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Civilian A300, A310, A318, A319, A320, A321, A330, A340, A350, A380

Revenue €66.767 billion[3] (FY 2017)

Operating income

€4.253 billion[3] (FY 2017)

Net income

€2.873 billion[3] (FY 2017)

Total assets €111.13 billion[4] (FY 2016)

Total equity €3.65 billion[4] (FY 2016)

Owner

As of September 2016:[5]

France
France
– 11.1% Germany
Germany
(through GZBV) – 11.09% Spain
Spain
– 4.2% Others – 73.6%

Number of employees

133,782 (FY 2016)

Divisions Airbus Defence and Space
Airbus Defence and Space
SAS Airbus Helicopters
Airbus Helicopters
SAS

Subsidiaries

Airbus
Airbus
Group, Inc.

Airbus
Airbus
Corporate Jets Airbus
Airbus
Operations S.A.S. Airbus
Airbus
ProSky Stelia Aerospace

Website www.airbus.com

Airbus
Airbus
SE (/ˈɛərbʌs/, French: [ɛʁbys] ( listen), German: [ˈɛːɐ̯bʊs], Spanish: [ˈeirβus]) is a European multinational corporation that designs, manufactures and sells civil and military aeronautical products worldwide. In addition to its primary civil aeroplane business, the company has two divisions for other products and services: Defence and Space and Helicopters, the latter being the largest in its industry in terms of revenues and turbine helicopter deliveries.[6] The company's main civil aeroplane business is based in Blagnac, France, a suburb of Toulouse, with production and manufacturing facilities mainly in France, Germany, Spain, China, United Kingdom and the United States. Final assembly production is based at Toulouse, France; Hamburg, Germany; Seville, Spain; Tianjin, China, and Mobile, United States.[7] The company produces and markets the first commercially viable digital fly-by-wire airliner, the Airbus A320,[8][9] and the world's largest passenger airliner, the A380. The 10,000th aircraft, an A350, was delivered to Singapore Airlines
Singapore Airlines
on 14 October 2016 ; the global Airbus
Airbus
fleet having performed more than 110 million flights over 215 billion kilometres, carrying 12 billion passengers.[10] Today's company is the product of international consolidation in the European aerospace industry tracing back to the formation of the Airbus
Airbus
Industrie GIE consortium in 1970. In 2000, the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS) NV was established. In addition to other subsidiaries pertaining to security and space activities, EADS owned 100% of the pre-existing Eurocopter
Eurocopter
SA, established in 1992, as well as 80% of Airbus
Airbus
Industrie GIE. In 2001, Airbus
Airbus
Industrie GIE was reorganised as Airbus
Airbus
SAS, a simplified joint-stock company. In 2006, EADS acquired BAE
BAE
Systems's remaining 20% of Airbus.[11] EADS NV was renamed Airbus
Airbus
Group NV and SE in 2014, and 2015, respectively.[12][13][14] Due to the dominance of the Airbus SAS division within Airbus
Airbus
Group SE, these parent and subsidiary companies were merged in January 2017, keeping the name of the parent company. The company was given its present name in April 2017.[15] (For further details, see History) Airbus's corporate headquarters is located in Leiden, Netherlands
Netherlands
and the main office is located in Toulouse, France.[16] The company is led by CEO Thomas Enders and is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Origins 1.2 Formation of Airbus
Airbus
Industrie GIE

1.2.1 Development of the Airbus
Airbus
A300

1.3 Formation of Eurocopter
Eurocopter
SA 1.4 Formation of the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company NV

1.4.1 Background 1.4.2 Formation of EADS and expansion (1999–2008) 1.4.3 Transition from Airbus
Airbus
Industrie GIE to Airbus
Airbus
SAS 1.4.4 Development of the A380 1.4.5 Expansion and sale of BAE
BAE
stake

1.5 2008–2013 1.6 From EADS NV to Airbus
Airbus
SE

1.6.1 2007 restructuring of Airbus
Airbus
SAS 1.6.2 2011 A320neo
A320neo
record orders 1.6.3 2016 deal with Iran 1.6.4 2017 1.6.5 2018

1.7 Competition with Boeing 1.8 A³ 1.9 Historical emblems

2 Products

2.1 Civilian 2.2 Consumer products 2.3 Military 2.4 New supersonic passenger plane 2.5 Airbus
Airbus
aircraft numbering system

