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The Info List - Alazocine


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Alazocine (developmental code name SKF-10047), also known more commonly as N-allylnormetazocine (NANM), is a synthetic opioid analgesic of the benzomorphan family related to metazocine which was never marketed.[1][2][3] In addition to its opioid activity, the drug is a sigma receptor agonist, and has been used widely in scientific research in studies of this receptor.[4][5] Alazocine is described as a potent analgesic, psychotomimetic or hallucinogen, and morphine or opioid antagonist.[2] Moreover, one of its enantiomers was the first compound that was found to selectively label the sigma σ1 receptor, and led to the discovery and characterization of the receptor.[4][5]

Contents

1 Pharmacology

1.1 Pharmacodynamics

2 History 3 References

Pharmacology[edit] Pharmacodynamics[edit] Alazocine shows stereoselectivity in its pharmacodynamics.[6] The (–)-enantiomer is a non-selective and high-affinity ligand of the μ-, κ-, and δ-opioid receptors (Ki = 3.0, 4.7, and 15 nM in guinea pig brain membranes) with very low affinity for the sigma σ1 receptor (Ki = 1,800–4,657 nM in guinea pig brain membranes).[6][7] It acts as a moderate-efficacy partial agonist of the κ-opioid receptor (Ki = 0.4 nM, EC50 = 24 nM, and Emax = 66% for (±)-alazocine against the mouse receptor transfected in HEK293 cells)[8] and as an antagonist of the μ-opioid receptor (Ki = 1.15 nM for (±)-alazocine against the mouse receptor transfected in HEK293 cells).[9] It is also an agonist of the δ-opioid receptor with far lower potency (Ki = not reported, IC50 = 184 nM, and Imax = 68% for (±)-alazocine against the mouse receptor transfected in HEK293 cells).[10] Conversely, the (+)-stereoisomer has little affinity for the opioid receptors (Ki for 1,900 nM, 1,600 nM, and 19,000 nM for the μ-, κ-, δ-opioid receptors in guinea pig brain membranes) and instead is a selective and high-affinity agonist of the σ1 receptor (Ki = 48–66 nM in guinea pig brain membranes).[6][7] However, the (+)-enantiomer also shows moderate affinity for the dizocilpine (MK-801) or phencyclidine (PCP) site of the NMDA receptor (Ki = 587 nM in rat brain membranes relative to 45 nM for the σ1 receptor), and hence is an uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist as well at higher concentrations.[11] As such, (+)-alazocine is only modestly selective as a ligand of the σ1 receptor.[11] Both enantiomers of alazocine have very low affinity for the sigma σ2 receptor (Ki = 13,694 nM and 4,581 nM for the (+)- and (–)-enantiomers, respectively, in rat brain membranes or rat PC12 cells).[11][7][5] As such, due to its high affinity for the σ1 receptor, (+)-alazocine can be used to distinguish between the two sigma receptor subtypes in scientific research, for instance in radioligand binding assays.[11][5] Taken together, (–)-alazocine is a selective partial agonist of the κ-opioid receptor, antagonist of the μ-opioid receptor, and to a far lesser extent agonist of the δ-opioid receptor[8][9][10] with very low affinity for the sigma receptors, while (+)-alazocine is a selective agonist of the sigma σ1 receptor and to a lesser (~10-fold) extent antagonist of the NMDA receptor with low affinity for the opioid and sigma σ2 receptors.[6][7][11][5] History[edit] Alazocine was one of the early members of the benzomorphan family of opioid analgesics to be investigated.[1] It was first described in the scientific literature in 1961.[12] Its development resulted from nalorphine (N-allylnormorphine), a potent analgesic and opioid antagonist with similar pharmacology which had been introduced in the mid-1950s.[1] Alazocine was found to produce strong psychotomimetic effects in humans, and it was not further developed for clinical use.[13][1] Subsequently, other benzomorphans, such as pentazocine (an N-dimethylallylbenzomorphan), cyclazocine (an N-cyclopropylmethylbenzomorphan), and phenazocine (an N-phenylethylbenzomorphan), were developed, and some have been marketed for use as analgesics.[1] The sigma σ1 receptor was named in 1976 and (+)-alazocine was described as its prototypical ligand.[13][14][15] The receptor was initially thought to be an opioid receptor, and then was confused with the NMDA receptor for a time, but was ultimately distinguished from them both.[13][14][5] The psychotomimetic effects of alazocine and the other benzomorphans were initially attributed incorrectly to agonism of the σ1 receptor; subsequent research established that the effects are in fact caused by agonism of the κ-opioid receptor and/or antagonism of the NMDA receptor.[13][5] The sigma σ2 receptor was discovered and named in 1990, and was identified in part due to the dramatically reduced affinity of alazocine for the receptor relative to the σ1 receptor (in contrast to non-selective ligands like haloperidol, ditolylguanidine, and (+)-3-PPP, which show similar affinity for both subtypes).[7] References[edit]

