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Abu Yūsuf Yaʻqūb ibn ʼIsḥāq aṣ-Ṣabbāḥ al-Kindī (Arabic: أبو يوسف يعقوب بن إسحاق الصبّاح الكندي‎; Latin: Alkindus; c. 801–873 AD) was an Arab[2][3][4][5][6][7] Muslim
Muslim
philosopher, polymath, mathematician, physician and musician. Al-Kindi
Al-Kindi
was the first of the Muslim peripatetic philosophers, and is unanimously hailed as the "father of Arab philosophy"[8][9][10] for his synthesis, adaptation and promotion of Greek and Hellenistic philosophy
Hellenistic philosophy
in the Muslim
Muslim
world.[11] Al-Kindi
Al-Kindi
was born in Basra
Basra
and educated in Baghdad.[12] He became a prominent figure in the House of Wisdom, and a number of Abbasid Caliphs appointed him to oversee the translation of Greek scientific and philosophical texts into the Arabic language. This contact with "the philosophy of the ancients" (as Greek philosophy
Greek philosophy
was often referred to by Muslim
Muslim
scholars) had a profound effect on his intellectual development, and led him to write hundreds of original treatises of his own on a range of subjects ranging from metaphysics, ethics, logic and psychology, to medicine, pharmacology,[13] mathematics, astronomy, astrology and optics, and further afield to more practical topics like perfumes, swords, jewels, glass, dyes, zoology, tides, mirrors, meteorology and earthquakes.[14][15] In the field of mathematics, al-Kindi played an important role in introducing Indian numerals
Indian numerals
to the Islamic and Christian world.[16] His book entitled Manuscript on Deciphering Cryptographic Messages gave rise to the birth of cryptanalysis and devised several new methods of breaking ciphers.[17][18] Using his mathematical and medical expertise, he was able to develop a scale that would allow doctors to quantify the potency of their medication.[19] The central theme underpinning al-Kindi's philosophical writings is the compatibility between philosophy and other "orthodox" Islamic sciences, particularly theology. And many of his works deal with subjects that theology had an immediate interest in. These include the nature of God, the soul and prophetic knowledge.[20] But despite the important role he played in making philosophy accessible to Muslim intellectuals, his own philosophical output was largely overshadowed by that of al-Farabi and very few of his texts are available for modern scholars to examine.

Contents

1 Life 2 Accomplishments

2.1 Philosophy 2.2 Astronomy 2.3 Optics 2.4 Medicine 2.5 Chemistry 2.6 Mathematics 2.7 Cryptography 2.8 Music theory

3 Philosophical thought

3.1 Influences 3.2 Metaphysics 3.3 Epistemology 3.4 The soul and the afterlife 3.5 The relationship between revelation and philosophy 3.6 Critics and patrons

4 References 5 Bibliography

5.1 English translations 5.2 Studies

6 External links

Life[edit] Al-Kindi
Al-Kindi
was born in Kufa
Kufa
to an aristocratic family of the Kinda tribe, descended from the chieftain al-Ash'ath ibn Qays, a contemporary of Muhammad. The family belonged to the most prominent families of the tribal nobility of Kufa
Kufa
in the early Islamic period, until it lost much of its power following the revolt of Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Ash'ath.[21] His father Ishaq was the governor of Kufa, and al-Kindi received his preliminary education there. He later went to complete his studies in Baghdad, where he was patronized by the Abbasid
Abbasid
caliphs al-Ma'mun (ruled 813–833) and al-Mu'tasim (r. 833–842). On account of his learning and aptitude for study, al-Ma'mun appointed him to the House of Wisdom, a recently established centre for the translation of Greek philosophical and scientific texts, in Baghdad. He was also well known for his beautiful calligraphy, and at one point was employed as a calligrapher by al-Mutawakkil.[22] When al-Ma'mun died, his brother, al-Mu'tasim became Caliph. Al-Kindi's position would be enhanced under al-Mu'tasim, who appointed him as a tutor to his son. But on the accession of al-Wāthiq (r. 842–847), and especially of al-Mutawakkil (r. 847–861), al-Kindi's star waned. There are various theories concerning this: some attribute al-Kindi's downfall to scholarly rivalries at the House of Wisdom; others refer to al-Mutawakkil’s often violent persecution of unorthodox Muslims (as well as of non-Muslims); at one point al-Kindi was beaten and his library temporarily confiscated. Henry Corbin, an authority on Islamic studies, says that in 873, al-Kindi died "a lonely man", in Baghdad
Baghdad
during the reign of al-Mu'tamid (r. 870–892).[22] After his death, al-Kindi's philosophical works quickly fell into obscurity and many of them were lost even to later Islamic scholars and historians. Felix Klein-Franke suggests a number of reasons for this: aside from the militant orthodoxy of al-Mutawakkil, the Mongols also destroyed countless libraries during their invasion. However, he says the most probable cause of this was that his writings never found popularity amongst subsequent influential philosophers such as al-Farabi and Avicenna, who ultimately overshadowed him.[23] Accomplishments[edit] Al-Kindi
Al-Kindi
was a master of many different areas of thought and was held to be one of the greatest Islamic philosophers of his time. The Italian Renaissance scholar Geralomo Cardano
Cardano
(1501–1575) considered him one of the twelve greatest minds of the Middle Ages.[24] According to Ibn al-Nadim, al-Kindi wrote at least two hundred and sixty books, contributing heavily to geometry (thirty-two books), medicine and philosophy (twenty-two books each), logic (nine books), and physics (twelve books).[25] His influence in the fields of physics, mathematics, medicine, philosophy and music were far-reaching and lasted for several centuries. Although most of his books have been lost over the centuries, a few have survived in the form of Latin translations by Gerard of Cremona, and others have been rediscovered in Arabic manuscripts; most importantly, twenty-four of his lost works were located in the mid-twentieth century in a Turkish library.[26] Philosophy[edit] His greatest contribution to the development of Islamic philosophy
Islamic philosophy
was his efforts to make Greek thought both accessible and acceptable to a Muslim
Muslim
audience. Al-Kindi
Al-Kindi
carried out this mission from the House of Wisdom (Bayt al-Hikma), an institute of translation and learning patronized by the Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliphs, in Baghdad.[22] As well as translating many important texts, much of what was to become standard Arabic philosophical vocabulary originated with al-Kindi; indeed, if it had not been for him, the work of philosophers like Al-Farabi, Avicenna, and al-Ghazali might not have been possible.[27] In his writings, one of al-Kindi's central concerns was to demonstrate the compatibility between philosophy and natural theology on the one hand, and revealed or speculative theology on the other (though in fact he rejected speculative theology). Despite this, he did make clear that he believed revelation was a superior source of knowledge to reason because it guaranteed matters of faith that reason could not uncover. And while his philosophical approach was not always original, and was even considered clumsy by later thinkers (mainly because he was the first philosopher writing in the Arabic language), he successfully incorporated Aristotelian and (especially) neo-Platonist thought into an Islamic philosophical framework. This was an important factor in the introduction and popularization of Greek philosophy
Greek philosophy
in the Muslim
Muslim
intellectual world.[28] Astronomy[edit] Al-Kindi
Al-Kindi
took his view of the solar system from Ptolemy, who placed the Earth at the centre of a series of concentric spheres, in which the known heavenly bodies (the Moon, Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter, and the stars) are embedded. In one of his treatises on the subject, he says that these bodies are rational entities, whose circular motion is in obedience to and worship of God. Their role, al-Kindi believes, is to act as instruments for divine providence. He furnishes empirical evidence as proof for this assertion; different seasons are marked by particular arrangements of the planets and stars (most notably the sun); the appearance and manner of people varies according to the arrangement of heavenly bodies situated above their homeland.[29] However, he is ambiguous when it comes to the actual process by which the heavenly bodies affect the material world. One theory he posits in his works is from Aristotle, who conceived that the movement of these bodies causes friction in the sub-lunar region, which stirs up the primary elements of earth, fire, air and water, and these combine to produce everything in the material world. An alternative view found his treatise On Rays is that the planets exercise their influence in straight lines. In each of these, he presents two fundamentally different views of physical interaction; action by contact and action at a distance. This dichotomy is duplicated in his writings on optics.[30] Some of the notable astrological works by al-Kindi include:[31]