2.5.1 Engine codes

2.6 Orders and deliveries

3 Organisation

3.1 Divisions

3.1.1 Commercial aircraft 3.1.2 Defence and Space 3.1.3 Helicopters

3.2 Subsidiaries

3.2.1 Joint ventures

3.3 Governance 3.4 Corporate affairs 3.5 International manufacturing presence 3.6 Financial information

4 Environmental record

4.1 Biofuel

5 Controversies

5.1 Cluster bomb
Cluster bomb
allegation 5.2 Allegations of bribery

5.2.1 Saudi Arabia 5.2.2 South Africa 5.2.3 Turkey

5.3 Insider trading
Insider trading
investigation 5.4 Subsidy conflicts

6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

History[edit] Origins[edit] Airbus
Airbus
Industrie began as a consortium of European aviation firms formed to compete with American companies such as Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, and Lockheed.[17] While many European aircraft were innovative, even the most successful had small production runs.[18] Factors favouring American aircraft manufacturers included: the size of the United States
United States
which made air transport popular; a 1942 Anglo-American agreement entrusting transport aircraft production to the US; and the World War II legacy of "a profitable, vigorous, powerful and structured aeronautical industry" in America.[18]

"For the purpose of strengthening European co-operation in the field of aviation technology and thereby promoting economic and technological progress in Europe, to take appropriate measures for the joint development and production of an Airbus."

Airbus
Airbus
Mission Statement[19]

By the mid-1960s, several European aircraft manufacturers had drawn up competitive designs, but were aware of the risks of such a project. For example in 1959 Hawker Siddeley
Hawker Siddeley
had advertised an "Airbus" version of the Armstrong Whitworth AW.660 Argosy,[20] which would "be able to lift as many as 126 passengers on ultra short routes at a direct operating cost of 2d. per seat mile."[21] The European industry began to accept, along with their governments, that collaboration was required to develop such an aircraft and to compete with the more powerful US manufacturers. Negotiations began over a European collaborative approach and at the 1965 Paris Air Show the major European airlines informally discussed their requirements for a new "Airbus" capable of transporting 100 or more passengers over short to medium distances at a low cost.[19] The same year Hawker Siddeley (at the urging of the UK government) teamed with Breguet and Nord to study Airbus
Airbus
designs. The Hawker Siddeley/Breguet/Nord group's HBN 100 became the basis for the continuation of the project. By 1966 the partners were Sud Aviation, later Aérospatiale
Aérospatiale
(France), Arbeitsgemeinschaft Airbus, later Deutsche Airbus
Deutsche Airbus
(West Germany) and Hawker Siddeley
Hawker Siddeley
(UK).[19] A request for funding was made to the three governments in October 1966.[19] On 25 July 1967, the three governments agreed to proceed with the proposal. In the two years following this agreement, both the British and French governments expressed doubts about the project. The memorandum of understanding had stated that 75 orders must be achieved by 31 July 1968. The French government threatened to withdraw from the project due to its concern over funding all of the Airbus
Airbus
A300, Concorde
Concorde
and the Dassault Mercure
Dassault Mercure
concurrently, but was persuaded to maintain its support.[22] With its own concerns at the A300B proposal in December 1968, and fearing it would not recoup its investment due to lack of sales, the British government withdrew on 10 April 1969.[19][23] West Germany
Germany
took this opportunity to increase its share of the project to 50%.[22] Given the participation by Hawker Siddeley
Hawker Siddeley
up to that point, France
France
and West Germany
Germany
were reluctant to take over its wing design. Thus the British company was allowed to continue as a privileged subcontractor.[18] Hawker Siddeley
Hawker Siddeley
invested GB£35 million in tooling and, requiring more capital, received a GB£35 million loan from the West German government.[22] Formation of Airbus
Airbus
Industrie GIE[edit] Airbus
Airbus
Industrie was formally established as a Groupement d'Intérêt Économique (Economic Interest Group or GIE) on 18 December 1970.[22] It had been formed by a government initiative between France, West Germany
Germany
and the UK that originated in 1967. Its initial shareholders were the French company Aérospatiale
Aérospatiale
and the West German company Deutsche Airbus, each owning a 50% share. The name "Airbus" was taken from a non-proprietary term used by the airline industry in the 1960s to refer to a commercial aircraft of a certain size and range, for this term was acceptable to the French linguistically. Aérospatiale and Deutsche Airbus
Deutsche Airbus
each took a 36.5% share of production work, Hawker Siddeley 20% and the Dutch company Fokker-VFW 7%.[19] Each company would deliver its sections as fully equipped, ready-to-fly items. In October 1971 the Spanish company CASA acquired a 4.2% share of Airbus Industrie, with Aérospatiale
Aérospatiale
and Deutsche Airbus
Deutsche Airbus
reducing their stakes to 47.9%.[19] In January 1979 British Aerospace, which had absorbed Hawker Siddeley
Hawker Siddeley
in 1977, acquired a 20% share of Airbus Industrie.[24] The majority shareholders reduced their shares to 37.9%, while CASA retained its 4.2%.[25] Development of the Airbus
Airbus
A300[edit] Main article: Airbus
Airbus
A300

