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‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib Arabic: علي ابن أبي طالب‎

Tribe Quraysh
Quraysh
(Banu Hashim)

Father Abu Talib ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib

Mother Fatimah
Fatimah
bint Asad

Religion Islam

Part of a series on

Ali

Views

Sunni
Sunni
view of Ali Shi'a
Shi'a
view of Ali

Life

Marital life Birthplace First Fitna Assassination Timeline of Ali's life Alids Hadith
Hadith
of the pond of Khumm

Legacy

Nahj al-Balagha Al-Ghadir Qalam-e-Mowla Zulfiqar Imam
Imam
Ali
Ali
Mosque Ghurar al-Hikam wa Durar al-Kalim

Perspectives

Military career of Ali Ali
Ali
as Caliph The Fourteen Infallibles Imam
Imam
(The Twelve Imams) Ali
Ali
in the Qur'an

Related articles

Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliph
Caliph
( Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliph) Succession to Muhammad

Category Islam
Islam
portal

v t e

ʿAlī bin Abī Ṭālib

ʿAlī bin Abī Ṭālib by Hakob Hovnatanyan
Hakob Hovnatanyan
(c. 19th century)

Sunnism: Rightly-Guided Caliph Shiism: First Imam All Islam: Ahl al-Bayt, Ṣaḥābī, Martyr; Commander of the Faithful, One Promised Paradise, The Door to the City of Knowledge, One whom God
God
Favored, The Great News, Leader of the God-conscious, Lion
Lion
of God, Brave-heart, Leader of the Knights of God, Father of the Dust, King of the Saints, Leader of the Saints

Venerated in All Islam
Islam
(Salafis honor rather than venerate him).

Major shrine Imam
Imam
Ali
Ali
Mosque, Najaf, Iraq

Ali[a] (/ˈɑːli, ɑːˈliː/;[7] Arabic: علي‎, translit. ʿAlī, pronounced [ʕaliː]) (15 September 601 – 29 January 661)[2][3] was the cousin and the son-in-law of Muhammad, the prophet of Islam. He ruled as the fourth caliph from 656 to 661, but he is regarded as the rightful immediate successor to prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
by the Shia
Shia
Muslims. Born to Abu Talib[8] and Fatimah
Fatimah
bint Asad,[1] Ali
Ali
is the only person to be born in the sacred sanctuary of the Kaaba
Kaaba
(Arabic: كَـعـبَـة‎) in Mecca, the holiest place in Islam, according to many classical Islamic sources, especially Shia
Shia
ones.[1][9][10] Ali was the first male who accepted Islam,[11][12] and according to some authors the first Muslim.[13] Ali
Ali
protected Muhammad
Muhammad
from an early age[14] and took part in almost all the battles fought by the nascent Muslim community. After migrating to Medina, he married Muhammad's daughter Fatimah.[1] He was appointed caliph by Muhammad's companions (Sahaba) in 656, after Caliph
Caliph
Uthman ibn Affan
Uthman ibn Affan
was assassinated.[15][16] Ali's reign saw civil wars and in 661, he was attacked and assassinated by a Kharijite
Kharijite
while praying in the Great Mosque
Mosque
of Kufa, being martyred two days later.[17][18][19] Ali
Ali
is important to both Shias and Sunnis, politically and spiritually.[20] The numerous biographical sources about Ali
Ali
are often biased according to sectarian lines, but they agree that he was a pious Muslim, devoted to the cause of Islam
Islam
and a just ruler in accordance with the Qur'an
Qur'an
and the Sunnah.[2] While Sunnis consider Ali
Ali
the fourth and final of the Rashidun
Rashidun
(rightly guided) caliphs, Shia
Shia
Muslims regard Ali
Ali
as the first Imam
Imam
after Muhammad
Muhammad
due to their interpretation of the events at Ghadir Khumm. Shia
Shia
Muslims also believe that Ali
Ali
and the other Shia
Shia
Imams (all of whom are members of the Bayṫ (Arabic: بَـيـت‎, Household) of Muhammad) are the rightful successors to Muhammad. It was this disagreement that split the Ummah
Ummah
(Arabic: أُمَّـة‎, Muslim Community) into the Shia and Sunni
Sunni
branches.[1][20][21][22]

Contents

1 Life in Mecca

1.1 Early years 1.2 Acceptance of Islam 1.3 The feast of Dhul Asheera 1.4 During the oppression of Muslims 1.5 Migration to Medina

2 Life in Medina

2.1 Muhammad's era

2.1.1 Family life 2.1.2 Military career 2.1.3 Missions for Islam 2.1.4 Incident of the Mubahalah 2.1.5 Ghadir Khumm

2.2 After Muhammad

2.2.1 Succession to Muhammad 2.2.2 Ali
Ali
and the Rashidun
Rashidun
caliphs

3 Caliphate

3.1 Election 3.2 Inaugural address in Medina 3.3 The First Fitnah 3.4 Policies

3.4.1 Anti-corruption campaign and egalitarian policies 3.4.2 Forming coalitions 3.4.3 Governance doctrine

3.5 Assassination in Kufa

4 Aftermath

4.1 Burial in Najaf

5 Virtues

5.1 Prophetic knowledge 5.2 Theosophy 5.3 Eloquence

5.3.1 The sermons without dots and alephs

5.4 Compassion 5.5 Works

6 Descendants 7 Views

7.1 Muslim views

7.1.1 Ali
Ali
in the Quran 7.1.2 Shi'ite 7.1.3 Sunni 7.1.4 Sufi 7.1.5 Titles

7.2 As a "deity"

7.2.1 Alawites 7.2.2 Ali-Illahism 7.2.3 Druze

8 Historiography 9 See also 10 Footnotes 11 Notes 12 References 13 Bibliography

13.1 Original sources 13.2 Secondary sources

14 External links

Life in Mecca[edit] Early years[edit] Main articles: Family tree of Ali
Family tree of Ali
and Birthplace of Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib Ali's father, Abu Talib, was the custodian of the Ka'bah
Ka'bah
and a sheikh (Arabic: شَـيـخ‎) of Banu Hashim, an important branch of the powerful Quraysh
Quraysh
tribe. He was also an uncle of Muhammad, and had raised Muhammad
Muhammad
after Abdul Muttalib (Abu Talib's father and Muhammad's grandfather) died.[23][24] Ali's mother, Fatima bint Asad, also belonged to Banu Hashim, making Ali
Ali
a descendant of Ismā‘īl (Arabic: إِسـمَـاعِـيـل‎, Ishmael) the son of Ibrāhīm (Arabic: إِبـرَاهِـيـم‎, Abraham).[25] Many sources, especially Shi'i ones, attest that Ali
Ali
was born inside the Kaaba
Kaaba
in the city of Mecca,[1][26] where he stayed with his mother for three days.[1][10] His mother reportedly felt the beginning of her labour pain while visiting the Ka'ba and entered it where her son was born. Some Shia
Shia
sources contain miraculous descriptions of the entrance of Ali's mother into Ka'ba. Ali's birth in Ka'ba is regarded as a unique event proving his "high spiritual station" among Shia, while among various Sunni
Sunni
scholars it is considered a great, if not unique, distinction.[27] According to a tradition, Muhammad
Muhammad
was the first person whom Ali
Ali
saw as he took the newborn in his hands. Muhammad
Muhammad
named him Ali, meaning "the exalted one". Muhammad
Muhammad
had a close relationship with Ali's parents. When Muhammad
Muhammad
was orphaned and later lost his grandfather Abdul Muttalib, Ali's father took him into his house.[1] Ali
Ali
was born two or three years after Muhammad
Muhammad
married Khadijah bint Khuwaylid.[28] When Ali
Ali
was five years old, Muhammad
Muhammad
took Ali
Ali
into his home to raise him. Some historians say that this was because there was a famine in Mecca
Mecca
at the time and that Ali's father had a large family to support; however, others point out that feeding Ali
Ali
would not have been a burden on his father, as Ali
Ali
was five years old at the time and, despite the famine, Ali's father, who was financially well-off, was known for giving food to strangers if they were hungry.[29] While it is not disputed that Muhammad
Muhammad
raised Ali, it was not due to any financial stress that Ali's father was going through. Acceptance of Islam[edit] See also: Identity of the first male Muslim
Identity of the first male Muslim
and Hijra (Islam) Ali
Ali
had been living with Muhammad
Muhammad
and Muhammad's wife Khadija since he was five years old. When Ali
Ali
was ten, Muhammad
Muhammad
announced himself as the Prophet of Islam, and Ali
Ali
became the first male to accept Islam. He was the second person, after Khadija, to accept Islam
Islam
According to Sayed Ali
Ali
Asgher Razwy in A Restatement of the History of Islam
Islam
& Muslims, " Ali
Ali
and Qur’an
Qur’an
"grew up" together as "twins" in the house of Muhammad
Muhammad
Mustafa and Khadija-tul-Kubra."[30] The second period of Ali's life began in 610 when he declared Islam
Islam
at the age of 10, and ended with the Hijra of Muhammad
Muhammad
to Medina in 622.[1] When Muhammad
Muhammad
reported that he had received a divine revelation, Ali, then only about ten years old, believed him and professed to Islam.[1][2][31][32][33] Ali
Ali
became the first male to embrace Islam[34] and was the second person, after Khadija, to accept Islam.[35][36][37] Shia
Shia
doctrine asserts that in keeping with Ali's divine mission, he accepted Islam
Islam
before he took part in any pre-Islamic Meccan traditional religion rites, regarded by Muslims as polytheistic (see shirk) or paganistic. Hence the Shia
Shia
say of Ali
Ali
that his face is honoured, as it was never sullied by prostrations before idols.[31] The Sunnis also use the honorific Karam Allahu Wajhahu, which means "God's Favour upon his Face." The reason his acceptance is often not called a conversion is because he was never an idol worshipper like the people of Mecca. He was known to have broken idols in the mould of Abraham
Abraham
and asked people why they worshipped something they made themselves.[38] Ali's grandfather, along with some members of the Bani Hashim clan, were Hanifs, or followers of a monotheistic belief system prior to the coming of Islam. The feast of Dhul Asheera[edit] Main article: Da'wat dhul-Ashira Muhammad
Muhammad
invited people to Islam
Islam
in secret for three years before he started inviting them publicly. In the fourth year of Islam, when Muhammad
Muhammad
was commanded to invite his closer relatives to come to Islam[39] he gathered the Banu Hashim
Banu Hashim
clan in a ceremony. At the banquet, he was about to invite them to Islam
Islam
when Abu Lahab interrupted him, after which everyone left the banquet. The Prophet ordered Ali
Ali
to invite the 40 people again. The second time, Muhammad announced Islam
Islam
to them and invited them to join.[40] He said to them,

I offer thanks to Allah
Allah
for His mercies. I praise Allah, and I seek His guidance. I believe in Him and I put my trust in Him. I bear witness that there is no god except Allah; He has no partners; and I am His messenger. Allah
Allah
has commanded me to invite you to His religion by saying: And warn thy nearest kinsfolk. I, therefore, warn you, and call upon you to testify that there is no god but Allah, and that I am His messenger. O ye sons of Abdul Muttalib, no one ever came to you before with anything better than what I have brought to you. By accepting it, your welfare will be assured in this world and in the Hereafter. Who among you will support me in carrying out this momentous duty? Who will share the burden of this work with me? Who will respond to my call? Who will become my vicegerent, my deputy and my wazir?[41]