The Book of the Judgement of the Stars, including The Forty Chapters, on questions and elections. On the Stellar Rays. Several epistles on weather and meteorology, including De mutatione temporum, ("On the Changing of the Weather"). Treatise on the Judgement of Eclipses. Treatise on the Dominion of the Arabs
Arabs
and its Duration (used to predict the end of Arab rule). The Choices of Days (on elections). On the Revolutions of the Years (on mundane astrology and natal revolutions). De Signis Astronomiae Applicitis as Mediciam ‘On the Signs of Astronomy
Astronomy
as applied to Medicine’ Treatise on the Spirituality of the Planets.

Optics[edit] Two major theories of optics appear in the writings of al-Kindi; Aristotelian and Euclidean. Aristotle
Aristotle
had believed that in order for the eye to perceive an object, both the eye and the object must be in contact with a transparent medium (such as air) that is filled with light. When these criteria are met, the "sensible form" of the object is transmitted through the medium to the eye. On the other hand, Euclid
Euclid
proposed that vision occurred in straight lines when "rays" from the eye reached an illuminated object and were reflected back. As with his theories on Astrology, the dichotomy of contact and distance is present in al-Kindi's writings on this subject as well. The factor which al-Kindi relied upon to determine which of these theories was most correct was how adequately each one explained the experience of seeing. For example, Aristotle's theory was unable to account for why the angle at which an individual sees an object affects his perception of it. For example, why a circle viewed from the side will appear as a line. According to Aristotle, the complete sensible form of a circle should be transmitted to the eye and it should appear as a circle. On the other hand, Euclidean optics provided a geometric model that was able to account for this, as well as the length of shadows and reflections in mirrors, because Euclid believed that the visual "rays" could only travel in straight lines (something which is commonly accepted in modern science). For this reason, al-Kindi considered the latter preponderant.[32] Through the Latin
Latin
version of the De Aspectibus, Al-Kindi
Al-Kindi
partly influenced the optical investigations of Robert Grosseteste[33] and Roger Bacon. Medicine[edit] There are more than thirty treatises attributed to al-Kindi in the field of medicine, in which he was chiefly influenced by the ideas of Galen.[34] His most important work in this field is probably De Gradibus, in which he demonstrates the application of mathematics to medicine, particularly in the field of pharmacology. For example, he developed a mathematical scale to quantify the strength of drug and a system, based the phases of the moon, that would allow a doctor to determine in advance the most critical days of a patient's illness.[19] Chemistry[edit] As an advanced chemist, he was also an opponent of alchemy; he debunked the myth that simple, base metals could be transformed into precious metals such as gold or silver.[35] He unambiguously described the distillation of wine.[36][37][38] Mathematics[edit] Al-Kindi
Al-Kindi
authored works on a number of important mathematical subjects, including arithmetic, geometry, the Indian numbers, the harmony of numbers, lines and multiplication with numbers, relative quantities, measuring proportion and time, and numerical procedures and cancellation.[16] He also wrote four volumes, On the Use of the Indian Numerals (Ketab fi Isti'mal al-'Adad al-Hindi) which contributed greatly to diffusion of the Indian system of numeration in the Middle-East and the West. In geometry, among other works, he wrote on the theory of parallels. Also related to geometry were two works on optics. One of the ways in which he made use of mathematics as a philosopher was to attempt to disprove the eternity of the world by demonstrating that actual infinity is a mathematical and logical absurdity.[39] Cryptography[edit]

The first page of al-Kindi's manuscript "On Deciphering Cryptographic Messages", containing the oldest known description of cryptanalysis by frequency analysis.