^ a b c d e A.F. Casy; R.T. Parfitt (29 June 2013). Opioid Analgesics: Chemistry and Receptors. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 176–178, 420–421. ISBN 978-1-4899-0585-7.  ^ a b Keats, Arthur S.; Telford, Jane (1964). "Narcotic Antagonists as Analgesics". 45: 170–176. doi:10.1021/ba-1964-0045.ch014. ISSN 0065-2393.  ^ Iwamoto ET (1981). "Pharmacologic effects of N-allylnormetazocine (SKF-10047)". NIDA Res. Monogr. 34: 82–8. PMID 6783955.  ^ a b Narayanan S, Bhat R, Mesangeau C, Poupaert JH, McCurdy CR (2011). "Early development of sigma-receptor ligands". Future Med Chem. 3 (1): 79–94. doi:10.4155/fmc.10.279. PMID 21428827.  ^ a b c d e f g Hayashi T, Su TP (2004). "Sigma-1 receptor ligands: potential in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders". CNS Drugs. 18 (5): 269–84. doi:10.2165/00023210-200418050-00001. PMID 15089113.  ^ a b c d Tam SW (1985). "(+)-[3H]SKF 10,047, (+)-[3H]ethylketocyclazocine, mu, kappa, delta and phencyclidine binding sites in guinea pig brain membranes". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 109 (1): 33–41. doi:10.1016/0014-2999(85)90536-9. PMID 2986989.  ^ a b c d e Hellewell SB, Bowen WD (1990). "A sigma-like binding site in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells: decreased affinity for (+)-benzomorphans and lower molecular weight suggest a different sigma receptor form from that of guinea pig brain". Brain Res. 527 (2): 244–53. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(90)91143-5. PMID 2174717.  ^ a b Gharagozlou P, Hashemi E, DeLorey TM, Clark JD, Lameh J (2006). "Pharmacological profiles of opioid ligands at kappa opioid receptors". BMC Pharmacol. 6: 3. doi:10.1186/1471-2210-6-3. PMC 1403760 . PMID 16433932.  ^ a b Gharagozlou P, Demirci H, David Clark J, Lameh J (2003). "Activity of opioid ligands in cells expressing cloned mu opioid receptors". BMC Pharmacol. 3: 1. doi:10.1186/1471-2210-3-1. PMC 140036 . PMID 12513698.  ^ a b Gharagozlou P, Demirci H, Clark JD, Lameh J (2002). "Activation profiles of opioid ligands in HEK cells expressing delta opioid receptors". BMC Neurosci. 3: 19. PMC 137588 . PMID 12437765.  ^ a b c d e Chou YC, Liao JF, Chang WY, Lin MF, Chen CF (1999). "Binding of dimemorfan to sigma-1 receptor and its anticonvulsant and locomotor effects in mice, compared with dextromethorphan and dextrorphan". Brain Res. 821 (2): 516–9. doi:10.1016/s0006-8993(99)01125-7. PMID 10064839.  ^ GORDON M, LAFFERTY JJ, TEDESCHI DH, EDDY NB, MAY EL (1961). "A new potent analgesic antagonist". Nature. 192: 1089. doi:10.1038/1921089a0. PMID 13900480.  ^ a b c d Osborne Almeida; Toni S. Shippenberg (6 December 2012). Neurobiology of Opioids. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 356–. ISBN 978-3-642-46660-1.  ^ a b Jürgen Schüttler; Helmut Schwilden (8 January 2008). Modern Anesthetics. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 97–. ISBN 978-3-540-74806-9.  ^ Martin WR, Eades CG, Thompson JA, Huppler RE, Gilbert PE (1976). "The effects of morphine- and nalorphine- like drugs in the nondependent and morphine-dependent chronic spinal dog". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 197 (3): 517–32. PMID 945347. 

v t e

Hallucinogens

Psychedelics (5-HT2A agonists)

Benzofurans

2C-B-FLY 2CBFly-NBOMe 5-MeO-BFE 5-MeO-DiBF Bromo-DragonFLY F-2 F-22 TFMFly

Lyserg‐ amides

1P-ETH-LAD 1P-LSD 2-Butyllysergamide 3-Pentyllysergamide AL-LAD ALD-52 BU-LAD Diallyllysergamide Dimethyllysergamide Ergometrine ETH-LAD IP-LAD LAE-32 LPD-824 LSA LSD LSD-Pip LSH LSM-775 LSZ Methylergometrine Methylisopropyllysergamide Methysergide MLD-41 PARGY-LAD PRO-LAD

Phenethyl‐ amines

2C-x

2C-B 2C-B-AN 2C-Bn 2C-Bu 2C-C 2C-CN 2C-CP 2C-D 2C-E 2C-EF 2C-F 2C-G 2C-G-1 2C-G-2 2C-G-3 2C-G-4 2C-G-5 2C-G-6 2C-G-N 2C-H 2C-I 2C-iP 2C-N 2C-NH2 2C-O 2C-O-4 2C-P 2C-Ph 2C-SE 2C-T 2C-T-2 2C-T-3 2C-T-4 2C-T-5 2C-T-6 2C-T-7 2C-T-8 2C-T-9 2C-T-10 2C-T-11 2C-T-12 2C-T-13 2C-T-14 2C-T-15 2C-T-16 2C-T-17 2C-T-18 2C-T-19 2C-T-20 2C-T-21 2C-T-22 2C-T-22.5 2C-T-23 2C-T-24 2C-T-25 2C-T-27 2C-T-28 2C-T-30 2C-T-31 2C-T-32 2C-T-33 2C-TFE 2C-TFM 2C-YN 2C-V

25x-NBx

25x-NB3OMe

25B-NB3OMe 25C-NB3OMe 25D-NB3OMe 25E-NB3OMe 25H-NB3OMe 25I-NB3OMe 25N-NB3OMe 25P-NB3OMe 25T2-NB3OMe 25T4-NB3OMe 25T7-NB3OMe 25TFM-NB3OMe

25x-NB4OMe

25B-NB4OMe 25C-NB4OMe 25D-NB4OMe 25E-NB4OMe 25H-NB4OMe 25I-NB4OMe 25N-NB4OMe 25P-NB4OMe 25T2-NB4OMe 25T4-NB4OMe 25T7-NB4OMe 25TFM-NB4OMe