Ali
Ali
was the only one to answer Muhammad's call. Muhammad
Muhammad
told him to sit down, saying, "Wait! Perhaps someone older than you might respond to my call." Muhammad
Muhammad
then asked the members of Banu Hashim
Banu Hashim
a second time. Once again, Ali
Ali
was the only one to respond, and again, Muhammad told him to wait. Muhammad
Muhammad
then asked the members of Banu Hashim
Banu Hashim
a third time. Ali
Ali
was still the only volunteer. This time, Ali's offer was accepted by Muhammad. Muhammad
Muhammad
"drew [Ali] close, pressed him to his heart, and said to the assembly: 'This is my wazir, my successor and my vicegerent. Listen to him and obey his commands.'"[42] In another narration, when Muhammad
Muhammad
accepted Ali's eager offer, Muhammad "threw up his arms around the generous youth, and pressed him to his bosom" and said, "Behold my brother, my vizir, my vicegerent...Let all listen to his words, and obey him."[43] Sir Richard Burton writes about the banquet in his 1898 book, saying, "It won for [Muhammad] a proselyte worth a thousand sabers in the person of Ali, son of Abu Talib."[44] During the oppression of Muslims[edit] During the persecution of Muslims and boycott of the Banu Hashim
Banu Hashim
in Mecca, Ali
Ali
stood firmly in support of Muhammad.[45] Migration to Medina[edit] See also: Hijra (Islam) In 622, the year of Muhammad's migration to Yathrib (now Medina), Ali risked his life by sleeping in Muhammad's bed to impersonate him and thwart an assassination plot on Muhammad
Muhammad
so that Muhammad
Muhammad
could escape in safety.[1][31][46] This night is called Laylat al-Mabit. According to some ahadith, a verse was revealed about Ali
Ali
concerning his sacrifice on the night of Hijra which says "And among men is he who sells his nafs (self) in exchange for the pleasure of Allah."[47][48] Ali
Ali
survived the plot, but risked his life again by staying in Mecca to carry out Muhammad's instructions: to restore to their owners all the goods and properties that had been entrusted to Muhammad
Muhammad
for safekeeping. ‘ Ali
Ali
then went to Medina with Fatimah
Fatimah
bint Asad (his mother), Fatimah
Fatimah
bint Muhammad
Muhammad
(Muhammad's daughter), and two other women.[2][31] Life in Medina[edit] Muhammad's era[edit] See also: Muhammad
Muhammad
in Medina and Military career of Ali Ali
Ali
was 22 or 23 years old when he migrated to Medina. When Muhammad was creating bonds of brotherhood among his companions, he selected Ali
Ali
as his brother.[2][31][49] For the ten years that Muhammad
Muhammad
led the community in Medina, Ali
Ali
was extremely active in his service as his secretary and deputy, serving in his armies, the bearer of his banner in every battle, leading parties of warriors on raids, and carrying messages and orders.[50] As one of Muhammad's lieutenants, and later his son-in-law, Ali
Ali
was a person of authority and standing in the Muslim community.[51] Family life[edit] Main article: Ali
Ali
marital life See also: Ahl al-Bayt, Hadith
Hadith
of the Event of the Cloak, and The verse of purification In 623, Muhammad
Muhammad
told ‘ Ali
Ali
that God
God
ordered him to give his daughter Fatimah
Fatimah
Zahra to Ali
Ali
in marriage.[1] Muhammad
Muhammad
said to Fatimah: "I have married you to the dearest of my family to me."[52] This family is glorified by Muhammad
Muhammad
frequently and he declared them as his Ahl al-Bayt in events such as Mubahala
Mubahala
and hadith like the Hadith
Hadith
of the Event of the Cloak. They were also glorified in the Qur’an
Qur’an
in several cases such as "the verse of purification".[53][54] Ali
Ali
had four children born to Fatimah, the only child of Muhammad
Muhammad
to have surviving progeny. Their two sons (Hasan and Husain) were cited by Muhammad
Muhammad
to be his own sons, honoured numerous times in his lifetime and titled "the leaders of the youth of Jannah" (Heaven, the hereafter.)[55][56] At the beginning they were extremely poor. For several years after his marriage, Fatimah
Fatimah
did all of the household work by herself. The shoulder on which she carried pitchers of water from the well was swollen and the hand with which she worked the handmill to grind grain was often covered with blisters.[57] Fatimah
Fatimah
vouched to take care of the household work, make dough, bake bread, and clean the house; in return, Ali
Ali
vouched to take care of the outside work such as gathering firewood, and bringing food.[58] Their circumstances were akin to many of the Muslims at the time and only improved following the Battle of Khaybar
Khaybar
when the wealth of Khaybar
Khaybar
was distributed among the poor. When the economic situations of the Muslims became better, Fatimah gained some maids but treated them like her family and performed the house duties with them.[59] Their marriage lasted until Fatimah's death ten years later. Although polygamy was permitted, Ali
Ali
did not marry another woman while Fatimah was alive, and his marriage to her possesses a special spiritual significance for all Muslims because it is seen as the marriage between two great figures surrounding Muhammad. After Fatimah's death, Ali
Ali
married other women and fathered many children.[1][further explanation needed] Military career[edit]

v t e

Campaigns of Ali

Badr Banu Qaynuqa Uhud Banu Nadir Trench Banu Qurayza Hudaybiyyah Khaybar Mu'tah Mecca Hunayn Autas Ta'if The Camel Siffin Nahrawan

Main articles: Military career of Ali
Military career of Ali
and List of expeditions of Muhammad With the exception of the Battle of Tabouk, Ali
Ali
took part in all battles and expeditions fought for Islam.[31] As well as being the standard-bearer in those battles, Ali
Ali
led parties of warriors on raids into enemy lands. Ali
Ali
first distinguished himself as a warrior in 624 at the Battle of Badr. The battle began with Ali
Ali
defeating the Umayyad champion Walid ibn Utba; one historian described Ali's opening victory at the battle as "the signal of the triumph of Islam."[60] Ali
Ali
also defeated many other Meccan soldiers in the battle. According to Muslim traditions Ali
Ali
killed between twenty and thirty-five enemies in battle, most agreeing with twenty-seven;[61] while all the other Muslims combined killed another twenty-seven.[62] Ali
Ali
was prominent at the Battle of Uhud, as well as many other battles where he wielded a bifurcated sword known as Zulfiqar.[63] He had the special role of protecting Muhammad
Muhammad
when most of the Muslim army fled from the battle of Uhud[1] and it was said "There is no brave youth except Ali
Ali
and there is no sword which renders service except Zulfiqar."[64] He was commander of the Muslim army in the Battle of Khaybar.[65] Following this battle Mohammad gave Ali
Ali
the name Asadullâh (Arabic: أَسَـدُ الله‎), which means " Lion
Lion
of God". Ali
Ali
also defended Muhammad
Muhammad
in the Battle of Hunayn
Battle of Hunayn
in 630.[1] Missions for Islam[edit]

Arabic calligraphy which means "There is no brave youth except Ali
Ali
and there is no sword which renders service except Zulfiqar."

Muhammad
Muhammad
designated ‘ Ali
Ali
as one of the scribes who would write down the text of the Quran, which had been revealed to Muhammad
Muhammad
during the previous two decades. As Islam
Islam
began to spread throughout Arabia, Ali helped establish the new Islamic order. He was instructed to write down the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, the peace treaty between Muhammad
Muhammad
and the Quraysh
Quraysh
in 628. Ali
Ali
was so reliable and trustworthy that Muhammad asked him to carry the messages and declare the orders. In 630, Ali recited to a large gathering of pilgrims in Mecca
Mecca
a portion of the Quran
Quran
that declared Muhammad
Muhammad
and the Islamic community were no longer bound by agreements made earlier with Arab polytheists. During the Conquest of Mecca
Mecca
in 630, Muhammad
Muhammad
asked Ali
Ali
to guarantee that the conquest would be bloodless. He ordered Ali
Ali
to break all the idols worshipped by the Banu Aus, Banu Khazraj, Tayy, and those in the Ka‘bah to purify it after its defilement by the polytheism of the pre-Islamic era. Ali
Ali
was sent to Yemen
Yemen
one year later to spread the teachings of Islam. He was also charged with settling several disputes and putting down the uprisings of various tribes.[1][2] Incident of the Mubahalah[edit] Main article: Event of Mubahala See also: Ahl al-Bayt According to hadith collections, in 631, an Arab Christian
Christian
envoy from Najran
Najran
(currently in northern Yemen
Yemen
and partly in Saudi Arabia) came to Muhammad
Muhammad
to argue which of the two parties erred in its doctrine concerning Jesus. After likening Jesus' miraculous birth to Adam's creation,[66] Muhammad
Muhammad
called them to mubahala (conversation), where each party should bring their knowledgeable men, women and children, and ask God
God
to curse the lying party and their followers.[67] Muhammad, to prove to them that he was a prophet, brought his daughter Fatimah, ‘ Ali
Ali
and his grandchildren Hasan and Husayn. He went to the Christians and said "this is my family" and covered himself and his family with a cloak.[68] According to Muslim sources, when one of the Christian
Christian
monks saw their faces, he advised his companions to withdraw from Mubahala
Mubahala
for the sake of their lives and families. Thus the Christian
Christian
monks vanished from the Mubahala
Mubahala
place. Allameh Tabatabaei explains in Tafsir al-Mizan that the word "Our selves" in this verse[67] refers to Muhammad
Muhammad
and Ali. Then he narrates that Imam
Imam
Ali al-Rida, eighth Shia
Shia
Imam, in discussion with Al-Ma'mun, Abbasid caliph, referred to this verse to prove the superiority of Muhammad's progeny over the rest of the Muslim community, and considered it the proof for Ali's right for caliphate due to God
God
having made Ali
Ali
like the self of Muhammad.[69] Ghadir Khumm[edit] Main articles: Hadith of the pond of Khumm
Hadith of the pond of Khumm
and Hadith
Hadith
of the two weighty things

The Investiture of Ali, at Ghadir Khumm (MS Arab 161, fol. 162r, 1307/8 Ilkhanid
Ilkhanid
manuscript illustration).

As Muhammad
Muhammad
was returning from his last pilgrimage in 632, he made statements about Ali
Ali
that are interpreted very differently by Sunnis and Shias.[1] He halted the caravan at Ghadir Khumm, gathered the returning pilgrims for communal prayer and began to address them.[21] According to Encyclopedia of Islam:

Taking Ali
Ali
by the hand, he asked of his faithful followers whether he, Muhammad, was not closer (awlā) to the Believers than they were to themselves; the crowd cried out: "It is so, O Apostle of God!"; he then declared: "He of whom I am the mawla, of him Ali
Ali
is also the mawla (man kuntu mawlāhu fa-ʿAlī mawlāhu)".[22][70]

Shias regard these statements as constituting the designation of Ali as the successor of Muhammad
Muhammad
and as the first Imam; by contrast, Sunnis take them only as an expression of close spiritual relationship between Muhammad
Muhammad
and Ali, and of his wish that Ali, as his cousin and son-in-law, inherit his family responsibilities upon his death, but not necessarily a designation of political authority. [20] [71] Many Sufis also interpret the episode as the transfer of Muhammad's spiritual power and authority to Ali, whom they regard as the wali par excellence.[1][72] On the basis of this hadith, Shias say that Ali later insisted that his religious authority was superior to that of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and Umar.[73] After Muhammad[edit] Succession to Muhammad[edit] See also: Origin and development of the Quran, Succession to Muhammad, Saqifah, Rashidun, and Hadith
Hadith
of position Another part of Ali's life started in 632, after the death of Muhammad and lasted until the assassination of ‘ Uthman
Uthman
ibn ‘Affan, the third caliph in 656. During those 24 years, Ali
Ali
neither took part in any battle or conquest,[2] nor did he assume any executive position. He withdrew from political affairs, especially after the death of his wife, Fatimah
Fatimah
Zahra. He used his time to serve his family and worked as a farmer. Ali
Ali
dug a lot of wells and planted gardens near Medina and endowed them for public use. These wells are known today as Abar Ali
Ali
("Ali's wells").[74] Ali
Ali
compiled a complete version of the Quran, mus'haf,[75] six months after the death of Muhammad. The volume was completed and carried by camel to show to other people of Medina. The order of this mus'haf differed from that which was gathered later during the Uthmanic era. This book was rejected by several people when he showed it to them. Despite this, Ali
Ali
made no resistance against standardised mus'haf.[76] Ali
Ali
and the Rashidun
Rashidun
caliphs[edit] See also: The election of Uthman
The election of Uthman
and Siege of Uthman

Ambigram
Ambigram
depicting Muhammad
Muhammad
(right) and Ali
Ali
(left) written in a single word. The 180 degree inverted form shows both words.

After uniting the Arabian tribes into a single Muslim religious polity in the last years of his life, Muhammad's death in 632 signalled disagreement over who would succeed him as leader of the Muslim community.[77] While Ali
Ali
and the rest of Muhammad's close family were washing his body for burial, at a gathering attended by a small group of Muslims at Saqifah, a close companion of Muhammad
Muhammad
named Abu Bakr was nominated for the leadership of the community. Others added their support and Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
was made the first caliph. The choice of Abu Bakr was disputed by some of Muhammad's companions, who held that Ali
Ali
had been designated his successor by Muhammad
Muhammad
himself.[33][78] Later when Fatimah
Fatimah
and Ali
Ali
sought aid from the Companions in the matter of his right to the caliphate, they answered 'O daughter of the Messenger of God! We have given our allegiance to Abu Bakr. If Ali
Ali
had come to us before this, we would certainly not have abandoned him'. Ali
Ali
said, 'Was it fitting that we should wrangle over the caliphate even before the Prophet was buried?'[79][80] Following his election to the caliphate, Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and Umar
Umar
with a few other companions headed to Fatimah's house to force Ali
Ali
and his supporters who had gathered there to give their allegiance to Abu Bakr. Then, it is alleged that Umar
Umar
threatened to set the house on fire unless they came out and swore allegiance to Abu Bakr.[81] Fatimah, in support of her husband, started a commotion and threatened to "uncover her hair", at which Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
relented and withdrew.[59] Ali
Ali
is reported to have repeatedly said that had there been forty men with him he would have resisted.[81] Ali
Ali
did not actively assert his own right because he did not want to throw the nascent Muslim community into strife.[2] Other sources say that Ali
Ali
accepted the selection of Umar
Umar
as caliph and even gave one of his daughters, Umm Kulthūm, to him in marriage.[1]

18th century mirror writing in Ottoman calligraphy. Depicts the phrase ' Ali
Ali
is the vicegerent of God' in both directions.