Al-Kindi
Al-Kindi
is credited with developing a method whereby variations in the frequency of the occurrence of letters could be analyzed and exploited to break ciphers (i.e. cryptanalysis by frequency analysis).[18] His book on this topic is Risāla fī Istikhrāj al-Kutub al-Mu'amāh (رسالة في استخراج الكتب المعماة; literally: On Extracting Obscured Correspondence, more contemporary: On Decrypting Encrypted Correspondence ).In his treatise on cryptanalysis,He wrote:

One way to solve an encrypted message, if we know its language, is to find a different plaintext of the same language long enough to fill one sheet or so, and then we count the occurrences of each letter. We call the most frequently occurring letter the 'first', the next most occurring letter the 'second' the following most occurring letter the 'third', and so on, until we account for all the different letters in the plaintext sample. Then we look at the cipher text we want to solve and we also classify its symbols. We find the most occurring symbol and change it to the form of the 'first' letter of the plaintext sample, the next most common symbol is changed to the form of the 'second' letter, and the following most common symbol is changed to the form of the 'third' letter, and so on, until we account for all symbols of the cryptogram we want to solve.[40][41]

Music theory[edit] Al-Kindi
Al-Kindi
was the first great theoretician of music in the Arab-Islamic world. He is known to have written fifteen treatises on music theory, but only five have survived. He added a fifth string to the 'ud.[42] His works included discussions on the therapeutic value of music[43] and what he regarded as "cosmological connections" of music.[44] Philosophical thought[edit] Influences[edit] While Muslim
Muslim
intellectuals were already acquainted with Greek philosophy (especially logic), al-Kindi is credited with being the first real Muslim
Muslim
philosopher.[45] His own thought was largely influenced by the Neo-Platonic philosophy of Proclus, Plotinus
Plotinus
and John Philoponus, amongst others, although he does appear to have borrowed ideas from other Hellenistic schools as well.[46] He makes many references to Aristotle
Aristotle
in his writings, but these are often unwittingly re-interpreted in a Neo-Platonic framework. This trend is most obvious in areas such as metaphysics and the nature of God as a causal entity.[47] Earlier experts had suggested that he was influenced by the Mutazilite
Mutazilite
school of theology, because of the mutual concern both he and they demonstrated for maintaining the singularity (tawhid) of God. However, such agreements are now considered incidental, as further study has shown that they disagreed on a number of equally important topics.[48] Metaphysics[edit] According to al-Kindi, the goal of metaphysics is the knowledge of God. For this reason, he does not make a clear distinction between philosophy and theology, because he believes they are both concerned with the same subject. Later philosophers, particularly al-Farabi and Avicenna, would strongly disagree with him on this issue, by saying that metaphysics is actually concerned with being qua being, and as such, the nature of God is purely incidental.[20] Central to al-Kindi's understanding of metaphysics is God's absolute oneness, which he considers an attribute uniquely associated with God (and therefore not shared with anything else). By this he means that while we may think of any existent thing as being "one", it is in fact both "one" and many". For example, he says that while a body is one, it is also composed of many different parts. A person might say "I see an elephant", by which he means "I see one elephant", but the term 'elephant' refers to a species of animal that contains many. Therefore, only God is absolutely one, both in being and in concept, lacking any multiplicity whatsoever. Some feel this understanding entails a very rigorous negative theology because it implies that any description which can be predicated to anything else, cannot be said about God.[48][49] In addition to absolute oneness, al-Kindi also described God as the Creator. This means that He acts as both a final and efficient cause. Unlike later Muslim
Muslim
Neo-Platonic philosophers (who asserted that the universe existed as a result of God's existence "overflowing", which is a passive act), al-Kindi conceived of God as an active agent. In fact, of God as the agent, because all other intermediary agencies are contingent upon Him.[50] The key idea here is that God "acts" through created intermediaries, which in turn "act" on one another – through a chain of cause and effect – to produce the desired result. In reality, these intermediary agents do not "act" at all, they are merely a conduit for God's own action.[47] This is especially significant in the development of Islamic philosophy, as it portrayed the "first cause" and "unmoved mover" of Aristotelian philosophy as compatible with the concept of God according to Islamic revelation.[51] Epistemology[edit]

Ancient Greek philosophers such as Plato
Plato
and Aristotle
Aristotle
were highly respected in the medieval Islamic world.