25x-NBF

25B-NBF 25C-NBF 25D-NBF 25E-NBF 25H-NBF 25I-NBF 25P-NBF 25T2-NBF 25T7-NBF 25TFM-NBF

25x-NBMD

25B-NBMD 25C-NBMD 25D-NBMD 25E-NBMD 25F-NBMD 25H-NBMD 25I-NBMD 25P-NBMD 25T2-NBMD 25T7-NBMD 25TFM-NBMD

25x-NBOH

25B-NBOH 25C-NBOH 25CN-NBOH 25D-NBOH 25E-NBOH 25F-NBOH 25H-NBOH 25I-NBOH 25P-NBOH 25T2-NBOH 25T7-NBOH 25TFM-NBOH

25x-NBOMe

25B-NBOMe 25C-NBOMe 25CN-NBOMe 25D-NBOMe 25E-NBOMe 25F-NBOMe 25G-NBOMe 25H-NBOMe 25I-NBOMe 25iP-NBOMe 25N-NBOMe 25P-NBOMe 25T2-NBOMe 25T4-NBOMe 25T7-NBOMe 25TFM-NBOMe

Atypical structures

25I-NB34MD 2CBCB-NBOMe 2CBFly-NBOMe NBOMe-mescaline

3C-x

3C-AL 3C-BZ 3C-DFE 3C-E 3C-P

4C-x

4C-B 4C-D 4C-T-2

DOx

DOT DOB DOC DOEF DOET DOF DOI DOiPR DOM DON DOPR DOTFM MEM

HOT-x

HOT-2 HOT-7 HOT-17

MDxx

DMMDA DMMDA-2 Lophophine MDA MMDA MMDA-2 MMDA-3a MMDMA

Mescaline (subst.)

2-Bromomescaline 3-TE 4-TE 3-TM 4-TM Allylescaline Asymbescaline Buscaline Cyclopropylmescaline Difluoromescaline Difluoroescaline Escaline Fluoroproscaline Isobuscaline Isoproscaline Jimscaline Mescaline Metaescaline Methallylescaline Proscaline Thioproscaline Trifluoroescaline Trifluoromescaline

TMAs

TMA TMA-2 TMA-3 TMA-4 TMA-5 TMA-6

Others

2C-B-BUTTERFLY 2C-B-DragonFLY 2CB-5-hemifly 2-TOM 5-TOET 5-TOM 2CB-Ind 2CD-5EtO BOB BOD βk-2C-B βk-2C-I DESOXY DMCPA DMBMPP DOB-FLY Fenfluramine Ganesha Macromerine MMA TCB-2 TOMSO

Piperazines

BZP pFPP

Tryptamines

alpha-alkyltryptamines

4,5-DHP-α-MT 5-MeO-α-ET 5-MeO-α-MT α-ET α-MT

x-DALT

(Daltocin) 4-HO-DALT (Daltacetin) 4-AcO-DALT 5-MeO-DALT DALT

x-DET

(Ethacetin) 4-AcO-DET (Ethocin) 4-HO-DET 5-MeO-DET (T-9) DET (Ethocybin) 4-PO-DET

x-DiPT

1-Me-5-MeO-DiPT (Ipracetin) 4-AcO-DiPT (Iprocin) 4-HO-DiPT (Foxy Methoxy) 5-MeO-DiPT DiPT

x-DMT

4,5-DHP-DMT 2,N,N-TMT 4-AcO-DMT 4-HO-5-MeO-DMT 4,N,N-TMT 4-Propionyloxy-DMT 5,6-diBr-DMT 5-AcO-DMT 5-Bromo-DMT 5-MeO-2,N,N-TMT 5-MeO-4,N,N-TMT 5-MeO-α,N,N-TMT 5-MeO-DMT 5-N,N-TMT 7,N,N-TMT α,N,N-TMT (Bufotenin) 5-HO-DMT DMT Norbaeocystin (Psilocin) 4-HO-DMT (Psilocybin) 4-PO-DMT

x-DPT

(Depracetin) 4-AcO-DPT (Deprocin) 4-HO-DPT 5-MeO-DPT (The Light) DPT

Ibogaine-related

18-MAC 18-MC Coronaridine Ibogaine Ibogamine ME-18-MC Noribogaine Tabernanthine Voacangine

x-MET

(Metocin) 4-HO-MET (Metocetin) 4-AcO-MET 5-MeO-MET MET

x-MiPT

(Mipracetin) 4-AcO-MiPT (Miprocin) 4-HO-MiPT 5-Me-MiPT (Moxy) 5-MeO-MiPT MiPT

Others

4-HO-DBT 4-HO-EPT 4-HO-McPT (Lucigenol) 4-HO-MPMI (Meprocin) 4-HO-MPT 5-MeO-EiPT 5-MeO-MALT 5-MeO-MPMI Aeruginascin Baeocystin DBT DCPT EiPT EPT MPT PiPT

Others

5-MeO-DiBF AL-38022A ALPHA Dimemebfe Efavirenz Lorcaserin M-ALPHA RH-34 Also empathogens in general (e. g.: 5-APB, 5-MAPB, 6-APB and other substituted benzofurans, MDAI, MDMA).

Dissociatives (NMDAR antagonists)

Arylcyclo‐ hexylamines

Ketamine-related

2-Fluorodeschloroketamine Arketamine ((R)-ketamine) Deschloroketamine Ethketamine (N-Ethylnorketamine) Esketamine ((S)-ketamine) Ketamine Methoxetamine Methoxmetamine Methoxyketamine Norketamine Tiletamine

PCP-related

3'-HO-PCP 3'-MeO-PCE 3'-MeO-PCMo 3'-MeO-PCP BDPC Dieticyclidine (PCDE) Eticyclidine (PCE) Methoxydine (4'-MeO-PCP) PCPr Phencyclidine (PCP) Rolicyclidine (PCPy) Tenocyclidine (TCP)

Others

BTCP Gacyclidine PRE-084

Diarylethylamines

Diphenidine Ephenidine Fluorolintane Methoxphenidine

Morphinans

Dextrallorphan Dextromethorphan Dextrorphan Racemethorphan Racemorphan

Others

2-EMSB 2-MDP 8A-PDHQ Aptiganel Budipine Delucemine Dexoxadrol Dizocilpine Etoxadrol Herkinorin Ibogaine Midafotel NEFA Neramexane Nitrous oxide Noribogaine Perzinfotel RB-64 Remacemide Salvinorin A Selfotel Xenon