Airbus
Airbus
A300, the first aircraft launched by Airbus, introduced in 1974.

The Airbus A300
Airbus A300
was to be the first aircraft to be developed, manufactured and marketed by Airbus. By early 1967 the "A300" label began to be applied to a proposed 320 seat, twin engined airliner.[19] Following the 1967 tri-government agreement, Roger Béteille
Roger Béteille
was appointed technical director of the A300 development project.[26] Béteille developed a division of labour that would be the basis of Airbus' production for years to come: France
France
would manufacture the cockpit, flight control and the lower centre section of the fuselage; Hawker Siddeley, whose Trident technology had impressed him, was to manufacture the wings;[27] West Germany
Germany
should make the forward and rear fuselage sections, as well as the upper centre section; the Dutch would make the flaps and spoilers; finally Spain
Spain
(yet to become a full partner) would make the horizontal tailplane.[26] On 26 September 1967 the West German, French and British governments signed a Memorandum of Understanding in London which allowed continued development studies. This also confirmed Sud Aviation as the "lead company", that France and the UK would each have a 37.5% work share with West Germany
Germany
taking 25%, and that Rolls-Royce would manufacture the engines.[18][26]

The first North American customer was Eastern Air Lines
Eastern Air Lines
with this Airbus
Airbus
A300B4

In the face of lukewarm support from airlines for a 300+ seat Airbus A300, the partners submitted the A250 proposal, later becoming the A300B, a 250-seat airliner powered by pre-existing engines.[19] This dramatically reduced development costs, as the Rolls-Royce RB207 to be used in the A300 represented a large proportion of the costs. The RB207 had also suffered difficulties and delays, since Rolls-Royce was concentrating its efforts on the development of another jet engine, the RB211, for the Lockheed L-1011[22] and Rolls-Royce entering into administration due to bankruptcy in 1971.[28][29] The A300B was smaller but lighter and more economical than its three-engined American rivals.[30][31]

"We showed the world we were not sitting on a nine-day wonder, and that we wanted to realise a family of planes…we won over customers we wouldn’t otherwise have won...now we had two planes that had a great deal in common as far as systems and cockpits were concerned."

Jean Roeder, chief engineer of Deutsche Airbus, speaking of the A310[25]

In 1972, the A300 made its maiden flight; its first production model, the A300B2, entered service in 1974.[32] However, the launch of the A300 was largely overshadowed by the similarly timed supersonic aircraft Concorde.[33] Initially the success of the consortium was poor,[34] but orders for the aircraft picked up,[35][36] due in part to the marketing skills used by Airbus
Airbus
CEO Bernard Lathière, targeting airlines in America and Asia.[37] By 1979 the consortium had 256 orders for A300,[33] and Airbus
Airbus
had launched a more advanced aircraft, the A310, in the previous year.[25] It was the launch of the A320
A320
in 1987 that guaranteed the status of Airbus
Airbus
as a major player in the aircraft market[38] – the aircraft had over 400 orders before it first flew, compared to 15 for the A300 in 1972.