Al-Kindi
Al-Kindi
theorized that there was a separate, incorporeal and universal intellect (known as the "First Intellect"). It was the first of God's creation and the intermediary through which all other things came into creation. Aside from its obvious metaphysical importance, it was also crucial to al-Kindi's epistemology, which was influenced by Platonic realism.[52] According to Plato, everything that exists in the material world corresponds to certain universal forms in the heavenly realm. These forms are really abstract concepts such as a species, quality or relation, which apply to all physical objects and beings. For example, a red apple has the quality of "redness" derived from the appropriate universal. However, al-Kindi says that human intellects are only potentially able to comprehend these. This potential is actualized by the First Intellect, which is perpetually thinking about all of the universals. He argues that the external agency of this intellect is necessary by saying that human beings cannot arrive at a universal concept merely through perception. In other words, an intellect cannot understand the species of a thing simply by examining one or more of its instances. According to him, this will only yield an inferior "sensible form", and not the universal form which we desire. The universal form can only be attained through contemplation and actualization by the First Intellect.[53] The analogy he provides to explain his theory is that of wood and fire. Wood, he argues, is potentially hot (just as a human is potentially thinking about a universal), and therefore requires something else which is already hot (such as fire) to actualize this. This means that for the human intellect to think about something, the First Intellect must already be thinking about it. Therefore, he says that the First Intellect must always be thinking about everything. Once the human intellect comprehends a universal by this process, it becomes part of the individual's "acquired intellect" and can be thought about whenever he or she wishes.[54] The soul and the afterlife[edit] Al-Kindi
Al-Kindi
says that the soul is a simple, immaterial substance, which is related to the material world only because of its faculties which operate through the physical body. To explain the nature of our worldly existence, he (borrowing from Epictetus) compares it to a ship which has, during the course of its ocean voyage, temporarily anchored itself at an island and allowed its passengers to disembark. The implicit warning is that those passengers who linger too long on the island may be left behind when the ship sets sail again. Here, al-Kindi displays a stoic concept, that we must not become attached to material things (represented by the island), as they will invariably be taken away from us (when the ship sets sail again). He then connects this with a Neo-Platonist idea, by saying that our soul can be directed towards the pursuit of desire or the pursuit of intellect; the former will tie it to the body, so that when the body dies, it will also die, but the latter will free it from the body and allow it to survive "in the light of the Creator" in a realm of pure intelligence.[55] The relationship between revelation and philosophy[edit] In the view of al-Kindi, prophecy and philosophy were two different routes to arrive at the truth. He contrasts the two positions in four ways. Firstly, while a person must undergo a long period of training and study to become a philosopher, prophecy is bestowed upon someone by God. Secondly, the philosopher must arrive at the truth by his own devices (and with great difficulty), whereas the prophet has the truth revealed to him by God. Thirdly, the understanding of the prophet – being divinely revealed – is clearer and more comprehensive than that of the philosopher. Fourthly, the way in which the prophet is able to express this understanding to the ordinary people is superior. Therefore, al-Kindi says the prophet is superior in two fields: the ease and certainty with which he receives the truth, and the way in which he presents it. However, the crucial implication is that the content of the prophet's and the philosopher's knowledge is the same. This, says Adamson, demonstrates how limited the superiority al-Kindi afforded to prophecy was.[56][57] In addition to this, al-Kindi adopted a naturalistic view of prophetic visions. He argued that, through the faculty of "imagination" as conceived of in Aristotelian philosophy, certain "pure" and well-prepared souls, were able to receive information about future events. Significantly, he does not attribute such visions or dreams to revelation from God, but instead explains that imagination enables human beings to receive the "form" of something without needing to perceive the physical entity to which it refers. Therefore, it would seem to imply that anyone who has purified themselves would be able to receive such visions. It is precisely this idea, amongst other naturalistic explanations of prophetic miracles that al-Ghazali attacks in his Incoherence of the Philosophers.[58] Critics and patrons[edit] While al-Kindi appreciated the usefulness of philosophy in answering questions of a religious nature, there would be many Islamic thinkers who were not as enthusiastic about its potential. But it would be incorrect to assume that they opposed philosophy simply because it was a "foreign science". Oliver Leaman, an expert on Islamic philosophy, points out that the objections of notable theologians are rarely directed at philosophy itself, but rather at the conclusions the philosophers arrived at. Even al-Ghazali, who is famous for his critique of the philosophers, was himself an expert in philosophy and logic. And his criticism was that they arrived at theologically erroneous conclusions. The three most serious of these, in his view, were believing in the co-eternity of the universe with God, denying the bodily resurrection, and asserting that God only has knowledge of abstract universals, not of particular things (not all philosophers subscribed to these same views).[59] During his life, al-Kindi was fortunate enough to enjoy the patronage of the pro- Mutazilite
Mutazilite
Caliphs al-Ma'mun and al-Mu'tasim, which meant he could carry out his philosophical speculations with relative ease. In his own time, al-Kindi would be criticized for extolling the "intellect" as being the most immanent creation in proximity to God, which was commonly held to be the position of the angels.[60] He also engaged in disputations with the Mutazilites, whom he attacked for their belief in atoms.[61] But the real role of al-Kindi in the conflict between philosophers and theologians would be to prepare the ground for debate. His works, says Deborah Black, contained all the seeds of future controversy that would be fully realized in al-Ghazali's Incoherence of the Philosophers.[62] References[edit]

^ Adamson, pp.12–13 ^ Leaman, Oliver (16 July 2015). "The Biographical Encyclopedia of Islamic Philosophy". Bloomsbury Publishing. Retrieved 27 March 2018 – via Google Books.  ^ Elena Corbett (15 January 2015). Competitive Archaeology in Jordan: Narrating Identity from the Ottomans to the Hashemites. University of Texas Press. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-292-76080-6.  ^ Al-Jubouri, I. M. N. (27 March 2018). "History of Islamic Philosophy: With View of Greek Philosophy
Philosophy
and Early History of Islam". Authors On Line Ltd. Retrieved 27 March 2018 – via Google Books.  ^ Netton, Ian Richard (19 December 2013). "Encyclopaedia of Islam". Routledge. Retrieved 27 March 2018 – via Google Books.  ^ A Biographical Dictionary of Freethinkers of All ages and Nations Al-Kindi, Arab physician and philosopher, the great grandson of one of the companions of Muhammad, the prophet, flourished from 814 to about 840. ^ Freely, John (30 March 2015). "Light from the East: How the Science of Medieval Islam
Islam
Helped to Shape the Western World". I.B.Tauris. Retrieved 27 March 2018 – via Google Books.  ^ Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2006). Islamic philosophy
Islamic philosophy
from its origin to the present : philosophy in the land of prophecy. State Univ. of New York Press. pp. 137–138. ISBN 0-7914-6799-6.  ^ Abboud, Tony (2006). Al-Kindi : the father of Arab philosophy. Rosen Pub. Group. ISBN 1-4042-0511-X.  ^ Greenberg, Yudit Kornberg (2008). Encyclopedia of love in world religions. 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 405. ISBN 1-85109-980-8.  ^ Klein-Frank, F. Al-Kindi. In Leaman, O & Nasr, H (2001). History of Islamic Philosophy. London: Routledge. p 165 ^ Adamson, Peter (27 March 2018). Zalta, Edward N., ed. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics
Metaphysics
Research Lab, Stanford University. Retrieved 27 March 2018 – via Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  ^ Corbin, Henry (1993). History of Islamic philosophy. Kegan Paul International. p. 155. ISBN 0-7103-0416-1.  ^ Adamson, Peter (2006). "Al-Kindı¯ and the reception of Greek philosophy". In Adamson, Peter; Taylor, R. The Cambridge companion to Arabic philosophy. Cambridge University Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-521-52069-0.  ^ Adamson, p7 ^ a b " Abu Yusuf
Abu Yusuf
Yaqub ibn Ishaq al-Sabbah Al-Kindi". Archived from the original on 26 October 2007. Retrieved 12 January 2007.  ^ " Al-Kindi
Al-Kindi
Distinguished Statistics Lectures". "The lectures are named after Al-Kindi
Al-Kindi
(801-873 CE), a prominent figure in the House of Wisdom, whose book entitled "Manuscript on Deciphering Cryptographic Messages" is believed to be the earliest writing on statistics. In his book, Al-Kindi
Al-Kindi
gave a detailed description on how to decipher encrypted messages using statistics and frequency analysis. This text arguably gave rise to the birth of both statistics and cryptanalysis." ^ a b Simon Singh, The Code Book, pgs. 14–20. New York City: Anchor Books, 2000. ISBN 9780385495325 ^ a b Klein-Franke, p172 ^ a b Adamson, p34 ^ Crone, Patricia (1980). Slaves on Horses: The Evolution of the Islamic Polity. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 110–111. ISBN 0-521-52940-9.  ^ a b c Corbin, p154 ^ Klein-Franke, p166 ^ George Satron. Introduction to the History of Science.[full citation needed] ^ Corbin, p154-155 ^ Klein-Franke, p172-173 ^ Adamson, p32-33 ^ Klein-Franke, p166-167 ^ Adamson, p42 ^ Adamson, p43 ^ Benjamin N. Dykes, The Forty Chapters of Al-Kindī: Traditional Horary and Electional Astrology. Minneapolis: Cazimi Press, 2011; pp.5–6 ^ Adamson, p45 ^ Hendrix, John Shannon; Carman, Charles H., eds. (2010). Renaissance Theories of Vision. Visual Culture in Early Modernity. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate. ISBN 1-409400-24-7.  ^ P. Prioreschi. Al-Kindi, A Precursor of the Scientific Revolution[full citation needed] ^ Klein-Franke, p174 ^ Ahmad Y. al-Hassan (2001), Science and Technology in Islam: Technology and applied sciences, pages 65-69, UNESCO ^ Hassan, Ahmad Y. "Alcohol and the Distillation of Wine in Arabic Sources". History of Science and Technology in Islam. Retrieved 2014-04-19. ^ The Economist: "Liquid fire - The Arabs
Arabs
discovered how to distil alcohol. They still do it best, say some" December 18, 2003 ^ Al-Allaf, M. "Al-Kindi's Mathematical Metaphysics" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 January 2007. Retrieved 2007-01-12.  ^ Margaret Cozzens,, Steven J. Miller (2013). The Mathematics
Mathematics
of Encryption: An Elementary Introduction. American Mathematical Society. p. 5. ISBN 0821883216.  ^ Cryptography by Professor Qiang Zeng,p 11,Temple University, https://cis.temple.edu/~qzeng/cis4360-spring17/slides/03-cryptography-hash.pdf ^ Andrea L. Stanton; Peter J. Seybolt; Edward Ramsamy; Carolyn M. Elliott, eds. (2012). Cultural Sociology of the Middle East, Asia, and Africa: An Encyclopedia. SAGE Publications. p. 87. ISBN 141298176X.  ^ Shehadi, Fadlou (1995). Philosophies of Music in Medieval Islam. Leiden: Brill. p. 35. ISBN 9004101284.  ^ Turner, Howard R. (1997). Science in Medieval Islam: An Illustrated Introduction (3rd pbk. print. ed.). University of Texas Press. p. 49. ISBN 0292781490.  ^ Klein-Frank, p 165 ^ Adamson, p37 ^ a b Adamson, p36 ^ a b Corbin, p155 ^ Adamson, p35 ^ Klein-Frank, p167 ^ Adamson, p39 ^ Klein-Frank, p168 ^ Adamson, p40-41 ^ Adamson, p40 ^ Adamson, p41-42 ^ Adamson, p46-47 ^ Corbin, p156 ^ Adamson, p47 ^ Leaman, O. (1999). A Brief Introduction to Islamic Philosophy
Philosophy
Polity Press. p21. ISBN 0-7456-1961-4 ^ Black, p168 ^ Black, p169 ^ Black, p171

