LUDWIG KARL MARTIN LEONHARD ALBRECHT KOSSEL (16 September 1853 – 5 July 1927) was a German biochemist and pioneer in the study of genetics . He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1910 for his work in determining the chemical composition of nucleic acids , the genetic substance of biological cells .
Kossel isolated and described the five organic compounds that are
present in nucleic acid : adenine , cytosine , guanine , thymine , and
uracil . These compounds were later shown to be nucleobases , and are
key in the formation of
Kossel was an important influence on and collaborator with other
important researchers in biochemistry, including Henry Drysdale Dakin
Kossel also conducted important research into the composition of protein , and his research predicted the discovery of the polypeptide nature of the protein molecule.
* 1 Early life and education * 2 Early research and collaboration * 3 Isolation and description of nucleobases * 4 Research into the chemical composition of protein * 5 Nobel prize * 6 Later research and collaboration * 7 Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie * 8 Personal life * 9 Legacy * 10 Selected works * 11 References
EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATION
Kossel was born in
In 1872, Kossel attended the
University of Strassburg to study
medicine. He studied under
EARLY RESEARCH AND COLLABORATION
After completing his university studies, Kossel returned to the
University of Strassburg as research assistant to Felix Hoppe-Seyler.
At the time, Hoppe-Seyler was intensely interested in research
concerning an acidic substance that had first been chemically isolated
from pus cells by one of his former students,
Kossel showed that the substance, called "nuclein", consisted of a protein component and a non-protein component. Kossel further isolated and described the non-protein component. This substance has become known as nucleic acid , which contains the genetic information found in all living cells.
ISOLATION AND DESCRIPTION OF NUCLEOBASES
In 1883, Kossel left Strassburg to become Director of the Chemistry
Division of the Physiological Institute at the
University of Berlin
Kossel continued his previous work on the nucleic acids. During the
period 1885 to 1901, he was able to isolate and name its five
constituent organic compounds : adenine , cytosine , guanine , thymine
, and uracil . These compounds are now known collectively as
nucleobases , and they provide the molecular structure necessary in
the formation of stable
RESEARCH INTO THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PROTEIN
In 1895, Kossel was professor of physiology as well as director of
the Physiological Institute at the
University of Marburg
In 1896, Kossel discovered histidine , then worked out the classical
method for the quantitative separation of the "hexone bases" (the
alpha-amino acids arginine , histidine , and lysine ). He was also the
first to isolate
In 1901, Kossel was named to a similar post at
The processes of life are like a drama, and I am studying the actors,
not the plot. There are many actors, and it is their characters which
make this drama. I seek to understand their habits, their
peculiarities. — Albrecht Kossel,
New York Times
Kossel was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1910 for his research in cell biology , the chemical composition of the cell nucleus , and for his work in isolating and describing nucleic acids . The award was presented on 10 December 1910.
In the autumn of 1911, Kossel was invited to the United States to
deliver the Herter Lecture at Johns Hopkins . Traveling with his wife
Luise and daughter Gertrude, he took the opportunity to travel and to
visit acquaintances, one of which was
Eugene W. Hilgard , professor
emeritus of agricultural chemistry at the University of California at
Berkeley , who was also his wife's cousin. He also visited and
delivered lectures at several other universities, including the
University of Chicago
On the occasion of his visit to New York City, Kossel was interviewed
by a reporter from the
New York Times
His Herter lecture at Johns Hopkins was titled, "The Proteins". This was the only time Kossel ever visited the United States.
LATER RESEARCH AND COLLABORATION
With his distinguished English pupil Henry Drysdale Dakin , Kossel investigated arginase , the ferment which hydrolyses arginine into urea and ornithine . Later, he discovered agmatine in herring roe and devised a method for preparing it.
Another of Kossel's students was American biochemist Edwin B. Hart , who would later return to the United States to participate in the " Single-grain experiment " (1907–1911) and be part of research teams that would determine the nutritive causes of anemia and goiter . Another was Otto Folin , an American chemist who discovered Phosphocreatine .