This contentious issue caused Muslims to later split into two groups, Sunni
Sunni
and Shia. Sunnis assert that even though Muhammad
Muhammad
never appointed a successor, Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
was elected first caliph by the Muslim community. The Sunnis recognise the first four caliphs as Muhammad's rightful successors. Shias believe that Muhammad
Muhammad
explicitly named Ali as his successor at Ghadir Khumm and Muslim leadership belonged to him which had been determined by divine order.[33] According to Wilferd Madelung, Ali
Ali
himself was firmly convinced of his legitimacy for caliphate based on his close kinship with Muhammad, his intimate association and his knowledge of Islam
Islam
and his merits in serving its cause. He told Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
that his delay in pledging allegiance (bay'ah) as caliph was based on his belief of his own prior title. Ali
Ali
did not change his mind when he finally pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and then to Umar
Umar
and to Uthman
Uthman
but had done so for the sake of the unity of Islam, at a time when it was clear that the Muslims had turned away from him.[33][82] Ali
Ali
also believed that he could fulfill his role of Imam'ate without this fighting.[83] At the beginning of Abu Bakr's caliphate, there was a controversy about Muhammad's endowment to his daughter, especially Fadak, between Fatimah
Fatimah
and Ali
Ali
on one side and Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
on the other side. Fatimah asked Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
to turn over their property, the lands of Fadak
Fadak
and Khaybar. But Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
refused and told her that prophets did not have any legacy and that Fadak
Fadak
belonged to the Muslim community. Abu Bakr said to her, "Allah's Apostle said, we do not have heirs, whatever we leave is Sadaqa." Together with Umm Ayman, Ali
Ali
testified to the fact that Muhammad
Muhammad
granted it to Fatimah
Fatimah
Zahra, when Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
requested her to summon witnesses for her claim. Fatimah
Fatimah
became angry and stopped speaking to Abu Bakr, and continued assuming that attitude until she died. [84] ‘Aishah also said that "When Allah's Apostle died, his wives intended to send ‘ Uthman
Uthman
to Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
asking him for their share of the inheritance." Then 'Aisha said to them, "Didn't Allah's Apostle say, 'Our (Apostles') property is not to be inherited, and whatever we leave is to be spent in charity?'".[85] According to some sources, ‘ Ali
Ali
did not give his oath of allegiance to Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
until some time after the death of his wife, Fatimah
Fatimah
in the year 633.[2] ‘ Ali
Ali
participated in the funeral of Abu Bakr.[86] He pledged allegiance to the second caliph ‘ Umar
Umar
ibn Khattab and helped him as a trusted advisor. ‘ Umar
Umar
particularly relied upon Ali as the chief judge of Medina. He also advised Umar
Umar
to set Hijra as the beginning of the Islamic calendar. ‘ Umar
Umar
used ‘Ali's suggestions in political issues as well as religious ones.[87] ‘ Ali
Ali
was one of the electoral council to choose the third caliph which was appointed by ‘Umar. Although ‘ Ali
Ali
was one of the two major candidates, the council's arrangement was against him. Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas and Abdur Rahman bin Awf, who were cousins, were naturally inclined to support Uthman, who was Abdur Rahman's brother-in-law. In addition, Umar
Umar
gave the casting vote to Abdur Rahman. Abdur Rahman offered the caliphate to Ali
Ali
on the condition that he should rule in accordance with the Quran, the example set by Muhammad, and the precedents established by the first two caliphs. Ali
Ali
rejected the third condition while Uthman
Uthman
accepted it. According to Ibn Abi al-Hadid's Comments on the Peak of Eloquence Ali
Ali
insisted on his prominence there, but most of the electors supported Uthman
Uthman
and Ali was reluctantly urged to accept him.[88] ‘ Uthman
Uthman
ibn ‘Affan expressed generosity toward his kin, Banu Abd-Shams, who seemed to dominate him, and his supposed arrogant mistreatment toward several of the earliest companions such as Abu Dharr al-Ghifari, Abd- Allah
Allah
ibn Mas'ud and Ammar ibn Yasir
Ammar ibn Yasir
provoked outrage among some groups of people. Dissatisfaction and resistance openly arose since 650–651 throughout most of the empire.[89] The dissatisfaction with his rule and the governments appointed by him was not restricted to the provinces outside Arabia.[90] When Uthman's kin, especially Marwan, gained control over him, the noble companions, including most of the members of elector council, turned against him or at least withdrew their support, putting pressure on the caliph to mend his ways and reduce the influence of his assertive kin.[91] At this time, ‘ Ali
Ali
had acted as a restraining influence on Uthman without directly opposing him. On several occasions Ali
Ali
disagreed with Uthman
Uthman
in the application of the Hudud; he had publicly shown sympathy for Abu Dharr al-Ghifari
Abu Dharr al-Ghifari
and had spoken strongly in the defence of Ammar ibn Yasir. He conveyed to Uthman
Uthman
the criticisms of other Companions and acted on Uthman's behalf as negotiator with the provincial opposition who had come to Medina; because of this some mistrust between Ali
Ali
and Uthman's family seems to have arisen. Finally, he tried to mitigate the severity of the siege by his insistence that Uthman
Uthman
should be allowed water.[2] There is controversy among historians about the relationship between Ali
Ali
and Uthman. Although pledging allegiance to Uthman, Ali
Ali
disagreed with some of his policies. In particular, he clashed with Uthman
Uthman
on the question of religious law. He insisted that religious punishment had to be done in several cases such as Ubayd Allah
Allah
ibn Umar
Umar
and Walid ibn Uqba. In 650 during pilgrimage, he confronted Uthman
Uthman
with reproaches for his change of the prayer ritual. When Uthman
Uthman
declared that he would take whatever he needed from the fey', Ali
Ali
exclaimed that in that case the caliph would be prevented by force. Ali endeavoured to protect companions from maltreatment by the caliph such as Ibn Mas'ud.[92] Therefore, some historians consider Ali
Ali
one of the leading members of Uthman's opposition, if not the main one. But Wilferd Madelung
Wilferd Madelung
rejects their judgment due to the fact that Ali
Ali
did not have the Quraysh's support to be elected as a caliph. According to him, there is even no evidence that Ali
Ali
had close relations with rebels who supported his caliphate or directed their actions. [93] Some other sources say Ali
Ali
had acted as a restraining influence on Uthman
Uthman
without directly opposing him.[2] However, Madelung narrates Marwan told Zayn al-Abidin, the grandson of Ali, that

No one [among the Islamic nobility] was more temperate toward our master than your master.[94]

Caliphate[edit]

Caliphate خِلافة

Main caliphates

Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphate Umayyad Caliphate Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliphate Ottoman Caliphate

Parallel caliphates

Fatimid Caliphate Caliphate
Caliphate
of Córdoba Almohad Caliphate Sokoto Caliphate

Islam
Islam
portal

v t e

See also: Rashidun Empire
Rashidun Empire
and Ali
Ali
as caliph

Domains of Rashidun
Rashidun
caliphate under four caliphs. The divided phase relates to the Rashidun
Rashidun
caliphate of ‘ Ali
Ali
during the First Fitna.   Strongholds of the Rashidun
Rashidun
caliphate of Ali
Ali
during the First Fitna   Region under the control of Muawiyah I during the First Fitna   Region under the control of Amr ibn al-As
Amr ibn al-As
during the First Fitna

Ali
Ali
was caliph between 656 and 661, during one of the most turbulent periods in Muslim history, which also coincided with the First Fitnah. Since the conflicts in which Ali
Ali
was involved were perpetuated in polemical sectarian historiography, biographical material is often biased. But the sources agree that he was a profoundly religious man, devoted to the cause of Islam
Islam
and the rule of justice in accordance with the Qur’an
Qur’an
and the Sunnah; he engaged in war against erring Muslims as a matter of religious duty. The sources abound in notices on his austerity, rigorous observance of religious duties, and detachment from worldly goods. Thus some authors have pointed out that he lacked political skill and flexibility.[2] Election[edit] Uthman's assassination meant that rebels had to select a new caliph. This met with difficulties since the rebels were divided into several groups comprising the Muhajirun, Ansar, Egyptians, Kufans and Basrites. There were three candidates: Ali, Talhah
Talhah
and Al-Zubayr. First the rebels approached Ali, requesting him to accept being the fourth caliph. Some of Muhammad's companions tried to persuade Ali
Ali
to accept the office,[95][96][97] but he turned down the offer, suggesting to be a counsellor instead of a chief.[98] Talhah, Zubayr and other companions also refused the rebels' offer of the caliphate. Therefore, the rebels warned the inhabitants of Medina to select a caliph within one day, or they would apply drastic action. In order to resolve the deadlock, the Muslims gathered in Al-Masjid an-Nabawi (Arabic: الـمَـسـجـد الـنَّـبـوي‎, "The Masjid of the Prophet") on June 18, 656, to appoint the caliph. Initially, ‘ Ali
Ali
refused to accept it, simply because his most vigorous supporters were rebels. However, when some notable companions of Muhammad, in addition to the residents of Medina, urged him to accept the offer, he finally agreed. According to Abu Mekhnaf's narration, Talhah
Talhah
was the first prominent companion who gave his pledge to ‘Ali, but other narrations claimed otherwise, stating they were forced to give their pledge. Also, Talhah
Talhah
and Az-Zubayr later claimed they supported him reluctantly. Regardless, Ali
Ali
refuted these claims, insisting they recognised him as caliph voluntarily. Wilferd Madelung believes that force did not urge people to give their pledge and they pledged publicly in the mosque.[15][16] While the overwhelming majority of Medina's population as well as many of the rebels gave their pledge, some important figures or tribes did not do so. The Umayyads, kinsmen of Uthman, fled to the Levant, or remained in their houses, later refusing ‘Ali's legitimacy. Sa'ad ibn Abi Waqqas
Sa'ad ibn Abi Waqqas
was absent and ‘Abdullah ibn ‘ Umar
Umar
abstained from offering his allegiance, but both of them assured ‘ Ali
Ali
that they would not act against him.[15][16] Ali
Ali
thus inherited the Rashidun
Rashidun
caliphate — which extended from Egypt
Egypt
in the west to the Iranian highlands in the east—while the situation in the Hejaz
Hejaz
and the other provinces on the eve of his election was unsettled. Soon after Ali
Ali
became caliph, he dismissed provincial governors who had been appointed by Uthman, replacing them with trusted aides. He acted against the counsel of Mughira ibn Shu'ba and Ibn ‘Abbas, who had advised him to proceed with his governing cautiously. Madelung says Ali
Ali
was deeply convinced of his right and his religious mission, unwilling to compromise his principles for the sake of political expediency, and ready to fight against overwhelming odds.[99] Muawiyah I, the kinsman of Uthman
Uthman
and governor of the Levant, refused to submit to Ali's orders; he was the only governor to do so.[2] Inaugural address in Medina[edit]

The name of Ali
Ali
with Islamic calligraphy
Islamic calligraphy
in Hagia Sophia, (present-day Turkey)

When he was appointed caliph, Ali
Ali
stated to the citizens of Medina that Muslim polity had come to be plagued by dissension and discord; he desired to purge Islam
Islam
of any evil. He advised the populace to behave as true Muslims, warning that he would tolerate no sedition and those who were found guilty of subversive activities would be dealt with harshly.[100] The First Fitnah[edit]