Deliriants (mAChR antagonists)

Atropine Benactyzine Benzatropine Benzydamine Biperiden BRN-1484501 Brompheniramine BZ CAR-226,086 CAR-301,060 CAR-302,196 CAR-302,282 CAR-302,368 CAR-302,537 CAR-302,668 Chloropyramine Chlorphenamine Clemastine CS-27349 Cyclizine Cyproheptadine Dicycloverine Dimenhydrinate Diphenhydramine Ditran Doxylamine EA-3167 EA-3443 EA-3580 EA-3834 Elemicin Flavoxate Hyoscyamine JB-318 JB-336 Meclozine Mepyramine Myristicin Orphenadrine Oxybutynin Pheniramine Phenyltoloxamine Procyclidine Promethazine Scopolamine Tolterodine Trihexyphenidyl Tripelennamine Triprolidine WIN-2299

Others

Cannabinoids (CB1 agonists)

Natural

THC (Dronabinol) THCV

Synthetic

AM-x

AM-087 AM-251 AM-279 AM-281 AM-356 AM-374 AM-381 AM-404 AM-411 AM-630 AM-661 AM-678 AM-679 AM-694 AM-735 AM-855 AM-881 AM-883 AM-905 AM-906 AM-919 AM-926 AM-938 AM-1116 AM-1172 AM-1220 AM-1221 AM-1235 AM-1241 AM-1248 AM-1710 AM-1714 AM-1902 AM-2201 AM-2212 AM-2213 AM-2232 AM-2233 AM-2389 AM-3102 AM-4030 AM-4054 AM-4056 AM-4113 AM-6545

CP x

CP 47,497 CP 55,244 CP 55,940 (±)-CP 55,940 (+)-CP 55,940 (-)-CP 55,940

HU-x

HU-210 HU-211 HU-239 HU-243 HU-308 HU-320 HU-331 HU-336 HU-345

JWH-x

JWH-007 JWH-015 JWH-018 JWH-019 JWH-030 JWH-047 JWH-048 JWH-051 JWH-057 JWH-073 JWH-081 JWH-098 JWH-116 JWH-120 JWH-122 JWH-133 JWH-139 JWH-147 JWH-148 JWH-149 JWH-149 JWH-161 JWH-164 JWH-166 JWH-167 JWH-171 JWH-175 JWH-176 JWH-181 JWH-182 JWH-184 JWH-185 JWH-192 JWH-193 JWH-193 JWH-194 JWH-195 JWH-196 JWH-197 JWH-198 JWH-199 JWH-200 JWH-203 JWH-205 JWH-210 JWH-210 JWH-213 JWH-220 JWH-229 JWH-234 JWH-249 JWH-250 JWH-251 JWH-253 JWH-258 JWH-300 JWH-302 JWH-307 JWH-336 JWH-350 JWH-359 JWH-387 JWH-398 JWH-424

Misc. designer cannabinoids

4-HTMPIPO 5F-AB-FUPPYCA 5F-AB-PINACA 5F-ADB 5F-ADB-PINACA 5F-ADBICA 5F-AMB 5F-APINACA 5F-CUMYL-PINACA 5F-NNE1 5F-PB-22 5F-SDB-006 A-796,260 A-836,339 AB-001 AB-005 AB-CHFUPYCA AB-CHMINACA AB-FUBINACA AB-PINACA ADAMANTYL-THPINACA ADB-CHMINACA ADB-FUBINACA ADB-PINACA ADBICA ADSB-FUB-187 AMB-FUBINACA APICA APINACA APP-FUBINACA CB-13 CUMYL-PICA CUMYL-PINACA CUMYL-THPINACA DMHP EAM-2201 FAB-144 FDU-PB-22 FUB-144 FUB-APINACA FUB-JWH-018 FUB-PB-22 FUBIMINA JTE 7-31 JTE-907 Levonantradol MDMB-CHMICA MDMB-CHMINACA MDMB-FUBINACA MEPIRAPIM MAM-2201 MDA-19 MN-18 MN-25 NESS-0327 NESS-040C5 Nabilone Nabitan NM-2201 NNE1 Org 28611 Parahexyl PTI-1 PTI-2 PX-1 PX-2 PX-3 QUCHIC QUPIC RCS-4 RCS-8 SDB-005 SDB-006 STS-135 THC-O-acetate THC-O-phosphate THJ-018 THJ-2201 UR-144 WIN 55,212-2 XLR-11

D2 agonists

Apomorphine Aporphine Bromocriptine Cabergoline Lisuride Memantine Nuciferine Pergolide Phenethylamine Piribedil Pramipexole Ropinirole Rotigotine Salvinorin A Also indirect D2 agonists, such as dopamine reuptake inhibitors (cocaine, methylphenidate), releasing agents (amphetamine, methamphetamine), and precursors (levodopa).