Bibliography[edit] English translations[edit]

Peter Adamson & Peter E. Pormann (eds.) (2012). The Philosophical Works of al-Kindī, New York: Oxford University Press.

Studies[edit]

Adamson, Peter (2007). Al-Kindī. Oxford University Press US. ISBN 978-0-19-518142-5. Retrieved 22 May 2011.  Adamson, Peter; Taylor, Richard C. (10 January 2005). The Cambridge Companion to Arabic Philosophy. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-81743-1. Retrieved 22 May 2011.  Robert L. Arrington (2001) [ed.] A Companion to the Philosophers. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-22967-1 Henry Corbin
Henry Corbin
(1993). History of Islamic Philosophy. London: Keagan Paul. Felix Klein-Frank (2001) Al-Kindi. In Oliver Leaman & Hossein Nasr. History of Islamic Philosophy. London: Routledge.

External links[edit]

Adamson, Peter. "Al-Kindi". In Zalta, Edward N. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  Cooper, Glen M. (2007). "Kindī: Abū Yūsuf Yaʿqūb ibn Isḥāq al‐Kindī". In Thomas Hockey; et al. The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers. New York: Springer. pp. 635–6. ISBN 978-0-387-31022-0.  (PDF version) Alkindus (Bibliotheca Augustana) O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., " Abu Yusuf
Abu Yusuf
Yaqub ibn Ishaq al-Sabbah Al-Kindi", MacTutor History of Mathematics
Mathematics
archive, University of St Andrews . Al-Kindi
Al-Kindi
– Famous Muslims Al-Kindi's website – Islamic Philosophy
Philosophy
Online Dr. Mashhad Al-Allaf DOC – Three texts by Al Kindi in the Islamic Philosophy
Philosophy
section Benjamnin N. Dyke's translation of Al-Kindi's Forty Chapters with PDF extracts from the Introduction and main text Texts on Wikisource:

"al-Kindi, Abu Yusuf
Abu Yusuf
Ya'ḳub ibn Isḥak". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.  "Kindī". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.  "Kindi, Abu Yusuf
Abu Yusuf
Ya'kub Ibn Ishak Al-". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920. 