v t e

First Fitna

The Camel Siffin Nahrawan

See also: First Fitna A'ishah, Talhah, Al-Zubayr and the Umayyads, especially Muawiyah I and Marwan I, wanted ‘ Ali
Ali
to punish the rioters who had killed Uthman.[101][102] They encamped close to Basra. The talks lasted for many days and the subsequent heated exchange and protests during the parley turned from words to blows, leading to loss of life on both sides. In the confusion the Battle of the Camel
Battle of the Camel
started in 656, where Ali
Ali
emerged victorious.[103] Some historians[who?] believe that they used this issue to seek their political ambitions because they found Ali's caliphate against their own benefit. The rebels maintained that Uthman
Uthman
had been justly killed, for not governing according to Quran and Sunnah, hence no vengeance was to be invoked.[2][31][104] Some say the caliphate was a gift of the rebels and Ali
Ali
did not have enough force to control or punish them,[100] while others say Ali
Ali
accepted the rebels' argument or at least did not consider Uthman
Uthman
a just ruler.[105] Under such circumstances, a schism took place which led to the first civil war in Muslim history. Some Muslims, known as Uthmanis, considered Uthman
Uthman
a rightful and just caliph till the end, who had been unlawfully killed. Some others, who are known as party of Ali, believed Uthman
Uthman
had fallen into error, he had forfeited the caliphate and been lawfully executed for his refusal to mend his ways or step down; thus Ali
Ali
was the just and true Imam
Imam
and his opponents are infidels. This was not the position of Ali
Ali
himself. This civil war created permanent divisions within the Muslim community regarding who had the legitimate right to occupy the caliphate.[106] The First Fitna, 656–661, followed the assassination of Uthman, continued during the caliphate of Ali, and was ended by Muawiyah's assumption of the caliphate. This civil war (often called the Fitna) is regretted as the end of the early unity of the Islamic ummah (nation).[107] Ali
Ali
appointed 'Abd Allah
Allah
ibn al'-Abbas[108] governor of Basra and moved his capital to Kufa, the Muslim garrison city in Iraq. Following the Roman-Persian Wars
Roman-Persian Wars
and the Byzantine–Sasanian wars
Byzantine–Sasanian wars
that lasted for hundreds of years, there were deep rooted differences between Iraq, formally under the Persian Sassanid Empire
Sassanid Empire
and Syria formally under the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire. The Iraqis wanted the capital of the newly established Islamic State to be in Kufa
Kufa
so as to bring revenues into their area and oppose Syria.[109] They convinced Ali
Ali
to come to Kufa and establish the capital in Kufa, in Iraq.[109] Later Muawiyah I, the governor of Levant
Levant
and the cousin of Uthman, refused Ali's demands for allegiance. Ali
Ali
opened negotiations hoping to regain his allegiance, but Muawiyah insisted on Levant
Levant
autonomy under his rule. Muawiyah replied by mobilising his Levantine supporters and refusing to pay homage to Ali
Ali
on the pretext that his contingent had not participated in his election. Ali
Ali
then moved his armies north and the two armies encamped themselves at Siffin
Siffin
for more than one hundred days, most of the time being spent in negotiations. Although Ali
Ali
exchanged several letters with Muawiyah, he was unable to dismiss the latter, nor persuade him to pledge allegiance. Skirmishes between the parties led to the Battle of Siffin
Battle of Siffin
in 657.[2][110] After a week of combat was followed by a violent battle known as laylat al-harir (the night of clamour), Muawiyah's army was on the point of being routed when Amr ibn al-Aas
Amr ibn al-Aas
advised Muawiyah to have his soldiers hoist mus'haf (either parchments inscribed with verses of the Quran, or complete copies of it) on their spearheads in order to cause disagreement and confusion in Ali's army.[2][110] Ali
Ali
saw through the stratagem, but only a minority wanted to pursue the fight.[33] The two armies finally agreed to settle the matter of who should be caliph by arbitration. The refusal of the largest bloc in Ali's army to fight was the decisive factor in his acceptance of the arbitration. The question as to whether the arbiter would represent Ali
Ali
or the Kufans caused a further split in Ali's army. Ash'ath ibn Qays and some others rejected Ali's nominees, 'Abd Allah
Allah
ibn 'Abbas and Malik al-Ashtar, and insisted on Abu Musa Ash'ari, for his neutrality. Finally, Ali
Ali
was urged to accept Abu Musa. Amr ibn al-As
Amr ibn al-As
was appointed by Muawiyah as an arbitrator. Seven months later the two arbitrators met at Adhruh about 10 miles north west of Maan in Jordan in February 658. Amr ibn al-As convinced Abu Musa Ash'ari that both Ali
Ali
and Muawiyah should step down and a new caliph be elected. Ali
Ali
and his supporters were stunned by the decision which had lowered the caliph to the status of the rebellious Muawiyah. Ali
Ali
was therefore outwitted by Muawiyah and Amr ibn al-As.[111][112] When the arbitrators assembled at Daumet-ul-Jandal, a series of daily meetings were arranged for them to discuss the matters in hand. When the time arrived for taking a decision about the caliphate, Amr bin al-A'as convinced Abu Musa al-Ashari into entertaining the opinion that they should deprive both Ali
Ali
and Muawiya of the caliphate, and give to the Muslims the right to elect the caliph. Abu Musa al-Ashari also decided to act accordingly.[113] According to Poonawala, it seems that the arbiters and other eminent persons, with the exclusion of Ali's representatives, met in January 659 to discuss the selection of the new caliph. Amr supported Muawiyah, while Abu Musa preferred his son-in-law, Abdullah ibn Umar, but the latter refused to stand for election in default of unanimity. Abu Musa then proposed, and Amr agreed, to depose both Ali
Ali
and Muawiyah and submit the selection of the new caliph to a Shura. In the public declaration that followed Abu Musa observed his part of the agreement, but Amr declared Ali
Ali
deposed and confirmed Muawiya as caliph.[2] Ali
Ali
refused to accept the verdict of him stepping down and for an election to be held and found himself technically in breach of his pledge to abide by the arbitration.[114][115][116] ‘ Ali
Ali
protested, stating that it was contrary to the Qur'an
Qur'an
and the Sunnah
Sunnah
and hence not binding. Then he tried to organise a new army, but only the Ansar, the remnants of the Qurra led by Malik Ashtar, and a few of their clansmen remained loyal.[2] This put Ali
Ali
in a weak position even amongst his own supporters.[114] The arbitration resulted in the dissolution of ‘Ali's coalition, and some have opined that this was Muawiyah's intention.[2][117] The most vociferous opponents in Ali's camp were the very same people who had forced Ali
Ali
into the ceasefire. They broke away from Ali's force, rallying under the slogan "arbitration belongs to God
God
alone." This group came to be known as the Kharijites
Kharijites
("those who leave"). They considered everyone to be their enemy. In 659 Ali's forces and the Kharijites
Kharijites
met in the Battle of Nahrawan.[113][113][118][119] The Qurra then became known as the Kharijites. The Kharijites
Kharijites
then started killing Ali's supporters and other Muslims. They considered anyone who was not part of their group as an unbeliever.[119] Although ‘ Ali
Ali
won the battle by a huge margin, the constant conflict had begun to affect his standing.[113] While dealing with the Iraqis, ‘ Ali
Ali
found it hard to build a disciplined army and effective state institutions. He also spent a lot of time fighting the Kharijites. As a result, ‘ Ali
Ali
found it hard to expand the state on its eastern front.[120] At about the same time, unrest was brewing in Egypt. The governor of Egypt, Qais, was recalled, and Ali
Ali
had him replaced with Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abi Bakr (the brother of Aisha and the son of Islam's first caliph Abu Bakr). Muawiyah allowed 'Amr ibn al-'As
'Amr ibn al-'As
to conquer Egypt
Egypt
and 'Amr did so successfully.[121] Amr had first taken Egypt
Egypt
eighteen years earlier from the Romans but had been dismissed by Uthman.[121] Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abi Bakr had no popular support in Egypt
Egypt
and managed to get together 2000 men but they dispersed without a fight.[121] In the following years, Muawiyah's army occupied many cities of Iraq, which Ali's governors could not prevent, and people did not support him to fight with them. Muawiyah overpowered Egypt, Hijaz, Yemen
Yemen
and other areas.[122] In the last year of Ali's caliphate, the mood in Kufa
Kufa
and Basra changed in his favour as the people became disillusioned with Muawiyah's reign and policies. However, the people's attitude toward Ali
Ali
differed deeply. Just a small minority of them believed that Ali
Ali
was the best Muslim after Muhammad
Muhammad
and the only one entitled to rule them, while the majority supported him due to their distrust and opposition to Muawiyah.[123]

A grand view of Ali
Ali
Mausoleum, Najaf, Iraq

Policies[edit] Anti-corruption campaign and egalitarian policies[edit] Ali
Ali
is said to have vowed and forewarned of an uncompromising campaign against financial corruption and unfair privileges in the ranks of the caliphate after he was pressed by the public to succeed the caliphate following the death of Uthman. Shias argue that his determination in pushing these reforms despite their unpopularity with the elite have been the cause of hostilities from the rich and the privileged former companions of the Prophet.[124][125] In a famous letter to one of his governors, Malik Ashtar, he articulates his pro-poor anti-elitist approach:

Remember that displeasure and disapproval of common men, have-nots and depressed persons more than overbalances the approval of important persons and displeasure of a few big will be excused by the Lord if the general public and masses of your subjects are happy with you. The common men, the poor, apparently less important sections of your subjects are the pillars of Islam….be more friendly with them and secure their confidence and sympathy.[125]

Ali
Ali
recovered the land granted by ‘ Uthman
Uthman
and swore to recover anything that elites had acquired before his election. Ali
Ali
opposed the centralisation of capital control over provincial revenues, favouring an equal distribution of taxes and booty amongst the Muslim citizens; he distributed the entire revenue of the treasury among them. ‘Ali refrained from nepotism, including with his brother ‘Aqeel ibn Abu Talib. This was an indication to Muslims of his policy of offering equality to Muslims who served Islam
Islam
in its early years and to the Muslims who played a role in the later conquests.[2][126] Forming coalitions[edit] Ali
Ali
succeeded in forming a broad coalition, especially after the Battle of the Camel. His policy of equal distribution of taxes and booty gained the support of Muhammad's companions, especially the Ansar who were subordinated by the Quraysh
Quraysh
leadership after Muhammad, the traditional tribal leaders, and the Qurra or Qur’anic reciters that sought pious Islamic leadership. The successful formation of this diverse coalition seems to be due to Ali's charismatic character.[2][127] This diverse coalition became known as Shi'a
Shi'a
Ali, meaning "party" or "faction of Ali". However, according to Shia, as well as non- Shia
Shia
reports, the majority of those who supported ‘Ali after his election as caliph, were shia politically, not religiously. Although at this time there were many who were counted as political Shia, few of them believed Ali's religious leadership.[128] Governance doctrine[edit] His policies and ideas of governing are manifested in the letter he sent to Malik al-Ashtar
Malik al-Ashtar
after appointing him governor of Egypt. This instruction, which has historically been viewed as the ideal constitution for Islamic governance alongside the Constitution of Medina, involved detailed description of duties and rights of the ruler and various functionaries of the state and the main classes of society at that time.[129][130] Ali
Ali
wrote in his instructions to Malik al-Ashtar:

Infuse your heart with mercy, love and kindness for your subjects. Be not in face of them a voracious animal, counting them as easy prey, for they are of two kinds: either they are your brothers in faith or in creation. Error catches them unaware, deficiencies overcome them, (evil deeds) are committed by them intentionally and by mistake. So grant them your pardon and your forgiveness to the same extent that you hope God
God
will grant you His pardon and His forgiveness. For you are above them, and he who appointed you is above you, and God
God
is above him who appointed you. God
God
has sought from you the fulfillment of their requirements and He is trying you with them.[131]

Since the majority of ‘Ali's subjects were nomads and peasants, he was concerned with agriculture. He instructed to Malik to give more attention to development of the land than to the collection of the tax, because tax can only be obtained by the development of the land and whoever demands tax without developing the land ruins the country and destroys the people.[132] Assassination in Kufa[edit] Main article: Assassination of Ali

Martyrdom of Ali
Ali
ibn AbI Talib by Yousef Abdinejad

Shrine
Shrine
of Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib

On 19 Ramadan
Ramadan
AH 40, which would correspond to 27 January 661, while praying in the Great Mosque
Mosque
of Kufa, Ali
Ali
was attacked by the Kharijite Abd-al-Rahman ibn Muljam. He was wounded by ibn Muljam's poison-coated sword while prostrating in the Fajr prayer.[133] ‘ Ali
Ali
ordered his sons not to attack the Kharijites, instead stipulating that if he survived, ibn Muljam would be pardoned whereas if he died, ibn Muljam should be given only one equal hit (regardless of whether or not he died from the hit).[134] ‘ Ali
Ali
died two days later on 29 January 661 (21 Ramadan
Ramadan
AH 40).[2][133] Al-Hasan fulfilled Qisas
Qisas
and gave equal punishment to ibn Muljam upon Ali's death.[123] Aftermath[edit] See also: Umayyad dynasty
Umayyad dynasty
and Umayyad tradition of cursing Ali

Inside view of Imām Alī Shrine
Shrine
(before the renovations in 2008)

After Ali's death, Kufi Muslims pledged allegiance to his eldest son Hasan without dispute, as Ali
Ali
on many occasions had declared that just People of the House of Muhammad
Muhammad
were entitled to rule the Muslim community.[135] At this time, Muawiyah held both the Levant
Levant
and Egypt and, as commander of the largest force in the Muslim Empire, had declared himself caliph and marched his army into Iraq, the seat of Hasan's caliphate. War ensued during which Muawiyah gradually subverted the generals and commanders of Hasan's army with large sums of money and deceiving promises until the army rebelled against him. Finally, Hasan was forced to make peace and to yield the caliphate to Muawiyah. In this way Muawiyah captured the Islamic caliphate and tuned it to a secular kingdom (Sultanate). Umayyad caliphate
Umayyad caliphate
later became a centralised monarchy by Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan.[136] Umayyads placed the severest pressure upon Ali's family and his Shia, in every way possible. Regular public cursing of Imam
Imam
Ali
Ali
in the congregational prayers remained a vital institution which was not abolished until 60 years later by Umar
Umar
ibn Abd al-Aziz. [94] Madelung writes:

Umayyad highhandedness, misrule and repression were gradually to turn the minority of Ali's admirers into a majority. In the memory of later generations Ali
Ali
became the ideal Commander of the Faithful. In face of the fake Umayyad claim to legitimate sovereignty in Islam
Islam
as God's Vice-regents on earth, and in view of Umayyad treachery, arbitrary and divisive government, and vindictive retribution, they came to appreciate his [Ali's] honesty, his unbending devotion to the reign of Islam, his deep personal loyalties, his equal treatment of all his supporters, and his generosity in forgiving his defeated enemies.[137]

Burial in Najaf[edit]

Ali's shrine in Arbaeen
Arbaeen
2015.

Rawze-e-Sharif, the Blue Mosque, in Mazari Sharif, Afghanistan – where a minority of Muslims believe Ali
Ali
ibn Abu Talib is buried.

According to Al-Shaykh Al-Mufid, Ali
Ali
did not want his grave to be desecrated by his enemies and consequently asked his friends and family to bury him secretly. This secret gravesite was revealed later during the Abbasid
Abbasid
caliphate by Imam
Imam
Ja'far al-Sadiq, his descendant and the sixth Shia
Shia
Imam.[138] Most Shias accept that Ali
Ali
is buried at the Tomb of Imam
Imam
Ali
Ali
in the Imam Ali Mosque
Imam Ali Mosque
at what is now the city of Najaf, which grew around the mosque and shrine called Masjid Ali.[139][140] However another story, usually maintained by some Afghans, notes that his body was taken and buried in the Afghan city of Mazar-E-Sharif
Mazar-E-Sharif
at the famous Blue Mosque
Mosque
or Rawze-e-Sharif.[141] Virtues[edit] See also: Nahj al-Balagha Ali
Ali
is respected not only as a warrior and leader, but as a writer and religious authority. A numerous range of disciplines from theology and exegesis to calligraphy and numerology, from law and mysticism to Arabic grammar
Arabic grammar
and rhetoric are regarded as having been first adumbrated by Ali.[140] Prophetic knowledge[edit] According to a hadith which is narrated by Shia
Shia
and Sufis, Muhammad told about him "I'm the city of knowledge and Ali
Ali
is its gate ..."[140][142][143] Muslims regard Ali
Ali
as a major authority on Islam. According to the Shia, Ali
Ali
himself gave this testimony:

Not a single verse of the Quran
Quran
descended upon (was revealed to) the Messenger of God
God
which he did not proceed to dictate to me and make me recite. I would write it with my own hand, and he would instruct me as to its tafsir (the literal explanation) and the ta'wil (the spiritual exegesis), the nasikh (the verse which abrogates) and the mansukh (the abrogated verse), the muhkam and the mutashabih (the fixed and the ambiguous), the particular and the general ...[144]

Theosophy[edit] According to Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Ali
Ali
is credited with having established Islamic theology and his quotations contain the first rational proofs among Muslims of the Unity of God.[145] Ibn Abi al-Hadid has quoted

As for theosophy and dealing with matters of divinity, it was not an Arab art. Nothing of the sort had been circulated among their distinguished figures or those of lower ranks. This art was the exclusive preserve of Greece, whose sages were its only expounders. The first one among Arabs to deal with it was Ali.[146]