GABAA enhancers

CI-966 Eszopiclone Ibotenic acid Muscimol (Amanita muscaria) Zaleplon Zolpidem Zopiclone

Inhalants (Mixed MOA)

Aliphatic hydrocarbons

Butane Gasoline Kerosene Propane

Aromatic hydrocarbons

Toluene

Ethers

Diethyl ether Enflurane

Haloalkanes

Chlorofluorocarbons Chloroform

κOR agonists

2-EMSB Alazocine Bremazocine Butorphan Butorphanol Cyclazocine Cyclorphan Cyprenorphine Diprenorphine Enadoline Herkinorin Heroin HZ-2 Ibogaine Ketazocine Levallorphan Levomethorphan Levorphanol LPK-26 Metazocine Morphine Nalbuphine Nalmefene Nalorphine Noribogaine Oxilorphan Pentazocine Phenazocine Proxorphan Racemethorphan Racemorphan Salvinorin A Spiradoline Tifluadom U-50488 U-69,593 Xorphanol

Others

Glaucine Isoaminile Noscapine Pukateine

v t e

Ionotropic glutamate receptor modulators

AMPAR

Agonists: Main site agonists: 5-Fluorowillardiine Acromelic acid (acromelate) AMPA BOAA Domoic acid Glutamate Ibotenic acid Proline Quisqualic acid Willardiine; Positive allosteric modulators: Aniracetam Cyclothiazide CX-516 CX-546 CX-614 Farampator (CX-691, ORG-24448) CX-717 CX-1739 CX-1942 Diazoxide Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) IDRA-21 LY-392098 LY-395153 LY-404187 LY-451646 LY-503430 Mibampator (LY-451395) Nooglutyl ORG-26576 Oxiracetam PEPA PF-04958242 Piracetam Pramiracetam S-18986 Tulrampator (S-47445, CX-1632)

Antagonists: ACEA-1011 ATPO Becampanel Caroverine CNQX Dasolampanel DNQX Fanapanel (MPQX) GAMS Kaitocephalin Kynurenic acid Kynurenine Licostinel (ACEA-1021) NBQX PNQX Selurampanel Tezampanel Theanine Topiramate YM90K Zonampanel; Negative allosteric modulators: Barbiturates (e.g., pentobarbital, sodium thiopental) Cyclopropane Enflurane Ethanol (alcohol) Evans blue GYKI-52466 GYKI-53655 Halothane Irampanel Isoflurane Perampanel Pregnenolone sulfate Sevoflurane Talampanel; Unknown/unsorted antagonists: Minocycline

KAR

Agonists: Main site agonists: 5-Bromowillardiine 5-Iodowillardiine Acromelic acid (acromelate) AMPA ATPA Domoic acid Glutamate Ibotenic acid Kainic acid LY-339434 Proline Quisqualic acid SYM-2081; Positive allosteric modulators: Cyclothiazide Diazoxide Enflurane Halothane Isoflurane

Antagonists: ACEA-1011 CNQX Dasolampanel DNQX GAMS Kaitocephalin Kynurenic acid Licostinel (ACEA-1021) LY-382884 NBQX NS102 Selurampanel Tezampanel Theanine Topiramate UBP-302; Negative allosteric modulators: Barbiturates (e.g., pentobarbital, sodium thiopental) Enflurane Ethanol (alcohol) Evans blue NS-3763 Pregnenolone sulfate

NMDAR

Agonists: Main site agonists: AMAA Aspartate Glutamate Homocysteic acid (L-HCA) Homoquinolinic acid Ibotenic acid NMDA Proline Quinolinic acid Tetrazolylglycine Theanine; Glycine site agonists: β-Fluoro-D-alanine ACBD ACC (ACPC) ACPD AK-51 Apimostinel (NRX-1074) B6B21 CCG D-Alanine D-Cycloserine D-Serine DHPG Dimethylglycine Glycine HA-966 L-687414 L-Alanine L-Serine Milacemide Neboglamine (nebostinel) Rapastinel (GLYX-13) Sarcosine; Polyamine site agonists: Neomycin Spermidine Spermine; Other positive allosteric modulators: 24S-Hydroxycholesterol DHEA (prasterone) DHEA sulfate (prasterone sulfate) Epipregnanolone sulfate Pregnenolone sulfate SAGE-201 SAGE-301 SAGE-718

Antagonists: Competitive antagonists: AP5 (APV) AP7 CGP-37849 CGP-39551 CGP-39653 CGP-40116 CGS-19755 CPP Kaitocephalin LY-233053 LY-235959 LY-274614 MDL-100453 Midafotel (d-CPPene) NPC-12626 NPC-17742 PBPD PEAQX Perzinfotel PPDA SDZ-220581 Selfotel; Glycine site antagonists: 4-Cl-KYN (AV-101) 5,7-DCKA 7-CKA ACC ACEA-1011 ACEA-1328 Apimostinel (NRX-1074) AV-101 Carisoprodol CGP-39653 CNQX D-Cycloserine DNQX Felbamate Gavestinel GV-196771 Harkoseride Kynurenic acid Kynurenine L-689560 L-701324 Licostinel (ACEA-1021) LU-73068 MDL-105519 Meprobamate MRZ 2/576 PNQX Rapastinel (GLYX-13) ZD-9379; Polyamine site antagonists: Arcaine Co 101676 Diaminopropane Diethylenetriamine Huperzine A Putrescine; Uncompetitive pore blockers (mostly dizocilpine site): 2-MDP 3-HO-PCP 3-MeO-PCE 3-MeO-PCMo 3-MeO-PCP 4-MeO-PCP 8A-PDHQ 18-MC α-Endopsychosin Alaproclate Alazocine (SKF-10047) Amantadine Aptiganel Argiotoxin-636 Arketamine ARL-12495 ARL-15896-AR ARL-16247 Budipine Coronaridine Delucemine (NPS-1506) Dexoxadrol Dextrallorphan Dextromethadone Dextromethorphan Dextrorphan Dieticyclidine Diphenidine Dizocilpine Ephenidine Esketamine Etoxadrol Eticyclidine Fluorolintane Gacyclidine Ibogaine Ibogamine Indantadol Ketamine Ketobemidone Lanicemine Levomethadone Levomethorphan Levomilnacipran Levorphanol Loperamide Memantine Methadone Methorphan Methoxetamine Methoxphenidine Milnacipran Morphanol NEFA Neramexane Nitromemantine Noribogaine Norketamine Orphenadrine PCPr PD-137889 Pethidine (meperidine) Phencyclamine Phencyclidine Propoxyphene Remacemide Rhynchophylline Rimantadine Rolicyclidine Sabeluzole Tabernanthine Tenocyclidine Tiletamine Tramadol; Ifenprodil (NR2B) site antagonists: Besonprodil Buphenine (nylidrin) CO-101244 (PD-174494) Eliprodil Haloperidol Isoxsuprine Radiprodil (RGH-896) Rislenemdaz (CERC-301, MK-0657) Ro 8-4304 Ro 25-6981 Safaprodil Traxoprodil (CP-101606); NR2A-selective antagonists: MPX-004 MPX-007 TCN-201 TCN-213; Cations: Hydrogen Magnesium Zinc; Alcohols/volatile anesthetics/related: Benzene Butane Chloroform Cyclopropane Desflurane Diethyl ether Enflurane Ethanol (alcohol) Halothane Hexanol Isoflurane Methoxyflurane Nitrous oxide Octanol Sevoflurane Toluene Trichloroethane Trichloroethanol Trichloroethylene Urethane Xenon Xylene; Unknown/unsorted antagonists: ARR-15896 Bumetanide Caroverine Conantokin D-αAA Dexanabinol Flufenamic acid Flupirtine FPL-12495 FR-115427 Furosemide Hodgkinsine Ipenoxazone (MLV-6976) MDL-27266 Metaphit Minocycline MPEP Niflumic acid Pentamidine Pentamidine isethionate Piretanide Psychotridine Transcrocetin (saffron)