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Fields

Alchemy Aqidah
Aqidah
(theology) 'Aql (intellect) Cosmology

astrology medieval astronomy

Eschatology Ethics Kalam
Kalam
(dialectic) Fiqh
Fiqh
(jurisprudence) Logic Metaphysics Natural philosophy (physics) Peace Madrasah (education) Medieval science Medieval psychology Sufism
Sufism
(mysticism)

Schools

Early Farabism Avicennism Averroism Illuminationism Sufi

cosmology metaphysics

Transcendent theosophy Traditionalist Contemporary

Concepts

ʻAṣabīya Ḥāl Iʻjaz ʼIjtihād ʻlm ʻIrfān Ijmāʿ Maslaha Nafs Qadar Qalb Qiyās Shūrā Tawḥīd Ummah

Philosophers by century (CE)

9th–10th

Al-Kindi Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari Abu al-Abbas Iranshahri Zakariya Razi Apharabius Abu Hatim al-Razi Al Amiri Ikhwan al-Safa Abu Sulayman Sijistani Ibn Masarrah Abu Yaqub al-Sijistani

11th

Al-Ghazali Ibn Miskawayh Avicenna Ibn Hazm Bahmanyār Mu'ayyad fi'l-Din al-Shirazi Nasir Khusraw

12th

Abu'l-Barakāt al-Baghdādī Afdal al-Din Kashani Ahi Evren Ahmad Yasavi Ayn-al-Quzat Averroes Ibn Tufail Omar Khayyám Suhrawardi Shams Tabrizi

13th

Hajji Bektash Wali Jalal ad-Din Muhammad
Muhammad
Rumi Ibn Sab’in Ibn Arabi al-Abharī Nasir al-Din Tusi Fakhr ad-Din ar-Razi Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi

14th–16th

Ibn Khaldun Yunus Emre Hajji Bayram Jalaladdin Davani Sadr ad-Din Dashtaki Aziz Mahmud Hudayi Qadi Mir Husayn al-Maybudi Mahmud Shabistari Sayyid Haydar Amuli Dawūd al-Qayṣarī Jami

17th–19th

Mir Damad Mir Fendereski Mulla Sadra Mohsen Fayz Kashani Abd al-Razzaq Lahiji Mujaddid Alf-i-Sani Rajab Ali Tabrizi Qazi Sa’id Qumi Shah Waliullah Dehlawi Hādī Sabzavārī

20th–present

Muhammad
Muhammad
Husayn Tabatabaei Muhammad
Muhammad
Iqbal Gohar Shahi Mohammad Baqir al-Sadr René Guénon Frithjof Schuon Martin Lings Hossein Nasr Naquib al-Attas Abdolkarim Soroush Gholamhossein Ebrahimi Dinani Taha Abdurrahman Mohammed Abed al-Jabri Mohammed Arkoun Fouad Zakariyya Reza Davari Ardakani Ahmad Fardid Mostafa Malekian Hasanzadeh Amoli Javadi Amoli Partawi Shah

v t e

Mathematics
Mathematics
in medieval Islam

Mathematicians

9th century

'Abd al-Hamīd ibn Turk Sind ibn Ali al-Jawharī Al-Ḥajjāj ibn Yūsuf Al-Kindi Al-Mahani al-Dinawari Banū Mūsā Hunayn ibn Ishaq al-Khwārizmī Yusuf Al-Khuri ibn Qurra Na'im ibn Musa Sahl ibn Bishr al-Marwazi Abu Said Gorgani

10th century

al-Sufi Abu al-Wafa al-Khāzin Abū Kāmil Al-Qabisi al-Khojandi Ahmad ibn Yusuf Aṣ-Ṣaidanānī al-Uqlidisi Al-Nayrizi Al-Saghani Brethren of Purity Ibn Sahl Ibn Yunus Ibrahim ibn Sinan Al-Battani Sinan ibn Thabit Al-Isfahani Nazif ibn Yumn al-Qūhī Abu al-Jud al-Majriti al-Jabali

11th century

al-Zarqālī Abu Nasr Mansur Said al-Andalusi Ibn al-Samh Al-Biruni Alhazen ibn Fatik Al-Sijzi al-Nasawī Al-Karaji Avicenna Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baghdadi ibn Hud al-Jayyānī Kushyar Gilani Al-Muradi Al-Isfizari Abu Mansur al-Baghdadi

12th century

Al-Samawal al-Maghribi Avempace Al-Khazini Omar Khayyam Jabir ibn Aflah al-Hassar Al-Kharaqī Sharaf al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī Ibn al-Yasamin

13th century

al-Hanafi al-Abdari Muhyi al-Dīn al-Maghribī Ibn 'Adlan Nasir al-Din al-Tusi Shams al-Dīn al-Samarqandī Ibn al‐Ha'im al‐Ishbili Ibn Abi al-Shukr al-Hasan al-Marrakushi

14th century

al-Umawī Ibn al-Banna' Ibn Shuayb Ibn al-Shatir Kamāl al-Dīn al-Fārisī Al-Khalili Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi Ahmad al-Qalqashandi Ibn al-Durayhim

15th century

al-Qalaṣādī Ali Qushji al-Wafa'i al-Kāshī al-Rūmī Ulugh Beg Ibn al-Majdi Sibt al-Maridini al-Kubunani

16th century

Al-Birjandi Muhammad
Muhammad
Baqir Yazdi Taqi ad-Din Ibn Hamza al-Maghribi Ibn Ghazi al-Miknasi Ahmad Ibn al-Qadi

Mathematical works

The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing De Gradibus Principles of Hindu Reckoning Book of Optics The Book of Healing Almanac Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Purity Toledan Tables Tabula Rogeriana Zij

Concepts

Alhazen's problem Islamic geometric patterns

Centers

Al-Azhar University Al-Mustansiriya University House of Knowledge House of Wisdom Constantinople observatory of Taqi al-Din Madrasa Maktab Maragheh observatory University of Al Quaraouiyine

Influences

Babylonian mathematics Greek mathematics Indian mathematics

Influenced

Byzantine mathematics European mathematics Indian mathematics

v t e

Astronomy
Astronomy
in the medieval Islamic world

Astronomers

by century (CE AD)

8th

Ahmad Nahavandi Al-Fadl ibn Naubakht Muḥammad ibn Ibrāhīm al-Fazārī Mashallah ibn Athari Yaʿqūb ibn Ṭāriq

9th

Abu Maʿshar Abu Said Gorgani Al-Farghānī Al-Kindi Al-Mahani Abu Hanifa
Abu Hanifa
Dinawari Al-Ḥajjāj ibn Yūsuf Al-Marwazi Ali ibn Isa al-Asturlabi Banu Musa Iranshahri Khālid ibn ʿAbd al‐Malik Al-Khwārizmī Sahl ibn Bishr Thābit ibn Qurra Yahya ibn Abi Mansur