In later Islamic philosophy, especially in the teachings of Mulla Sadra and his followers, like Allameh Tabatabaei, Ali's sayings and sermons were increasingly regarded as central sources of metaphysical knowledge, or divine philosophy. Members of Sadra's school regard Ali as the supreme metaphysician of Islam.[1] According to Henry Corbin, the Nahj al-Balagha
Nahj al-Balagha
may be regarded as one of the most important sources of doctrines professed by Shia
Shia
thinkers, especially after 1500. Its influence can be sensed in the logical co-ordination of terms, the deduction of correct conclusions, and the creation of certain technical terms in Arabic which entered the literary and philosophical language independently of the translation into Arabic of Greek texts.[147] In addition, some hidden or occult sciences such as jafr, Islamic numerology, and the science of the symbolic significance of the letters of the Arabic alphabet, are said to have been established by Ali[1] through his having studied the texts of al- Jafr
Jafr
and al-Jamia. Eloquence[edit] Ali
Ali
was also a great scholar of Arabic literature
Arabic literature
and pioneered in the field of Arabic grammar
Arabic grammar
and rhetoric. Numerous short sayings of Ali have become part of general Islamic culture
Islamic culture
and are quoted as aphorisms and proverbs in daily life. They have also become the basis of literary works or have been integrated into poetic verse in many languages. Already in the 8th century, literary authorities such as 'Abd al-Hamid ibn Yahya al-'Amiri pointed to the unparalleled eloquence of Ali's sermons and sayings, as did al-Jahiz in the following century.[1] Even staffs in the Divan
Divan
of Umayyad recited Ali's sermons to improve their eloquence.[148] The most famous selection of Ali's utterances and writings has been gathered in a book called Nahj al-Balagha
Nahj al-Balagha
(Peak of Eloquence) by a 10th-century Shia scholar, Al- Sharif al-Radi, who selected them for their singular rhetorical beauty.[149] The sermons without dots and alephs[edit] Of note among sermons quoted in the book, is the undotted sermon as well as the sermon without Aleph.[150] According to narrations, some companions of Muhammad
Muhammad
had gathered somewhere discussing the role of letters in speaking. They concluded that Aleph
Aleph
had the greatest contribution in speaking and that dotted letters were also important. Meanwhile, Ali
Ali
read two long impromptu sermons, one without using Aleph
Aleph
letter and the other without dotted letters, containing deep and eloquent concepts, according to Langroudi, a Shia
Shia
author.[151] George Jordac, a Christian
Christian
author, said that sermons without Aleph
Aleph
and dot had to be regarded as literary masterpiece.[152] Compassion[edit] Ali
Ali
is revered for the deep sympathy and support he shown for the poor and orphans, and the egalitarian policies he pursued during his caliphate with aim of achieving social justice. He is quoted as saying:

If God
God
grants wealth and prosperity to any person, he should show kindness to his deserving kith and kin, should provide for the poor, should come the assistance of those are oppressed with calamities, misfortunes and reverses, should help the poor and have-nots and should assist honest people to liquidate their loans...[125]

Works[edit]

One of the first copies of the Qur’an
Qur’an
ever transcribed in the Islamic world by ‘ Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib.

The compilation of sermons, lectures and quotations attributed to Ali are compiled in the form of several books.

Nahj al-Balagha
Nahj al-Balagha
(Peak of Eloquence) contains eloquent sermons, letters and quotations attributed to Ali
Ali
which is compiled by ash-Sharif ar-Radi (d. 1015). Reza Shah Kazemi states: "Despite ongoing questions about the authenticity of the text, recent scholarship suggests that most of the material in it can in fact be attributed to Ali" and in support of this he makes reference to an article by Mokhtar Jebli.[140] This book has a prominent position in Arabic literature. It is also considered an important intellectual, political and religious work in Islam.[1][153][154] The Urdu
Urdu
translator of Nahjul Balagha Syed Zeeshan Haider Jawadi[155] has compiled a list of 61 books and name of their writers from AH 204 to 488, and provided the sources in which compilation work of Sharif Razi can be traced out. Masadir Nahj al-Balagha
Nahj al-Balagha
wa asaniduh, written by al- Sayyid
Sayyid
'Abd al-Zahra' al-Husayni al-Khatib, introduces some of these sources.[156] Also, Nahj al-sa'adah fi mustadrak Nahj al-balaghah by Muhammad
Muhammad
Baqir al-Mahmudi represents all of Ali's extant speeches, sermons, decrees, epistles, prayers, and sayings that have been collected. It includes the Nahj al-balagha and other discourses which were not incorporated by ash- Sharif ar-Radi or were not available to him. Apparently, except for some of the aphorisms, the original sources of all the contents of the Nahj al-balagha have been determined.[153] There are several Comments on the Peak of Eloquence by Sunnis and Shias such as Comments of Ibn Abi al-Hadid and comments of Muhammad
Muhammad
Abduh. Supplications (Du'a), translated by William Chittick.[157] Ghurar al-Hikam wa Durar al-Kalim
Ghurar al-Hikam wa Durar al-Kalim
(Exalted aphorisms and Pearls of Speech) which is compiled by Abd al-Wahid Amidi (d. 1116) consists of over ten thousand short sayings of Ali.[158] Divan-i Ali
Ali
ibn Abu Talib (poems which are attributed to Ali
Ali
ibn Abu Talib).[2]

Descendants[edit] Main articles: Descendants of Ali ibn Abi Talib
Descendants of Ali ibn Abi Talib
and Alavi (surname) Ali
Ali
initially married Fatimah, who was his most beloved wife. After she died, he got married again. He had four children with Fatimah, Hasan ibn Ali, Husayn ibn Ali, Zaynab bint Ali[1] and Umm Kulthum bint Ali. His other well-known sons were al-Abbas ibn Ali, born to Fatima binte Hizam (Um al-Banin), and Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Hanafiyyah.[159] Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Hanafiyyah was Ali's son from another wife from Hanifa clan of central Arabia
Arabia
named Khawlah bint Ja'far. After Fatima's death, Ali
Ali
married Khawla bint Ja'far of the Bani Hanifa tribe. Hasan, born in 625, was the second Shia
Shia
Imam
Imam
and he also occupied the outward function of caliph for about six months. In the year AH 50 he was poisoned and killed by a member of his own household who, as has been accounted by historians, had been motivated by Mu'awiyah.[160] Husayn, born in 626, was the third Shia
Shia
Imam. He lived under severe conditions of suppression and persecution by Mu'awiyah. On the tenth day of Muharram, of the year 680, he lined up before the army of the caliph with his small band of followers and nearly all of them were killed in the Battle of Karbala. The anniversary of his death is called the Day of Ashura
Day of Ashura
and it is a day of mourning and religious observance for Shia
Shia
Muslims.[161] In this battle some of Ali's other sons were killed. Al-Tabari has mentioned their names in his history: Al-Abbas ibn Ali, the holder of Husayn's standard, Ja'far, Abdallah and Uthman, the four sons born to Fatima binte Hizam; Muhammad
Muhammad
and Abu Bakr. The death of the last one is doubtful.[162] Some historians have added the names of Ali's other sons who were killed at Karbala, including Ibrahim, Umar
Umar
and Abdallah ibn al-Asqar.[163][164] His daughter Zaynab—who was in Karbala—was captured by Yazid's army and later played a great role in revealing what happened to Husayn and his followers.[165] Ali's descendants by Fatimah
Fatimah
are known as sharifs, sayeds or sayyids. These are honorific titles in Arabic, sharif meaning 'noble' and sayed or sayyid meaning 'lord' or 'sir'. As Muhammad's only descendants, they are respected by both Sunni
Sunni
and Shia.[1] Views[edit] Muslim views[edit] Main article: Ali
Ali
in Muslim culture Except for Muhammad, there is no one in Islamic history about whom as much has been written in Islamic languages as Ali.[1] In Muslim culture, Ali
Ali
is respected for his courage, knowledge, belief, honesty, unbending devotion to Islam, deep loyalty to Muhammad, equal treatment of all Muslims and generosity in forgiving his defeated enemies, and therefore is central to mystical traditions in Islam
Islam
such as Sufism. Ali
Ali
retains his stature as an authority on Quranic exegesis, Islamic jurisprudence and religious thought.[137] Ali
Ali
holds a high position in almost all Sufi orders which trace their lineage through him to Muhammad. Ali's influence has been important throughout Islamic history.[1] Sunni
Sunni
and Shia
Shia
scholars agree that the verse of Wilayah was narrated in honour of Ali, but there are differing interpretations of wilayah and the Imamate.[166] The Sunni
Sunni
scholars believe that the verse is about Ali
Ali
but does not recognise him as an Imam
Imam
while, in the Shia
Shia
Muslim view, Ali
Ali
had been chosen by God
God
as successor of Muhammad.[167] Ali
Ali
in the Quran[edit] Main article: Ali
Ali
in the Quran There are many verses interpreted by Shi'a
Shi'a
scholars as referring to Ali
Ali
or other Shi'a
Shi'a
Imams. Responding to this question that why the names of the Imams are not mentioned in Quran
Quran
expressly Muhammad al-Baqir answers: " Allah
Allah
revealed Salat
Salat
to his Prophet but never said of three or four Rakats, revealed Zakat
Zakat
but did not mention to its details, revealed Hajj
Hajj
but did not count its Tawaf
Tawaf
and the Prophet interpreted their details. Allah
Allah
revealed this verse and Prophet said this verse is about Ali, Hasan, Husayn and other the twelve Imams."[168][169] According to Ali
Ali
one quarter of Qur’anic verses are stating the station of Imams. Momen has listed many of these verses in his An Introduction to Shi'i Islam.[170][171] However, there are few verses that some Sunni
Sunni
commentators interpret as referring to Ali, among which are The verse of Wilayah (Quran, 5:55) that Sunni
Sunni
and Shiite scholars [b] believe refers to the incident where Ali
Ali
gave his ring to a beggar who asked for alms while performing ritual prayers in the mosque.[166][172] The verse of Mawadda (Quran, 42:23) is another verse which Shiite scholar along with Sunni
Sunni
ones like Al-Baydawi and Al-Zamakhshari and Fakhr ad-Din ar-Razi
Fakhr ad-Din ar-Razi
believe that the phrase Kinship refers to Ali, Fatimah
Fatimah
and their sons, Hasan and Husayn.[173][174][175][176] The verse of purification
The verse of purification
(Quran, 33:33) is also among the verses both Sunni
Sunni
and Shiite conjoined the name of Ali
Ali
with it along with some other names.[c][170][174][177][178][179][180] The aforementioned verse of Mubahala, and also the verse 2:269 in which Ali
Ali
is honoured with unique wisdom by both Shiite and Sunni
Sunni
commentators are other verses of this kind.[170][174][181] Shi'ite[edit] Main article: Shia
Shia
view of Ali

Zulfiqar
Zulfiqar
with, and without the shield. The Fatimid depiction of Ali's sword as carved on the Gates of Old Islamic Cairo, namely Bab al-Nasr

Ali's Sword and shield carved on Bab al-Nasr gate wall, Cairo

The Shia
Shia
regard Ali
Ali
as the most important figure after Muhammad[182] and he represents a complex, legendary figure in their memory. He is a paragon of virtues, such as courage, magnanimity, sincerity, straightforwardness, eloquence and profound knowledge. Ali
Ali
was righteous but suffered injustice, he was authoritative but also compassionate and humble, vigorous but also patient, learned but also man of labor.[183] According to Shia, Muhammad
Muhammad
suggested on various occasions during his lifetime that Ali
Ali
should be the leader of Muslims after his death. This is supported by numerous hadiths which have been narrated by Shias, including Hadith
Hadith
of the pond of Khumm, Hadith
Hadith
of the two weighty things, Hadith
Hadith
of the pen and paper, Hadith
Hadith
of the Cloak, Hadith
Hadith
of position, Hadith
Hadith
of the invitation of the close families, and Hadith
Hadith
of the Twelve Successors. According to this view, Ali
Ali
as the successor of Muhammad
Muhammad
not only ruled over the community in justice, but also interpreted the Sharia Law and its esoteric meaning. Hence he was regarded as being free from error and sin (infallible), and appointed by God
God
by divine decree (nass) through Muhammad.[184] It is believed in Twelver
Twelver
and Ismaili Shīa Islam
Islam
that 'aql, divine wisdom, was the source of the souls of the Prophets and Imams and gave them esoteric knowledge called ḥikmah and that their sufferings were a means of divine grace to their devotees.[1][185][186] Although the Imam
Imam
was not the recipient of a divine revelation, he had a close relationship with God, through which God
God
guides him, and the Imam
Imam
in turn guides the people. His words and deeds are a guide and model for the community to follow; as a result it is a source of sharia law.[184][187][188] Shia
Shia
pilgrims usually go to Mashad Ali
Mashad Ali
in Najaf
Najaf
for Ziyarat, pray there and read " Ziyarat
Ziyarat
Amin Allah"[189] or other Ziyaratnamehs.[190] Under the Safavid Empire, his grave became the focus of much devoted attention, exemplified in the pilgrimage made by Shah Ismail I
Shah Ismail I
to Najaf
Najaf
and Karbala.[33] Many Shia
Shia
Muslims also celebrate Imam
Imam
Ali's birth anniversary (13th day of Rajab) as Father's Day.[191] The Gregorian date for this changes every year:

Year Gregorian date

2018 31 March [192]