In 1923, Kossel was honored by being named Germany's representative
to the Eleventh Physiological Congress in
In 1924, Kossel became professor emeritus , but continued to lecture
During the last years of Kossel's life, he conducted important research into the composition of the protein types protamines and histones , and discovered flavianic acid . A monograph describing this work was published shortly after his death.
ZEITSCHRIFT FüR PHYSIOLOGISCHE CHEMIE
Kossel contributed to early issues of the Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie (Journal of Physiological Chemistry). This publication was founded by his professor and mentor, Felix Hoppe-Seyler , in 1877, the same year that Kossel started work as his research assistant. After Hoppe-Seyler's death in 1895, Kossel took over editorship of the Zeitschrift and continued in that role until his own death in 1927.
Kossel's grave in
In 1886, Kossel married Luise Holtzman, daughter of
Adolf Holtzmann .
Holtzmann was Professor at the University of
Son Walther Kossel (1888–1956) became a prominent physicist and was professor of theoretical physics and director of the Physics Institute at the University of Tübingen . He is known for his theory of the chemical bond (ionic bond /octet rule ), the Sommerfeld–Kossel displacement law , and other achievements.
There is no record of any political activity by Kossel, and by all accounts he was apolitical.
Through his marriage to Luise, Kossel was related to several prominent Americans, including soil science pioneer Eugene W. Hilgard , journalist and financier Henry Villard , and abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison .
Luise Kossel died in 1913 of acute pancreatitis . Kossel died quietly
on 5 July 1927, after a recurring attack of angina pectoris . He is
The study of the living organism has more and more led to the view that its smallest independent units morphologically speaking – the cells – also to a certain degree lead an independent life and are the real seats of the vital processes. The cells therefore attract special attention in biological research, and studies which widen our knowledge of the cells to any important extent deserve to be given prominence. Prof. Kossel has chosen to devote himself to this field of research, and it is for his work in this respect that the Nobel Prize has been awarded to him this year. — Nobel Prize Introduction Speech, December 10, 1910
* Untersuchungen über die Nukleine und ihre Spaltungsprodukte ("Investigations into the nucleins and their cleavage products", 1881) * Die Gewebe des menschlichen Körpers und ihre mikroskopische Untersuchung ("The tissues in the human body and their microscopic investigation", 1889–1891) * Leitfaden für medizinisch-chemische Kurse ("Textbook for medical-chemical courses", 1888) * Die Probleme der Biochemie ("The problems of biochemistry", 1908) * Die Beziehungen der Chemie zur Physiologie ("The relationships between chemistry and physiology", 1913)
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q Jones, Mary Ellen (September
1953). "Albrecht Kossel, A Biographical Sketch" . Yale Journal of
Biology and Medicine.
National Center for Biotechnology Information
* v * t * e
Laureates of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
* 1901 Emil Behring
Christiaan Eijkman /
Frederick Gowland Hopkins
* 1931 Otto Warburg
Charles Scott Sherrington / Edgar Adrian
* 1933 Thomas Morgan
* 1976 Baruch Blumberg / Daniel Gajdusek
Roger Guillemin /
Andrew Schally / Rosalyn Yalow
Werner Arber /
Daniel Nathans /
Hamilton O. Smith
* 1979 Allan Cormack /
Baruj Benacerraf /
Jean Dausset / George Snell
* 1981 Roger Sperry /
David H. Hubel /
Sune Bergström /
Bengt I. Samuelsson /
* 1984 Niels Jerne / Georges Köhler /
* 1985 Michael Brown /
Joseph L. Goldstein
* 1986 Stanley Cohen /
* 1988 James W. Black /
Gertrude B. Elion /
George H. Hitchings
J. Michael Bishop /
Harold E. Varmus
Joseph Murray /
E. Donnall Thomas
Erwin Neher /
* 1992 Edmond Fischer /
Edwin G. Krebs
Leland H. Hartwell /
Tim Hunt /
* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 19776709 * LCCN : no91011831 * ISNI : 0000 0000 8098 8135 * GND : 116343338 * SUDOC : 067043038 * BNF : cb12465135h (data) * NKC : nlk20000079365 * IATH