10th

Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi Ibn Al-Adami al-Khojandi l-Khāzin al-Qūhī Abu al-Wafa Ahmad ibn Yusuf al-Battani Al-Qabisi Al-Nayrizi Al-Saghani Aṣ-Ṣaidanānī Ibn Yunus Ibrahim ibn Sinan Ma Yize al-Sijzi Mariam al-Asturlabi Nastulus Abolfadl Harawi Haseb-i Tabari al-Majriti

11th

Abu Nasr Mansur al-Biruni Ali ibn Ridwan Al-Zarqālī Ibn al-Samh Al-Muradi Alhazen Avicenna Ibn al-Saffar Kushyar Gilani Said al-Andalusi Al-Isfizari

12th

Al-Bitruji Avempace Ibn Tufail Al-Kharaqī Al-Khazini Al-Samawal al-Maghribi Abu al-Salt Anvari Averroes Ibn al-Kammad Jabir ibn Aflah Omar Khayyam Sharaf al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī

13th

Ibn al-Banna' al-Marrakushi Ibn al‐Ha'im al‐Ishbili Jamal ad-Din al-Hanafi Muhyi al-Dīn al-Maghribī Nasir al-Din al-Tusi Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi Shams al-Dīn al-Samarqandī Zakariya al-Qazwini Ibn Abi al-Shukr al-ʿUrḍī al-Abhari Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abi Bakr al‐Farisi Abu Ali al-Hasan al-Marrakushi Al-Ashraf Umar II

14th

Ibn al-Shatir al-Khalīlī Ibn Shuayb al-Battiwi Abū al‐ʿUqūl Nizam al-Din Nishapuri al-Jadiri

15th

Ali Kuşçu ʿAbd al‐Wājid Jamshīd al-Kāshī Kadızade Rumi Ulugh Beg Sibt al-Maridini Ibn al-Majdi al-Wafa' al-Kubunani

16th

Al-Birjandi Bahāʾ al-dīn al-ʿĀmilī Piri Reis Takiyüddin

17th

Yang Guangxian Ahmad Khani Al Achsasi al Mouakket Mohammed al-Rudani

Topics

Works

Arabic star names Islamic calendar ʿAjā'ib al-makhlūqāt wa gharā'ib al-mawjūdāt Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Purity Tabula Rogeriana The Book of Healing

Zij

Alfonsine tables Huihui Lifa Book of Fixed Stars Toledan Tables Zij-i Ilkhani Zij-i Sultani Sullam al-sama'

Instruments

Alidade Analog computer Aperture Armillary sphere Astrolabe Astronomical clock Celestial globe Compass Compass
Compass
rose Dioptra Equatorial ring Equatorium Globe Graph paper Magnifying glass Mural instrument Navigational astrolabe Nebula Planisphere Quadrant Sextant Shadow square Sundial Schema for horizontal sundials Triquetrum

Concepts

Almucantar Apogee Astrology
Astrology
in medieval Islam Astrophysics Axial tilt Azimuth Celestial mechanics Celestial spheres Circular orbit Deferent and epicycle Earth's rotation Eccentricity Ecliptic Elliptic orbit Equant Galaxy Geocentrism Gravitational potential energy Gravity Heliocentrism Inertia Islamic cosmology Moonlight Multiverse Obliquity Parallax Precession Qibla Salah times Specific gravity Spherical Earth Sublunary sphere Sunlight Supernova Temporal finitism Trepidation Triangulation Tusi couple Universe

Institutions

Al-Azhar University House of Knowledge House of Wisdom University of Al Quaraouiyine Observatories

Constantinople (Taqi al-Din) Maragheh Samarkand (Ulugh Beg)

Influences

Babylonian astronomy Egyptian astronomy Hellenistic astronomy Indian astronomy

Influenced

Byzantine science Chinese astronomy Medieval European science Indian astronomy

v t e

Medicine
Medicine
in the medieval Islamic world

Physicians

7th century

Al-Harith ibn Kalada and his son Abu Hafsa Yazid Bukhtishu Masarjawaih Ibn Abi Ramtha al-Tamimi Rufaida Al-Aslamia Ibn Uthal

8th century

Bukhtishu family Ja'far al-Sadiq

9th century

Ali al-Ridha Albubather Bukhtishu family Jabril ibn Bukhtishu Jābir ibn Hayyān Hunayn ibn Ishaq
Hunayn ibn Ishaq
and his son Yusuf Al-Khuri Yahya ibn Sarafyun Al-Kindi Masawaiyh Shapur ibn Sahl al-Tabari Al-Ruhawi Yuhanna ibn Bukhtishu Salmawaih ibn Bunan

10th century

Qusta ibn Luqa Abu ul-Ala Shirazi Abul Hasan al-Tabari Al-Natili Qumri Abu Zayd al-Balkhi Isaac Israeli ben Solomon al-Majusi al-Masihi Muvaffak al-Razi Ibn Juljul al-Jabali Al-Tamimi, the physician al-Zahrawi Ibn al-Jazzar Al-Kaŝkarī Ibn Abi al-Ashʿath Ibn al-Batriq Ibrahim ibn Baks Abu al-Qasim Muqane'i Abu Bakr Bokhari

11th century

Abu 'Ubayd al-Juzjani Ibn al-Haytham Al-Biruni Ali ibn Ridwan Avicenna Ephraim ibn al-Za'faran Ibn al-Wafid Ammar Al-Mawsili Abdollah ibn Bukhtishu Ibn Butlan al-Kirmani Ibn al-Kattani Ibn Jazla Masawaih al-Mardini al-Ilaqi Ibn Al-Thahabi Ibn Abi Sadiq Ali ibn Isa al-Kahhal Ibn Hindu

12th century

Avempace Abu al-Bayan ibn al-Mudawwar Ahmad ibn Farrokh Ibn Hubal Zayn al-Din Gorgani Maimonides Serapion the Younger Ibn Zuhr Ya'qub ibn Ishaq al-Israili al-Turjali Averroes Ibn Tufail Al-Ghafiqi Ibn Abi al-Hakam Abu'l-Barakāt al-Baghdādī Al-Samawal al-Maghribi Ibn al-Tilmīdh Ibn Jumay‘