2019 20 March

Sunni[edit] Main article: Sunni
Sunni
view of Ali Sunnis view Ali
Ali
as the fourth caliph. Ali
Ali
is also known as one of the greatest warrior champions of Islam
Islam
Examples include taking on the Quraish champion at the Battle of the Trench
Battle of the Trench
when nobody else dared. After multiple failed attempts of breaking the fort in the Battle of Khaybar, Ali
Ali
was summoned, miraculously healed and conquered the fort.[193] Sufi[edit] Almost all Sufi orders trace their lineage to Muhammad
Muhammad
through Ali, an exception being Naqshbandi, who go through Abu Bakr. Even in this order, there is Ja'far al-Sadiq, the great great grandson of Ali. Sufis believe that Ali
Ali
inherited from Muhammad
Muhammad
the saintly power wilayah that makes the spiritual journey to God
God
possible.[1] Eminent Sufis such as Ali Hujwiri claim that the tradition began with Ali
Ali
and Junayd of Baghdad
Junayd of Baghdad
regarded Ali
Ali
as the Sheikh
Sheikh
of the principles and practices of Sufism.[194] Sufis recite Manqabat Ali
Ali
in the praise of Ali. Titles[edit] ‘ Ali
Ali
is known by various titles, some given due to his personal qualities and others due to events in his life:[1]

Al- Murtaza (Arabic: الـمُـرتـضى‎, "The Chosen One") Amir al-Mu’minin (Arabic: أَمـيـر الـمُـؤمـنـيـن‎, " Commander of the Faithful Ones") Bab-e Madinatul-‘Ilm (Arabic: بَـابِ مَـديـنـةُ الـعِـلـم‎, "Door of City of the Knowledge") Abu Turab
Abu Turab
(Arabic: أَبـو تُـراب‎, "Father of the Soil") Asadullah (Arabic: أَسَـدُ الله‎, " Lion
Lion
of God") Haydar (Arabic: حَـيـدر‎, "Braveheart" or "Lion") Walad al-Ka'ba (Arabic: ولد الکعبه‎, "The baby of Ka'ba")[195]

As a "deity"[edit] Main article: Ghulat Ali
Ali
is recorded in some traditions as having forbidden those who sought to worship him in his own lifetime.[196] Alawites[edit] Some groups such as the Alawites
Alawites
(Arabic: علوية Alawīyyah) are claimed to believe that Ali
Ali
was God
God
incarnate. They are described as ghulat (Arabic: غُلاة‎, "exaggerators") by the majority of Islamic scholars. These groups have, according to traditionalist Muslims, left Islam
Islam
due to their exaggeration of a human being's praiseworthy traits.[196] Ali-Illahism[edit] In Ali-Illahism, a syncretic religion centres on the belief that there have been successive incarnations of their Deity
Deity
throughout history, and reserves particular reverence for ‘Ali, the son-in-law of Muhammad, who is considered one such incarnation.[197] Druze[edit] The Druze, a syncretic religion, believe that God
God
was incarnated in human beings, especially Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah
Allah
a descendant of Ali. Historiography[edit] See also: Historiography of early Islam The primary sources for scholarship on the life of Ali
Ali
are the Qur’an
Qur’an
and ahadith, as well as other texts of early Islamic history. The extensive secondary sources include, in addition to works by Sunni and Shī'a Muslims, writings by Christian
Christian
Arabs, Hindus, and other non-Muslims from the Middle East and Asia and a few works by modern western scholars. However, many of the early Islamic sources are coloured to some extent by a positive or negative bias towards Ali.[1] There had been a common tendency among the earlier western scholars against these narrations and reports gathered in later periods due to their tendency towards later Sunni
Sunni
and Shī'a partisan positions; such scholars regarding them as later fabrications. This leads them to regard certain reported events as inauthentic or irrelevant. Leone Caetani considered the attribution of historical reports to Ibn Abbas and Aisha as mostly fictitious while proffering accounts reported without isnad by the early compilers of history like Ibn Ishaq. Wilferd Madelung
Wilferd Madelung
has rejected the stance of indiscriminately dismissing everything not included in "early sources" and in this approach tendentiousness alone is no evidence for late origin. According to him, Caetani's approach is inconsistent. Madelung and some later historians do not reject the narrations which have been compiled in later periods and try to judge them in the context of history and on the basis of their compatibility with the events and figures.[198] Until the rise of the Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliphate, few books were written and most of the reports had been oral. The most notable work previous to this period is The Book
Book
of Sulaym ibn Qays, written by Sulaym ibn Qays, a companion of Ali
Ali
who lived before the Abbasid.[199] When paper was introduced to Muslim society, numerous monographs were written between 750 and 950. According to Robinson, at least twenty-one separate monographs have been composed on the Battle of Siffin. Abi Mikhnaf is one of the most renowned writers of this period who tried to gather all of the reports. 9th and 10th century historians collected, selected and arranged the available narrations. However, most of these monographs do not exist any more except for a few which have been used in later works such as History of the Prophets and Kings by Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Jarir al-Tabari (d.923).[200] Shia
Shia
of Iraq
Iraq
actively participated in writing monographs but most of those works have been lost. On the other hand, in the 8th and 9th century Ali's descendants such as Muhammad
Muhammad
al Baqir and Jafar as Sadiq narrated his quotations and reports which have been gathered in Shia hadith books. The later Shia
Shia
works written after the 10th century are about biographies of The Fourteen Infallibles
The Fourteen Infallibles
and Twelve Imams. The earliest surviving work and one of the most important works in this field is Kitab al-Irshad by Shaykh Mufid
Shaykh Mufid
(d. 1022). The author has dedicated the first part of his book to a detailed account of Ali. There are also some books known as Manāqib which describe Ali's character from a religious viewpoint. Such works also constitute a kind of historiography.[201] See also[edit]

Book: Sahabah

Islam
Islam
portal Shia
Shia
Islam
Islam
portal

Ahl al-Bayt Alevi Al-Farooq (title) Ali
Ali
in the Quran Ali
Ali
the Arabian lion Birthplace of Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib Hashemites
Hashemites
Royal Family of Jordan Iʿtikāf Idris I
Idris I
The First King of Morocco Founded 788 List of expeditions of Ali
Ali
during Muhammad's era List of Muslim reports Quraysh Talut Wali Zulfiqar Ali
Ali
in Muslim culture

Footnotes[edit]

^ Full name: Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib (Arabic: علي ابن أبي طالب‎, translit. ʿAlī bin Abī Ṭālib), Arabic pronunciation: [ʕaliː bɪn ʔabiː t̪ˤaːlɪb]. ^ See at-Tabari: at-Tarikh, vol.6, p.186; as-Suyuti: ad-Durru 'lmanthur, vol.2, pp. 293–4; ar-Razi: at-Tafsiru 'l Kabir, vol.12, p.26: az-Zamakhshari: at- Tafsir
Tafsir
al-Kashshaf, vol.1, p.469; al-Jassas:Ahkamu 'l-Quran, vol.2, pp. 542–3; al-khazin: at-Tafsir, vol.2, p.68 Imamate: The vicegerency of the Holy Prophet By Sayyid Saeed Akhtar Rizv p24 ^ see al-Bahrani, Ghayat al-Marum, p. 126:al-Suyuti, al-Durr al-Manthur, Vol. V, p.199; Ahmad ibn Hanbal, al Musnad, Vol. I, p.331; Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, al- Tafsir
Tafsir
al-Kabir, Vol. I, p.783; Ibn Hajar, al-Sawa'iq p.85

Notes[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. "Ali". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Archived from the original on October 18, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-12.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y "Alī ibn Abu Talib". Encyclopædia Iranica. Archived from the original on April 29, 2011. Retrieved December 16, 2010.  ^ a b c Al-Islam. "The Life of the Commander of the Faithful Ali
Ali
Ibn Abu Talib (as)". Retrieved 6 December 2015.  ^ Rahim, Husein A.; Sheriff, Ali
Ali
Mohamedjaffer (1993). Guidance From Qur'an. Khoja Shia
Shia
Ithna-asheri Supreme Council. Retrieved 11 April 2017.  ^ Shad, Abdur Rahman. Ali
Ali
Al-Murtaza. Kazi Publications; 1978 1st Edition. Mohiyuddin, Dr. Ata. Ali
Ali
The Superman. Sh. Muhammad
Muhammad
Ashraf Publishers; 1980 1st Edition. Lalljee, Yousuf N. Ali
Ali
The Magnificent. Ansariyan Publications; January 1981 1st Edition. ^ Sallaabee, Ali
Ali
Muhammad. Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib (volume 2). p. 621. Retrieved 15 December 2015.  ^ "Ali" Archived 6 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. ^ Biographies of the Prophet's companions and their successors, Ṭabarī, translated by Ella Landau-Tasseron, pp. 37–40, Vol:XXXIX. ^ Sallabi, Dr Ali
Ali
M (2011). Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib (volume 1). pp. 52–53.  ^ a b Sahih Muslim, Book
Book
21, Hadith
Hadith
57. ^ Kelen 2001, p. 29. ^ Watt 1953, p. xii. ^ The First Muslims www.al-islam.org Retrieved 23 Nov 2017 ^ Razwy, Sayed Ali
Ali
Asgher. A Restatement of the History of Islam
Islam
& Muslims. p. 72.  ^ a b c Ashraf 2005, p. 119 and 120 ^ a b c Madelung 1997, pp. 141–145 ^ Lapidus 2002, p. 47. ^ Holt, Lambton & Lewis 1970, pp. 70–72. ^ Tabatabaei 1979, pp. 50–75 and 192. ^ a b c Gleave, Robert M. " Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib". Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE. Brill Online. Archived from the original on April 2, 2013. Retrieved March 29, 2013.  ^ a b Dakake 2008, pp. 34–39. ^ a b Veccia Vaglieri, Laura. "G̲h̲adīr K̲h̲umm". Encyclopædia of Islam, Second Edition. Brill Online. Archived from the original on March 31, 2013. Retrieved March 28, 2013.  ^ Razwy, Sayed Ali
Ali
Asgher. A Restatement of the History of Islam
Islam
& Muslims. pp. 35–36.  ^ Glubb, Sir John (1970). The Life and Times of Mohammed.  ^ Ashraf 2005, p. 5. ^ Illustrated Dictionary of the Muslim World. Marshall Cavendish Reference. 2011. ISBN 9780761479291. Retrieved 11 April 2017.  ^ Faramarz Haj, Manouchehri; Matthew, Melvin-Koushki; Shah-Kazemi, Reza; Bahramian, Ali; Pakatchi, Ahmad; Muhammad
Muhammad
Isa, Waley; Daryoush, Mohammad; Tareh, Masoud; Brown, Keven; Jozi, Mohammad Reza; Sajjadi, Sadeq; Gholami, Rahim; Bulookbashi, Ali
Ali
A.; Negahban, Farzin; Alizadeh, Mahbanoo; Gholami, Yadollah. "ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib". Encyclopaedia Islamica. Brill. Archived from the original on June 30, 2016.  ^ Ashraf 2005, p. 6 and 7. ^ Razwy, Sayed Ali
Ali
Asgher. A Restatement of the History of Islam
Islam
& Muslims. p. 43.  ^ Razwy, Sayed Ali
Ali
Asgher. A Restatement of the History of Islam
Islam
& Muslims. p. 52.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ a b c d e f g Tabatabaei 1979, p. 191. ^ Ashraf 2005, p. 14. ^ a b c d e f Steigerwald, Diana. "Alī ibn Abu Talib". Encyclopaedia of Islam
Islam
and the Muslim world; vol.1. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-02-865604-5.  ^ Gleave 2015. ^ Razwy, Sayed Ali
Ali
Asgher. A Restatement of the History of Islam
Islam
& Muslims. pp. 50–52.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Pickhtall, Marmaduke (1975). Introduction to the Translation of Holy Qur’an. Lahore.  ^ Andre, Tor (1960). Mohammed, the Man and his Faith.  ^ "Ali". Imamali. Archived from the original on March 20, 2015. Retrieved March 20, 2015.  ^ Quran 26:214. ^ Razwy, Sayed Ali
Ali
Asgher. A Restatement of the History of Islam
Islam
& Muslims. p. 54.  ^ Razwy, Sayed Ali
Ali
Asgher. A Restatement of the History of Islam
Islam
& Muslims. pp. 54–55.  ^ Razwy, Sayed Ali
Ali
Asgher. A Restatement of the History of Islam
Islam
& Muslims. p. 55.  ^ Irving, Washington. The Life of Mohammed.  ^ Burton, Sir Richard (1898). (The Jew the Gypsy and El Islam. San Francisco.  ^ Ashraf 2005, pp. 16–26. ^ Ashraf 2005, p. 28 and 29. ^ Quran 2:207. ^ Tabatabaei, Sayyid
Sayyid
Mohammad Hosayn. " Tafsir
Tafsir
al-Mizan, Volume 3: Surah Baqarah, Verses 204–207". almizan.org. Archived from the original on June 17, 2009. Retrieved November 25, 2010.  ^ Ashraf 2005, pp. 30–32. ^ See:

Momen 1985, p. 13 and 14 Ashraf 2005, pp. 28–118.

^ Mehboob Desia. Islam
Islam
and non-violence. Gyan Book
Book
Pvt Ltd. p. 150. ISBN 81-212-1026-7.  ^ Singh 2003, p. 175. ^ Quran 33:33. ^ Madelung 1997, p. 14 and 15. ^ See:

Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:57:89 Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:57:96 Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:57:89 Sahih al-Bukhari, 9:88:220 Sahih Muslim, 31:5915.

^ "Hasan ibn Ali". Encyclopædia Iranica. Archived from the original on January 1, 2014. Retrieved January 1, 2014.  ^ Ashraf 2005, p. 42 and 43. ^ Qazwini & Ordoni 1992, p. 140. ^ a b Vaglieri, Veccia. "Fatima". Encyclopedia of Islam. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. p. Vol. 2 844–850. ISSN 1573-3912.  ^ Razwy, Sayed Ali
Ali
Asgher. A Restatement of the History of Islam
Islam
& Muslims. pp. 136–137.  ^ See:

Ashraf 2005, p. 36 Merrick 2005, p. 247.