See also: Receptor/signaling modulators Metabotropic glutamate receptor modulators Glutamate metabolism/transport modulators

v t e

Opioid receptor modulators

MOR

Agonists (abridged; see here for a full list): 3-HO-PCP 7-Acetoxymitragynine 7-Hydroxymitragynine ψ-Akuammigine α-Chlornaltrexamine α-Narcotine Acetyldihydrocodeine Acetylfentanyl Acrylfentanyl Adrenorphin (metorphamide) AH-7921 Akuammicine Akuammidine Alfentanil Anileridine Apparicine β-Endorphin BAM-12P BAM-18P BAM-22P Benzhydrocodone Benzylmorphine Bezitramide Biphalin BU08070 Buprenorphine Butorphan Butorphanol Butyrfentanyl BW-373U86 Carfentanil Casokefamide Cebranopadol Chloroxymorphamine Codeine DADLE DAMGO (DAGO) Dermorphin Desmetramadol (desmethyltramadol) Desomorphine Dextromoramide Dextropropoxyphene (propoxyphene) Dezocine Dimenoxadol Dimethylaminopivalophenone Eluxadoline Diamorphine (heroin) Dihydrocodeine Dihydroetorphine Dihydromorphine Diphenoxylate Dipipanone Dynorphin A Embutramide Endomorphin-1 Endomorphin-2 Eseroline Ethylmorphine Etorphine Fentanyl Fluorophen Frakefamide Furanylfentanyl Hemorphin-4 Herkinorin Hodgkinsine Hydrocodone Hydromorphinol Hydromorphone IBNtxA Ketamine Ketobemidone Kratom Laudanosine Lefetamine Leu-enkephalin Levacetylmethadol Levomethorphan Levorphanol Lexanopadol Loperamide Loxicodegol Matrine Meptazinol Met-enkephalin (metenkefalin) Methadone Metkefamide Metopon Mitragynine Mitragynine pseudoindoxyl Morphiceptin Morphine Nalbuphine Nalbuphine sebacate NalBzOH Nalmexone Naltalimide Neopine NFEPP Nicocodeine Nicodicodeine Nicomorphine NKTR-181 Norketamine Octreotide Oliceridine OM-3-MNZ Oripavine Oxycodone Oxymorphazone Oxymorphonazine Oxymorphone Oxymorphone phenylhydrazone OxyPNPH Papaver somniferum (opium) Pentazocine Pericine Pethidine (meperidine) Phenazocine Phencyclidine Piminodine Piritramide PL-017 Prodine Propiram PZM21 Racemethorphan Racemorphan Remifentanil Salsolinol SC-17599 Sinomenine Sufentanil Tapentadol Tetrahydropapaveroline TH-030418 Thebaine Thienorphine Tianeptine Tilidine Tramadol Trimebutine TRIMU 5 TRV734 Tubotaiwine U-47700 Valorphin Viminol Xorphanol

PAMs: BMS-986121 BMS-986122

Antagonists: (3S,4S)-Picenadol 2-(S)-N,N-(R)-Viminol 3CS-nalmefene 4-Caffeoyl-1,5-quinide 4′-Hydroxyflavanone 4',7-Dihydroxyflavone 6β-Naltrexol 6β-Naltrexol-d4 18-MC α-Gliadin β-Chlornaltrexamine β-Funaltrexamine Akuammine Alvimopan AM-251 Apigenin AT-076 Axelopran Bevenopran Catechin Catechin gallate Clocinnamox CTAP CTOP Cyclofoxy Cyprodime Diacetylnalorphine Diprenorphine ECG EGC Epicatechin Eptazocine Gemazocine Ginsenoside R Hyperoside Ibogaine Levallorphan Lobeline LY-255582 LY-2196044 Methocinnamox Methylnaltrexone Methylsamidorphan chloride Naldemedine Nalmefene Nalodeine (N-allylnorcodeine) Nalorphine Nalorphine dinicotinate Naloxazone Naloxegol Naloxol Naloxonazine Naloxone Naltrexazone Naltrexonazine Naltrexone Naltrindole Naringenin Noribogaine Oxilorphan Pawhuskin A Rimonabant Quadazocine Samidorphan Taxifolin

Unknown/unsorted: Cannabidiol Coronaridine Cyproterone acetate Dihydroakuuamine Tabernanthine Tetrahydrocannabinol