13th century

Ibn al-Baitar Ibn Ṭumlūs Sa'ad al-Dawla Al-Shahrazuri Rashidun al-Suri As-Suwaydi Amin al-Din Rashid al-Din Vatvat Abraham ben Moses ben Maimon Da 'ud
'ud
Abu al-Fadl Al-Dakhwar Ibn Abi Usaibia Joseph ben Judah of Ceuta Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi Ibn al-Nafis Zakariya al-Qazwini Najib ad-Din-e-Samarqandi Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi Ibn al-Quff

14th century

Ibn al-Akfani Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Mahmud Amuli Al-Nagawri Aqsara'i Zayn-e-Attar Mansur ibn Ilyas Jaghmini Mas‘ud ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
Sijzi Najm al-Din al-Shirazi Nakhshabi al-Kazaruni al-Kutubi Ibn Shuayb Ibn al-Khatib Rashid-al-Din Hamadani

15th century

Abu Sa'id al-Afif Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali Astarabadi Husayni Isfahani Burhan-ud-din Kermani Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu al-Harawi Nurbakhshi Shaykh Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Thaleb

16th century

Hakim-e-Gilani Abul Qasim ibn Mohammed al-Ghassani Taqi ad-Din Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ma'ruf Dawud al-Antaki Sultan Ali Khorasani

Concepts

Psychology Ophthalmology

Works

Al-Risalah al-Dhahabiah The Canon of Medicine Anatomy Charts of the Arabs The Book of Healing Book of the Ten Treatises of the Eye De Gradibus Al-Tasrif Zakhireye Khwarazmshahi Adab al-Tabib Kamel al-Sanaat al-Tibbyya Al-Hawi Commentary on Anatomy in Avicenna's Canon

Centers

Bimaristan Nur al-Din Bimaristan Al-'Adudi

Influences

Ancient Greek medicine

Influenced

Medical Renaissance Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine
Medicine
and Sciences

v t e

Islamic theology

Fields Theologians Books

Fields

Aqidah ‘aql Astronomy Cosmology Eschatology Ethics Kalam Fiqh Logic
Logic
in philosophy Peace in philosophy Philosophy Physics Philosophy
Philosophy
of education

Theologians

Abd al-Jabbar ibn Ahmad Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani Abdul Hosein Amini Abdulhakim Arvasi Abū Ḥanīfa Abu l-A‘la Mawdudi Abu Yusuf Ahmad ibn Hanbal Ahmad Sirhindi Ahmad Yasavi Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi Akhtar Raza Khan al-Ash‘ari al-Ballūṭī al-Baydawi al-Dhahabi al-Ghazali al-Hilli al-Jahiz al-Jubba'i al-Kindi al-Masudi al-Maturidi al-Mufid Al-Qasim al-Qushayri al-Razi Al-Shafi‘i al-Shahrastani al-Shirazi al-Tirmidhi Allameh Majlesi Amr ibn Ubayd Dawud al-Zahiri Fazlur Rahman Malik Hasan of Basra Hacı Bayram-ı Veli Haji Bektash Veli Hüseyin Hilmi Işık ibn ‘Arabī ibn al-Jawzi ibn ‘Aqil ibn Hazm ibn Qudamah Ibn Taymiyyah Ja’far al-Sadiq Jalal al-Din Muhammad
Muhammad
Rumi Malik ibn Anas Mahmud Hudayi Morteza Motahhari Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir Muhammad
Muhammad
al- Nafs
Nafs
al-Zakiyya Muhammad
Muhammad
Baqir al-Sadr Muhammed Hamdi Yazır Muhammad
Muhammad
Hamidullah Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Hanafiyyah Muhammad
Muhammad
Tahir-ul-Qadri Muhammad
Muhammad
Taqi Usmani Nasir Khusraw Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi Said Nursî Shaykh Tusi Sheikh Bedreddin Wasil ibn Ata Zayd ibn Ali Zayn al-Abidin

Key books

Crucial Sunni books

al-Irshad al- Aqidah
Aqidah
al-Tahawiyyah

Buyruks Kitab al Majmu Masnavi Nahj al-Balagha Epistles of Wisdom Risale-i Nur

Schools

Sunni

Ash'ari Maturidi Traditionalism

Shia

Kaysanites

Mukhtar

Abu Muslim Sunpadh Ishaq al-Turk

Muhammerah

Khurramites

Babak Mazyar Ismail I / Pir Sultan Abdal
Pir Sultan Abdal
– Qizilbash / Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam

al-Muqanna

Zaidiyyah

Jarudi Batriyya Alid dynasties of northern Iran

Hasan al-Utrush

List of extinct Shia sects

Dukayniyya Khalafiyya Khashabiyya

Imami Isma'ilism

Batiniyyah

Sevener Qarmatians Hamza / al-Muqtana Baha'uddin / ad-Darazi – Druzes

Musta'li

Hafizi Taiyabi

Nizari

Assassins Nizaris

Nasir Khusraw
Nasir Khusraw
Badakhshan
Badakhshan
Alevism

Imami Twelver

Theology of Twelvers

Ja'fari

Akhbari Shaykhi Usuli

Alevism

Qutb ad-Dīn Haydar
Qutb ad-Dīn Haydar
– Qalandariyya Baba Ishak
Baba Ishak
– Babai Revolt Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu
Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu
– Rifa'i-Galibi Order

Ghulat

al-Khaṣībī / ibn Nusayr – Alawites Fazlallah Astarabadi (Naimi) / Imadaddin Nasimi
Imadaddin Nasimi
– Hurufism / Bektashism and folk religion

Independent

Ibadi

ibn Ibāḍ Jābir ibn Zayd

Jabriyyah

Ibn Safwan

Murji'ah Karramiyya Qadariyah

Ma'bad al-Juhani Muʿtazila Bahshamiyya

Khawarij

Azariqa Najdat Sufri

Abu Qurra

Nakkariyyah

Abu Yazid

Haruriyyah

v t e

Perso-Arab musicology

Music theorists‎

Al-Kindi Al-Sarakhsi Al-Farabi Avicenna Ikhwan al-Safa Safi al-Din al-Urmawi Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi Ibn Kurr Abu Ahmad Monajjem

Works

Kitab al-Musiqa al-Kabir

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 90634457 LCCN: n79138789 ISNI: 0000 0001 1684 0731 GND: 118887947 SELIBR: 33144 SUDOC: 027658228 BNF: cb12109766n (data) NKC: jn19990210331 ICCU: ITICCUBVEV19

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