM SINCE 653 Clan of the BANU

.