DOR

Agonists: 3CS-nalmefene 6'-GNTI 7-SIOM ADL-5747 (PF-04856881) ADL-5859 Alazocine (SKF-10047) Amoxapine AR-M100390 (ARM390) AZD2327 β-Endorphin BAM-18P Biphalin BU-48 Butorphan Butorphanol BW-373U86 Casokefamide Cebranopadol Codeine Cyclazocine DADLE Deltorphin A Deltorphin I Deltorphin II Desmethylclozapine Desmetramadol (desmethyltramadol) Dezocine Diamorphine (heroin) Dihydroetorphine Dihydromorphine DPDPE DPI-221 DPI-3290 DSLET Ethylketazocine Etorphine Fentanyl FIT Fluorophen Hemorphin-4 Hydrocodone Hydromorphone Ibogaine Isomethadone JNJ-20788560 KNT-127 Kratom Laudanosine Leu-enkephalin Levomethorphan Levorphanol Lexanopadol Lofentanil Met-enkephalin (metenkefalin) Metazocine Metkefamide Mitragynine Mitragynine pseudoindoxyl Morphine N-Phenethyl-14-ethoxymetopon Norbuprenorphine NalBzOH Oripavine Oxycodone Oxymorphone Pethidine (meperidine) Proglumide Racemethorphan Racemorphan RWJ-394674 Samidorphan SB-235863 SNC-80 SNC-162 TAN-67 (SB-205,607) TH-030418 Thebaine Thiobromadol (C-8813) Tonazocine Tramadol TRV250 Xorphanol Zenazocine

Antagonists: 4',7-Dihydroxyflavone 5'-NTII 6β-Naltrexol 6β-Naltrexol-d4 α-Santolol β-Chlornaltrexamine Apigenin AT-076 Axelopran Bevenopran BNTX Catechin Catechin gallate Clocinnamox Diacetylnalorphine Diprenorphine ECG EGC Eluxadoline Epicatechin ICI-154129 ICI-174864 LY-255582 LY-2196044 Methylnaltrexone Methylnaltrindole N-Benzylnaltrindole Nalmefene Nalorphine Naltrexone Naltriben Naltrindole Naloxone Naringenin Noribogaine Pawhuskin A Quadazocine SDM25N SoRI-9409 Taxifolin Thienorphine

Unknown/unsorted: 18-MC Cannabidiol Coronaridine Cyproterone acetate Tabernanthine Tetrahydrocannabinol

KOR

Agonists: 3CS-nalmefene 6'-GNTI 8-CAC 18-MC 14-Methoxymetopon β-Chlornaltrexamine β-Funaltrexamine Adrenorphin (metorphamide) Akuuamicine Alazocine (SKF-10047) Allomatrine Apadoline Asimadoline BAM-12P BAM-18P BAM-22P Big dynorphin Bremazocine BRL-52537 Butorphan Butorphanol BW-373U86 Cebranopadol Ciprefadol CR665 Cyclazocine Cyclorphan Cyprenorphine Desmetramadol (desmethyltramadol) Diamorphine (heroin) Diacetylnalorphine Difelikefalin Dihydroetorphine Dihydromorphine Diprenorphine Dynorphin A Dynorphin B (rimorphin) Eluxadoline Enadoline Eptazocine Erinacine E Ethylketazocine Etorphine Fedotozine Fentanyl Gemazocine GR-89696 GR-103545 Hemorphin-4 Herkinorin HS665 Hydromorphone HZ-2 Ibogaine ICI-199,441 ICI-204,448 Ketamine Ketazocine Laudanosine Leumorphin (dynorphin B-29) Levallorphan Levomethorphan Levorphanol Lexanopadol Lofentanil LPK-26 Lufuradom Matrine MB-1C-OH Menthol Metazocine Metkefamide Mianserin Mirtazapine Morphine Moxazocine MR-2034 N-MPPP Nalbuphine Nalbuphine sebacate NalBzOH Nalfurafine Nalmefene Nalodeine (N-allylnorcodeine) Nalorphine Naltriben Niravoline Norbuprenorphine Norbuprenorphine-3-glucuronide Noribogaine Norketamine Oripavine Oxilorphan Oxycodone Pentazocine Pethidine (meperidine) Phenazocine Proxorphan Racemethorphan Racemorphan RB-64 Salvinorin A (salvia) Salvinorin B ethoxymethyl ether Salvinorin B methoxymethyl ether Samidorphan Spiradoline (U-62,066) TH-030418 Thienorphine Tifluadom Tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline, desipramine, imipramine, nortriptyline) U-50,488 U-54,494A U-69,593 Xorphanol

Antagonists: 4′-Hydroxyflavanone 4',7-Dihydroxyflavone 5'-GNTI 6'-GNTI 6β-Naltrexol 6β-Naltrexol-d4 β-Chlornaltrexamine Buprenorphine/samidorphan Amentoflavone ANTI Apigenin Arodyne AT-076 Axelopran AZ-MTAB Binaltorphimine BU09059 Buprenorphine Catechin Catechin gallate CERC-501 (LY-2456302) Clocinnamox Cyclofoxy Dezocine DIPPA EGC ECG Epicatechin Hyperoside JDTic LY-255582 LY-2196044 LY-2444296 LY-2459989 LY-2795050 MeJDTic Methylnaltrexone ML190 ML350 MR-2266 N-Fluoropropyl-JDTic Naloxone Naltrexone Naltrindole Naringenin Norbinaltorphimine Noribogaine Pawhuskin A PF-4455242 RB-64 Quadazocine Taxifolin UPHIT Zyklophin

Unknown/unsorted: Akuammicine Akuammine Coronaridine Cyproterone acetate Dihydroakuuamine Ibogamine Tabernanthine