^ Razwy, Sayed Ali
Ali
Asgher. A Restatement of the History of Islam
Islam
& Muslims. p. 139.  ^ Khatab, Amal (May 1, 1996). Battles of Badr and Uhud. Ta-Ha Publishers. ISBN 978-1-897940-39-6.  ^ Ibn Al Atheer, In his Biography, vol 2 p 107 "لا فتی الا علي لا سيف الا ذوالفقار" ^ See:

Ashraf 2005, pp. 66–68 Zeitlin 2007, p. 134

^ Quran 3:59. ^ a b Quran 3:61. ^ See:

Sahih Muslim, Chapter of virtues of companions, section of virtues of Ali, 1980 Edition Pub. in Saudi Arabia, Arabic version, v4, p1871, the end of tradition No. 32 Sahih al-Tirmidhi, v5, p654 Madelung 1997, p. 15 and 16.

^ Tabatabaei, Sayyid
Sayyid
Mohammad Hosayn. " Tafsir
Tafsir
al-Mizan, v.6, Al Imran, verses 61–63". almizan.org. Archived from the original on June 17, 2009. Retrieved November 25, 2010.  ^ See:

Dakake 2008, pp. 34–37 Ibn Taymiyyah, Minhaaj as- Sunnah
Sunnah
7/319

"من كنت مولاه فهذا علي مولاه" ^ See also:

Dakake 2008, pp. 43–48 Tabatabaei 1979, p. 40.

^ Dakake 2008, pp. 33–35. ^ Madelung 1997, p. 253. ^ " Abar Ali
Abar Ali
mosque". IRCICAARCH data. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved May 23, 2015.  ^ Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2007). "Quran". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Archived from the original on October 16, 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-04.  ^ See:

Tabatabaei 1987, p. chapter 5 Observations on Early Quran
Quran
Manuscripts in San'a The Quran
Quran
as Text, ed. Wild, Brill, 1996 ISBN 978-90-04-10344-3

^ Lapidus 2002, p. 31 and 32 ^ See:

Holt, Lambton & Lewis 1970, p. 57 Madelung 1997, pp. 26–27, 30–43 and 356–360

^ Ibn Qutaybah, al-Imamah wa al-Siyasah, Vol. I, pp. 12–13 ^ Ibn Abi al-Hadid, Sharh; Vol. II, p.5. ^ a b Madelung 1997, p. 43 ^ See:

Madelung 1997, p. 141 and 270 Ashraf 2005, p. 99 and 100

^ Chirri 1982 ^ See:

Madelung 1997, p. 50 and 51 Qazwini & Ordoni 1992, p. 211 [Quran 27:16] [Quran 21:89] Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:53:325 Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:59:546 Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:57:60 Sahih Muslim, 19:4352

^ Sahih Al Bukhari, Volume 8, Book
Book
80, Number 722 [sahih-bukhari.com] ^ See:

Ashraf 2005, p. 100 and 101 Madelung 1997, p. 141 Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:59:546 Sahih al-Bukhari, 8:82:817 Sahih Muslim, 19:4352 Rizvi & Saeed 1988, p. 24 The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
by Edward Gibbon, section Reign of Abubeker; A.D. 632, June 7.

^ Ashraf 2005, pp. 107–110 ^ See:

Madelung 1997, pp. 70–72 Dakake 2008, p. 41 Momen 1985, p. 21

^ Madelung 1997, p. 87 and 88 ^ Madelung 1997, p. 90 ^ Madelung 1997, pp. 92–107 ^ Madelung 1997, p. 109 and 110 ^ See:

Holt, Lambton & Lewis 1970, p. 67 and 68 Madelung 1997, p. 107 and 111

^ a b Madelung 1997, p. 334 ^

Nahj Al-Balagha
Nahj Al-Balagha
Nahj Al-Balagha
Nahj Al-Balagha
Sermon 3 Archived September 23, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. For Isnad
Isnad
of this sermon and the names of scholars who narrate it see Nahjul Balagha, Mohammad Askari Jafery (1984), pp. 108–112

^ Ashraf 2005, p. 119 ^ Madelung 1997, pp. 141–143 ^ Hamidullah 1988, p. 126 ^ Madelung 1997, p. 148 and 149 ^ a b Ashraf 2005, p. 121 ^ Nahj al Balagha Sermon 72 Archived May 7, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Medieval Islamic Civilization".  ^ See:

Lapidus (2002), p.47 Holt (1977a), p. 70–72 Tabatabaei (1979), p. 50–53 Nahj Al-Balagha
Nahj Al-Balagha
Sermons 8, 31, 171, 173, Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.

^ See:

Madelung 1997, p. 147 and 148 Lewis 1991, p. 214

^ Lewis 1991, p. 214 ^ See:

Lapidus 2002, p. 47 Holt, Lambton & Lewis 1970, p. 72 Tabatabaei 1979, p. 57

^ See:

Lapidus 2002, p. 47 Holt, Lambton & Lewis 1970, pp. 70–72 Tabatabaei 1979, pp. 50–53

^ "'Abd Allah
Allah
ibn al-'Abbas". Encyclopædia Britannica. I: A-Ak - Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, Illinois: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2010. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.  ^ a b Iraq
Iraq
a Complicated State: Iraq's Freedom War By Karim M. S. Al-Zubaidi, p. 32 ^ a b See:

Lapidus 2002, p. 47 Holt, Lambton & Lewis 1970, pp. 70–72 Tabatabaei 1979, p. 53 and 54

^ Mikaberidze, Alexander. Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia. p. 836.  ^ "Ground Warfare".  ^ a b c d A Chronology of Islamic History 570–1000 CE By H U Rahman Page 59 ^ a b A Chronology of Islamic History 570–1000 CE By H U Rahman Page 60 ^ Mikaberidze, Alexander (2011). Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World A Historical Encyclopedia [2 volumes] A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 836. ISBN 978-1-59884-337-8.  ^ Sandler, Stanley (2002). Ground Warfare An International Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-344-5. Retrieved 2013-04-30.  ^ See:

Madelung 1997, pp. 241–259 Lapidus 2002, p. 47 Holt, Lambton & Lewis 1970, pp. 70–72 Tabatabaei 1979, p. 53 and 54

^ Timani, Hussam S. (2008). Modern Intellectual Readings of the Kharijites. Peter Lang. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-8204-9701-3. ^ a b Timani, Hussam S. (2008). Modern Intellectual Readings of the Kharijites. Peter Lang. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-8204-9701-3.  ^ A Chronology of Islamic History 570–1000 By H. U. Rahman ^ a b c A Chronology of Islamic History 570–1000 By H. U. Rahman Page 62 ^ Madelung 1997, pp. 267–269 and 293–307 ^ a b Madelung 1997, p. 309 ^ "Politics in two Schools". Al-Islam.org. Retrieved 2017-04-11.  ^ a b c "Hazrat Ali
Ali
(A.S.): His Poor Subjects and Pro-Poor Government Imam
Imam
Reza (A.S.) Network". www.imamreza.net. Archived from the original on April 12, 2017. Retrieved April 11, 2017.  ^ See:

Lapidus 2002, p. 46 Madelung 1997, p. 150 and 264

^ Shaban 1971, p. 72 ^ Momen 1985, p. 63 ^ Shah-Kazemi 2007, p. 81 ^ United Nations Development Program, Arab human development report, (2002), p. 107 ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1989, p. 75 ^ Lambton 1991, p. xix and xx ^ a b Tabatabaei 1979, p. 192 ^ Kelsay 1993, p. 92 ^ Madelung 1997, p. 313 and 314 ^ Madelung 1997, pp. 319–325

Robinson 2011, pp. 208–211 Holt, Lambton & Lewis 1970, pp. 74–76

^ a b Madelung 1997, p. 309 and 310 ^ Al-Shaykh Al-Mufid
Al-Shaykh Al-Mufid
1986 ^ Redha 1999 ^ a b c d Shah-Kazemi, Reza (2006). "' Ali
Ali
ibn Abu Talib". Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-96691-7. , Pages 36 and 37 ^ "Silk Road Seattle - Balkh". Archived from the original on March 3, 2016.  ^ Momen 1985, p. 14 ^ "Spiritual Foundation". www.spiritualfoundation.net. Archived from the original on 16 February 2007.  ^ Corbin 1993, p. 46 ^ Nasr 2006, p. 120 ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1996, p. 136 ^ Corbin 1993, p. 35 ^ "حفظت سبعين خطبة من خطب الاصلع ففاضت ثم فاضت ) ويعني بالاصلع أمير المؤمنين عليا عليه السلام " مقدمة في مصادر نهج البلاغة Archived June 17, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Sources of Nahj Al-Balagha
Nahj Al-Balagha
Archived November 23, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Sermons without 'dot's and 'Alef'" (in Persian). Archived from the original on April 6, 2017. Retrieved April 6, 2017.  ^ Ehsani far langroudi, Mohammad (2003). "Two masterpieces by Ali". Hadith
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George Jordac: This sermon is a masterpiece". www.khabaronline.ir (in Persian). Archived from the original on April 28, 2016. Retrieved April 9, 2017.  ^ a b Mutahhari, 1997 The Glimpses of Nahj al Balaghah Part I – Introduction ^ Shah-Kazemi 2007, p. 3 ^ Nahj al-Balagha
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Karbala
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Shia
Studies Quarterly (3 and 4). Archived from the original on December 10, 2015.  ^ a b c Leaman, Oliver (2006). The Quran: an Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis e-Library. pp. 28–31. ISBN 978-0-415-32639-1.  ^ Momen 1985, pp. 150–151 ^ Cornille, Catherine; Conway, Christopher (1 July 2010). Interreligious Hermeneutics. Wipf and Stock Publishers. pp. 124–. ISBN 978-1-63087-425-4.  ^ Momen 1985, p. 152 ^ a b c Hamid, Mavani (2013). Religious Authority and Political Thought in Twelver
Twelver
Shi'ism. New York and London: Routledge. pp. 68–73. ISBN 978-0-415-62440-4.  ^ Ibn Kathir. Al-Bidāya wa-n-nihāya. 5. Dar al-kotob al-Elmie. p. 245.  ^ Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Jarir al-Tabari. Tafsir
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al-Tabari. 13. Dar al-fekr Publication. p. 27.  ^ Sahih Muslim, Chapter of virtues of companions, section of the virtues of the Ahlul-Bayt of the Prophet, 1980 Edition Pub. in Saudi Arabia, Arabic version, v4, p1883, Tradition #61 ^ Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Jarir al-Tabari. Tafsir
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al-Tabari vol. XXII. pp. 5–7. ^ "ĀL-E ʿABĀ". Archived from the original on October 18, 2014.  ^ "Fāṭima." Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Brill Online, 2014. Reference. 08 April 2014 ^ Momen 1985, p. 16 ^ "Yawm-e Ali". TheIsmaili.org. 2011-06-10. Retrieved 2011-06-10. [permanent dead link] ^ Flaskerud, Ingvild (2010-12-02). Visualizing Belief and Piety in Iranian Shiism. A&C Black. ISBN 9781441149077.  ^ a b Nasr 1979, p. 10 preface ^ Nasr 1979, p. 15 preface ^ Corbin 1993, pp. 45–51 ^ Gleave, Robert. "Imamate". Encyclopaedia of Islam
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and the Muslim world; vol.1. MacMillan. ISBN 0-02-865604-0.  ^ Momen 1985, p. 174 preface ^ Trust, p. 695 ^ Trust, p. 681 ^ "Iranians to celebrate Father's Day". 9 April 2017.  ^ "Iran Public Holidays 2018".  ^ "Ali". Sunnah. Archived from the original on April 3, 2015. Retrieved May 14, 2015.  ^ "Khalifa Ali
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bin Abu Talib - Ali, The Father of Sufism". Alim.org. Archived from the original on November 13, 2013. Retrieved December 31, 2013.  ^ Flaskerud, Ingvild. Visualizing Belief and Piety in Iranian Shiism. A&C Black. ISBN 9781441149077. Retrieved 11 April 2017.  ^ a b See:

Peters 2003, pp. 320–321 Halm 2004, pp. 154–159

^ Layard, Austen Henry, Discoveries in the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon, Page 216 ^ Madelung 1997, p. xi, 19 and 20 ^ Lawson 2005, p. 59 ^ Robinson 2003, p. 28 and 34 ^ "A Glance at Historiography in Shiite Culture". Al-Islam.org. 

References[edit]

Ahmed, M. Mukarram (2005). Encyclopaedia of Islam. Anmol Publications PVT. LTD. ISBN 978-81-261-2339-1.  Al-Shaykh Al-Mufid
Al-Shaykh Al-Mufid
(1986). Kitab Al-Irshad: The Book
Book
of Guidance into the Lives of the Twelve Imams. Routledge Kegan & Paul. ISBN 978-0-7103-0151-2.  Al-Tabari, Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Jarir (1990). History of the Prophets and Kings, translation and commentary issued by R. Stephen Humphreys. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-0154-5.  (volume XV.) Ashraf, Shahid (2005). Encyclopedia of Holy Prophet and Companions. Anmol Publications PVT. LTD. ISBN 978-81-261-1940-0.  Chirri, Mohammad (1982). The Brother of the Prophet Mohammad. Islamic Center of America, Detroit, Michigan. Alibris. ISBN 978-0-942778-00-7.  Corbin, Henry (1993) [1964]. History of Islamic Philosophy. London: Kegan Paul International in association with Islamic Publications for The Institute of Ismaili
Ismaili
Studies. ISBN 978-0-7103-0416-2.  Translated by Liadain Sherrard, Philip Sherrard. Dakake, Maria Massi (2008). The Charismatic Community: Shi'ite Identity in Early Islam. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-7033-6.  Gleave, Robert M. (2015). Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE. Brill. ISSN 1573-3912.  Halm, Heinz (2004). Shi'ism. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-1888-0.  Hamidullah, Muhammad
Muhammad
(1988). The Prophet's Establishing a State and His Succession. University of California. ISBN 978-969-8016-22-7.  Holt, P.M.; Lambton, Ann K.S.; Lewis, Bernard, eds. (1970). Cambridge History of Islam. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-29135-4.  Kelen, Betty (2001). Muhammad: The Messenger of God. Taylor Production. ISBN 978-0-929093-12-3.  Kelsay, John (1993). Islam
Islam
and War: A Study in Comparative Ethics. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-25302-8.  Lambton, Ann K. S. (1991). Landlord and Peasant in Persia. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-1-85043-293-7.  Lapidus, Ira (2002). A History of Islamic Societies (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-77933-3.  Lawson, Todd, ed. (2005). Reason and Inspiration in Islam: Theology, Philosophy
Philosophy
and Mysticism in Muslim Thought. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-1-85043-470-2.  Lewis, Bernard (1991). The Political Language of Islam. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-47693-3.  Madelung, Wilferd (1997). The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-64696-3.  Merrick, James L. (2005). The Life and Religion of Mohammed as Contained in the Sheeah Traditions. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4179-5536-7.  Momen, Moojan (1985). An Introduction to Shi'i Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelver
Twelver
Shi'ism. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-03531-5.  Nasr, Seyyed Hossein; Dabashi, Hamid; Nasr, Vali (1989). Expectation of the Millennium. Suny Press. ISBN 978-0-88706-843-0.  Nasr, Seyyed Hossein; Leaman, Oliver (1996). History of Islamic Philosophy. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-13159-9.  Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2006). Islamic Philosophy
Philosophy
from Its Origin to the Present. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-6799-2.  Qazwini, Muhammad
Muhammad
Kazim; Ordoni, Abu Muhammad
Muhammad
(1992). Fatima the Gracious. Ansariyan Publications. OCLC 61565460.  Peters, F. E. (2003). The Monotheists: Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Conflict and Competition. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-11461-3.  Redha, Mohammad (1999). Imam
Imam
Ali
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Ibn Abi Taleb ( Imam
Imam
Ali
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the Fourth Caliph, 1/1 Volume). Dar Al Kotob Al ilmiyah. ISBN 978-2-7451-2532-3.  Rizvi, Akhtar; Saeed, Sayyid
Sayyid
(1988). Imamate: The vicegerency of the Holy Prophet. Bilal Muslim Mission of Tanzania. pp. 24–. ISBN 978-9976-956-13-9. Archived from the original on June 17, 2016.  Robinson, Chase F. (2003). Islamic Historiography. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-62936-2.  Shaban, Muḥammad ʻAbd al-Ḥayy (1971). Islamic History. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-29131-6.  Shah-Kazemi, Reza (2007). Justice and Remembrance: Introducing the Spirituality of Imam
Imam
Ali. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-526-5.  Singh, N.K. (2003). Prophet Muhammad
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and His Companions. Global Vision Publishing Ho. ISBN 978-81-87746-46-1.  Stearns, Peter N.; Langer, William Leonard (2001). The Encyclopedia of World History: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern. Houghton Mifflin Books. ISBN 978-0-395-65237-4.  Tabatabaei, Sayyid
Sayyid
Mohammad Hosayn (1979). Shi'ite Islam. Suny press. ISBN 978-0-87395-272-9.  Translated by Seyyed Hossein Nasr. Tabatabaei, Sayyid
Sayyid
Mohammad Hosayn (1987). The Quran
Quran
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Muhammad
at Mecca. Oxford University Press.  Zeitlin, Irving M. (2007). The Historical Muhammad. Polity. ISBN 978-0-7456-3998-7. 

Bibliography[edit]

Original sources[edit]

Al-Bukhari, Muhammad. Sahih Bukhari, Book
Book
4, 5, 8.  Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib (1984). Nahj al-Balagha
Nahj al-Balagha
(Peak of Eloquence), compiled by ash- Sharif ar-Radi. Alhoda UK. ISBN 978-0-940368-43-9.  Ali
Ali
ibn al-Athir. In his Biography, vol 2.  Ibn Taymiyyah, Taqi ad-Din Ahmad. Minhaj as-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah.  (In Arabic) Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj. Sahih Muslim, Book
Book
19, 31. 

Secondary sources[edit]

Books

Abdul Rauf, Muhammad; Seyyed Hossein Nasr
Seyyed Hossein Nasr
(1996). Imam
Imam
' Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib: The First Intellectual Muslim Thinker. Al Saadawi Publications. ISBN 978-1-881963-49-3.  Al-Tabari, Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Jarir. History of the Prophets and Kings, translation and commentary issued in multiple volumes 1987 to 1996. SUNY Press.  volumes 6–17 are relevant. Cleary, Thomas (1996). Living and Dying with Grace: Counsels of Hadrat Ali. Shambhala Publications, Incorporated. ISBN 978-1-57062-211-3.  Corn, Patricia (2005). Medieval Islamic Political Thought. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-2194-1.  Gordagh, George (1956). Ali, The Voice of Human Justice. ISBN 978-0-941724-24-1. (in Arabic) Kattani, Sulayman (1983). Imam
Imam
'Ali: Source of Light, Wisdom and Might, translation by I.K.A. Howard. Muhammadi Trust of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ISBN 978-0-9506986-6-3.  Khatab, Amal (1996). Battles of Badr and Uhud. Ta-Ha Publishers. ISBN 978-1-897940-39-6.  Lakhani, M. Ali; Reza Shah-Kazemi; Leonard Lewisohn (2007). The Sacred Foundations of Justice in Islam: The Teachings of Ali
Ali
Ibn Abi Talib, Contributor Dr Seyyed Hossein Nasr. World Wisdom, Inc. ISBN 978-1-933316-26-0.  Wilferd Madelung
Wilferd Madelung
(15 October 1998), The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-64696-3  Motahhari, Morteza (1997). Glimpses of the Nahj Al-Balaghah, translated by Ali
Ali
Quli Qara'i. Islamic Culture and Relations Organisation. ISBN 978-964-472-071-0.  Motahhari, Morteza (1981). Polarization Around the Character of 'Ali ibn Abi Talib. World Organization for Islamic Services, Tehran. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007.  Barnaby Rogerson (4 November 2010), The Heirs Of The Prophet Muhammad: And the Roots of the Sunni- Shia
Shia
Schism, Little, Brown Book
Book
Group, ISBN 978-0-7481-2470-1  Barnaby Rogerson (2008), The Heirs of Muhammad: Islam's First Century and the Origins of the Sunni- Shia
Shia
Split, Overlook, ISBN 978-1-59020-022-3 

Encyclopedia

Shah-Kazemi, Reza, Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib, in Muhammad
Muhammad
in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God
God
(2 vols.), Edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2014. ISBN 1-61069-177-6 Encyclopaedia of Islam
Islam
Online. Brill. 2004. ISSN 1573-3912. E-.  Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.  Martin, Richard C. Encyclopaedia of Islam
Islam
and the Muslim world; vol.1. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-02-865604-5.  Encyclopædia Iranica. Center for Iranian Studies, Columbia University. ISBN 978-1-56859-050-9.  Meri, Josef W.; Jere L. Bacharach (2006). Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-96691-7.  Jones, Lindsay (2004). Encyclopedia of Religion. Gale Group. ISBN 978-0-02-865733-2. 

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Ali
("Asās" or "Wāsih" of Nabi Muhammad)

Hasan Husayn al-Sajjad al-Baqir Jafar al-Sādiq Ismā'il Muhammad Abadullāh (Wāfi Ahmad) Ahmad (Tāqi Muhammad) Husayn (Rādhi Abdullāh) Abdullah al-Mahdi Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Qā'im Ismāʿīl al-Mansur Ma'ādd al-Mu'izz Nizār al-Aziz Mansur al-Hākim Ali
Ali
az-Zāhir Ma'ādd al-Mustansir Ahmad al-Mustāʿli Mansur al-Amir Abu'l-Qāsim at-Tāyyib

Nizari

Ali Husayn ibn Ali Ali
Ali
ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir Ja'far al-Sadiq Isma'il ibn Jafar Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Isma'il Ahmad al-Wafi Muhammad
Muhammad
at-Taqi Abdullah ar-Radi Abdullah al-Mahdi Billah al-Qa'im bi-Amr Allah al-Mansur Billah Al-Mu'izz li-Din Allah Al-Aziz Billah Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah Ali
Ali
az-Zahir al-Mustansir Billah Nizar al-Hādī al-Mutadī al-Qāhir Hassan II Nur al-Din Muhammad
Muhammad
II Jalaluddin Hasan ‘Alā’ ad-Dīn Muḥammad III Rukn al-Din Khurshah Shamsu-d-Dīn Muḥammad Qāsim Shāh Islām Shāh Muḥammad ibn Islām Shāh al-Mustanṣir billāh II ʿAbdu s-Salām Shāh Gharīb Mīrzā Abū Dharr ʻAlī Murād Mīrzā Dhū-l-Fiqār ʻAlī Nūru d-Dīn ʻAlī Khalīlullāh II ʻAlī Nizār II as- Sayyid
Sayyid
ʻAlī Ḥasan ʻAlī Qāsim ʻAlī Abū-l-Hasan ʻAlī Shāh Khalīlullāh III Aga Khan I Aga Khan II Aga Khan III Aga Khan IV

v t e

Ten companions of the Islamic prophet
Islamic prophet
Muhammad

Abu Bakr Umar Uthman Ali Talha
Talha
ibn Ubayd-Allah Zubayr ibn al-Awam Abdur Rahman bin Awf Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah Saeed bin Zaid

v t e

Companions of Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib

Abd Allah
Allah
ibn Abbas Abdullah ibn Hashim Abu al-Aswad al-Du'ali Abu al-Heysam ibn Tayyahan Abu Dhar al-Ghifari Adi ibn Hatim Ammar ibn Yasir Amr ibn al-Humq al-Khaza'i Asbagh ibn Nubatah Bilal ibn Rabah Habib ibn Madhahir Hamam ibn Shurayh Harith al-Hamdani Hashim ibn Utbah Hujr ibn 'Adi Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman Ja'far ibn Abi Talib Jabir ibn Abd Allah John bin Huwai Jundab ibn Abdullah Khuzaima ibn Thabit Kumayl ibn Ziyad Malik al-Ashtar Maytham al-Tammar Mikhnaf ibn Sulaym Miqdad ibn Aswad Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abu Bakr Qays ibn Sa'd Qambar Sa'sa'a bin Sohan Salman the Persian Sulaym ibn Qays Sulayman ibn Surad Umm Salama Uthman
Uthman
ibn Hunaif Uwais al-Qarani Zayd ibn Suhan

v t e

Islam
Islam
topics

Outline of Islam

Beliefs

God
God
in Islam Tawhid Muhammad

In Islam

Prophets of Islam Angels Revelation Predestination Judgement Day

Five Pillars

Shahada Salah Sawm Zakat Hajj

History Leaders

Timeline of Muslim history Conquests Golden Age Historiography Sahaba Ahl al-Bayt Shi'a
Shi'a
Imams Caliphates

Rashidun Umayyad Abbasid Córdoba Fatimid Almohad Sokoto Ottoman

Religious texts

Quran Sunnah Hadith Tafsir Seerah

Denominations

Sunni Shia Ibadi Black Muslims Ahmadiyya Quranism Non-denominational

Life Culture

Animals Art Calendar Children Clothing Holidays Mosques Madrasas Moral teachings Music Philosophy Political aspects Qurbani Science

medieval

Social welfare Women LGBT Islam
Islam
by country

Law Jurisprudence

Economics

Banking Economic history Sukuk Takaful Murabaha Riba

Hygiene

Ghusl Miswak Najis Tayammum Toilet Wudu

Marriage Sex

Marriage contract Mahr Mahram Masturbation Nikah Nikah Mut‘ah Zina

Other aspects

Cleanliness Criminal Dhabiĥa Dhimmi Divorce Diet Ethics Etiquette Gambling Gender segregation Honorifics Hudud Inheritance Jizya Leadership Ma malakat aymanukum Military

POWs

Slavery Sources of law Theological

baligh kalam

 Islamic studies

Arts

Arabesque Architecture Calligraphy Carpets Gardens Geometric patterns Music Pottery

Medieval science

Alchemy and chemistry Astronomy Cosmology Geography and cartography Mathematics Medicine Ophthalmology Physics

Philosophy

Early Contemporary Eschatology Theological

Other areas

Astrology Creationism (evolution) Feminism Inventions Liberalism and progressivism Literature

poetry

Psychology Shu'ubiyya Conversion to mosques

Other religions

Christianity

Mormonism Protestantism

Hinduism Jainism Judaism Sikhism

Related topics

Apostasy Criticism of Islam Cultural Muslim Islamism

Criticism Post-Islamism Qutbism Salafi movement

Islamophobia

Incidents

Islamic terrorism Islamic view of miracles Domestic violence Nursing Persecution of Muslims Quran
Quran
and miracles Symbolism

Islam
Islam
portal Category

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 305856114 LCCN: n50039100 ISNI: 0000 0001 2279 054X GND: 118846582 SELIBR: 260995 SUDOC: 050192558 BNF: cb13518682d (data) BIBSYS: 90156097 NLA: 35752825 NKC: jx20071219001 ICCU: ITICCUSBLV168948 BNE: XX1722

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