NOP

Agonists: (Arg14,Lys15)Nociceptin ((pF)Phe4)Nociceptin(1-13)NH2 (Phe1Ψ(CH2-NH)Gly2)Nociceptin(1-13)NH2 Ac-RYYRWK-NH2 Ac-RYYRIK-NH2 BU08070 Buprenorphine Cebranopadol Dihydroetorphine Etorphine JNJ-19385899 Levomethorphan Levorphanol Levorphanol Lexanopadol MCOPPB MT-7716 NNC 63-0532 Nociceptin (orphanin FQ) Nociceptin (1-11) Nociceptin (1-13)NH2 Norbuprenorphine Racemethorphan Racemorphan Ro64-6198 Ro65-6570 SCH-221510 SCH-486757 SR-8993 SR-16435 TH-030418

Antagonists: (Nphe1)Nociceptin(1-13)NH2 AT-076 BAN-ORL-24 BTRX-246040 (LY-2940094) J-113397 JTC-801 NalBzOH Nociceptin (1-7) Nocistatin SB-612111 SR-16430 Thienorphine Trap-101 UFP-101

Unsorted

β-Casomorphins Amidorphin BAM-20P Cytochrophin-4 Deprolorphin Gliadorphin (gluteomorphin) Gluten exorphins Hemorphins Kava constituents MEAGL MEAP NEM Neoendorphins Nepetalactone (catnip) Peptide B Peptide E Peptide F Peptide I Rubiscolins Soymorphins

Others

Enkephalinase inhibitors: Amastatin BL-2401 Candoxatril D -Phenylalanine Dexecadotril (retorphan) Ecadotril (sinorphan) Kelatorphan Racecadotril (acetorphan) RB-101 RB-120 RB-3007 Opiorphan Selank Semax Spinorphin Thiorphan Tynorphin Ubenimex (bestatin)

Propeptides: β-Lipotropin (proendorphin) Prodynorphin Proenkephalin Pronociceptin Proopiomelanocortin (POMC)

Others: Kyotorphin (met-enkephalin releaser/degradation stabilizer)

See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators

v t e

Sigma receptor modulators

σ1

Agonists: 3-PPP 4-PPBP 5-MeO-DMT Alazocine (SKF-10047) Amantadine ANAVEX2-73 Arketamine BD-737 BD-1052 Captodiame Citalopram CGRP Cloperastine Cocaine Cutamesine (SA-4503) Cyclazocine Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) (prasterone) Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) (prasterone sulfate) Dextrallorphan Dextromethorphan (DXM) Dextrorphan (DXO) Dimemorfan Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) Ditolylguanidine (DTG) Donepezil Eliprodil Escitalopram Fabomotizole (afobazole) Fluoxetine Fluvoxamine Ifenprodil Igmesine (JO-1784) IPAB Ketamine L-687384 MDMA (midomafetamine) Memantine Methamphetamine Methoxetamine Methylphenidate Nepinalone Neuropeptide Y Noscapine OPC-14523 Opipramol Pentazocine Pentoxyverine (carbetapentane) PRE-084 Pregnenolone Pregnenolone sulfate Pridopidine Racemethorphan (methorphan) Racemorphan (morphanol) UMB-23 UMB-82

Antagonists: 3-PPP AC-927 BD-1008 BD-1031 BD-1047 BD-1060 BD-1063 BD-1067 BMY-14802 (BMS-181100) CM-156 Dup-734 E-5842 E-52862 (S1RA) Haloperidol LR-132 LR-172 MS-377 NE-100 NPC-16377 Panamesine (EMD-57455) PD-144418 Pentazocine Progesterone Rimcazole (BW-234U) Sertraline SR-31742A

Allosteric modulators: Phenytoin; Positive: Methylphenylpiracetam SOMCL-668

Unknown/unsorted: 3-Methoxydextrallorphan 3-MeO-PCP 4C-T-2 4-IBP 4-IPBS 4-MeO-PCP 5-MeO-DALT 5-MeO-DiPT Amitriptyline Azidopamil Chlorpromazine Clemastine Clomipramine Clorgiline D-Deprenyl DiPT DPT Ibogaine Imipramine KCR-12-83.1 Nemonapride Noribogaine RHL-033 RS-67,333 RTI-55 Saffron Safinamide Selegiline Spipethiane Trifluoperazine W-18 YKP10A

σ2

Agonists: 3-PPP Arketamine BD-1047 BD1063 Ditolylguanidine (DTG) DKR-1005 DKR-1051 Haloperidol Ifenprodil Ketamine MDMA (midomafetamine) Methamphetamine OPC-14523 Opipramol PB-28 Phencyclidine Siramesine (Lu 28-179) UKH-1114

Antagonists: AC-927 BD-1008 BD-1067 CM-156 CT-1812 LR-172 MIN-101 Panamesine (EMD-57455) SAS-0132

Unknown/unsorted: 3-Methoxydextrallorphan 3-MeO-PCE 4-MeO-PCP 5-MeO-DALT 5-MeO-DiPT Clemastine DiPT DPT Ibogaine Nemonapride Nepinalone Noribogaine Pentazocine RS-67,333 Safinamide TMA UMB-23 UMB-82 W-18

Unsorted

Agonists: Berberine Ethylketazocine Fourphit Metaphit Nalbuphine Naluzotan Tapentadol Tenocyclidine

Antagonists: AHD1 AZ66 Lamotrigine Naloxone SM-21 UMB-100 UMB-101 UMB-103 UMB-116 YZ-011 YZ-069 YZ-185

Allosteric modulators: SKF-83959

Unknown/unsorted: 18-Methoxycoronaridine BMY-13980 Butaclamol Caramiphen Carvotroline Chlorphenamine (chlorpheniramine) Chlorpromazine Cinnarizine Cinuperone Clocapramine Dezocine EMD-59983 Hypericin (St. John's wort) Fluphenazine Gevotroline (WY-47384) Mepyramine (pyrilamine) Molindone Perphenazine Pimozide Proadifen Promethazine Propranolol Quinidine Remoxipride SL 82.0715 SR-31747A Tiospirone (BMY-13859) Venlafaxine

See also: Receptor/si

.