Airbus
Airbus
A320, the first model in the A318, A319, A320
A320
and A321 family, introduced in 1988

Formation of Eurocopter
Eurocopter
SA[edit] The Eurocopter
Eurocopter
SA was formed in 1992, through the merger of the helicopter divisions of Aérospatiale
Aérospatiale
and DASA. The company's heritage traces back to Blériot and Lioré et Olivier in France
France
and to Messerschmitt and Focke-Wulf
Focke-Wulf
in Germany.[39] Formation of the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company NV[edit]

Airbus
Airbus
SE (Est. 2000, renamed 2017)

Aérospatiale-Matra (Est. 1999)

Aérospatiale (Formed 1970)

Matra (Est. 1937)

DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG (Est. 1989)

Daimler-Benz's aerospace interests

MTU München (Est. 1934)

Dornier Flugzeugwerke (Est. 1922)

Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm (Est. 1968)

Construcciones Aeronáuticas
Construcciones Aeronáuticas
SA (Est. 1923)

v t e

Background[edit] In June 1997, British Aerospace
British Aerospace
Defence Managing Director John Weston commented "Europe... is supporting three times the number of contractors on less than half the budget of the U.S."[40] European governments wished to see the merger of their defence manufacturers into a single entity, a European Aerospace and Defence Company.[41] As early as 1995 the German aerospace and defence company DaimlerChrysler Aerospace
DaimlerChrysler Aerospace
(DASA) and its British counterpart British Aerospace were said to be eager to create a transnational aerospace and defence company.[42] The two companies envisaged including the French company Aérospatiale, the other major European aerospace company, but only after its privatisation.[43] The first stage of this integration was seen as the transformation of Airbus
Airbus
from a consortium of British Aerospace, DASA, Aérospatiale
Aérospatiale
and Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA into an integrated company; in this aim BAe and DASA were united against the various objections of Aérospatiale.[44] As well as Airbus, British Aerospace
British Aerospace
and DASA were partners in the Panavia Tornado
Panavia Tornado
and Eurofighter Typhoon
Eurofighter Typhoon
aircraft projects. Merger discussions began between British Aerospace
British Aerospace
and DASA in July 1998, just as French participation became more likely with the announcement that Aérospatiale
Aérospatiale
was to merge with Matra
Matra
and emerge with a diluted French government shareholding.[45] A merger was agreed between British Aerospace
British Aerospace
Chairman
Chairman
Richard Evans and DASA CEO Jürgen Schrempp in December 1998.[46] However, when the British General Electric Company put its defence electronics business Marconi Electronic Systems (MES) up for sale on 22 December 1998, British Aerospace abandoned the DASA merger in favour of purchasing its British rival. The merger of British Aerospace
British Aerospace
and MES to form BAE Systems
BAE Systems
was announced on 19 January 1999 and completed on 30 November.[47][48] Evans stated in 2004 that his fear was that an American defence contractor would acquire MES and challenge both British Aerospace
British Aerospace
and DASA.[46] Formation of EADS and expansion (1999–2008)[edit] DASA and the Spanish aircraft company Construcciones Aeronáuticas
Construcciones Aeronáuticas
SA agreed to merge with the signature of a memorandum of understanding on 11 June 1999.[49] On 14 October 1999 DASA agreed to merge with Aérospatiale-Matra to create the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company.[50] 10 July 2000 was "Day One" for the new company, which became the world's second-largest aerospace company after Boeing and the second-largest European arms manufacturer after BAE Systems.[51] In January 2001 Airbus
Airbus
Industrie was transformed from an inherently inefficient consortium structure to a formal joint stock company, with legal and tax procedures being finalised on 11 July.[52][53] Both EADS and BAE
BAE
transferred ownership of their Airbus
Airbus
factories to the new Airbus
Airbus
SAS in return for 80 % and 20 % shares in the new company respectively. In April 2001 EADS agreed to merge its missile businesses with those of BAE Systems
BAE Systems
and Alenia Marconi Systems (BAE/Finmeccanica) to form MBDA. EADS took a 37.5 % share of the new company that was formally established in December 2001 and which thus became the world's second-largest missile manufacturer.[54]

The financial performance and number of employees of Airbus
Airbus
Group SE since 2003.[55]   Sales (in € bn.)   New orders (in € bn.)   Employees (in thousands)

v t e

On 16 June 2003 EADS acquired BAE's 25 % share in Astrium, the satellite and space system manufacturer, to become the sole owner. EADS paid £84 million, however due to the lossmaking status of the company BAE
BAE
invested an equal amount for "restructuring".[56] It was subsequently renamed EADS Astrium, and had the divisions Astrium Satellites, Astrium
Astrium
Space Transportation and Astrium
Astrium
Services. In November 2003, EADS announced that it was considering working with Japanese companies, and the Japanese METI, to develop a hypersonic airliner intended to be a larger, faster, and quieter, replacement for the Concorde, which was retired in October the same year. Despite repeated suggestions as early as 2000 that BAE Systems
BAE Systems
wished to sell its 20 % share of Airbus, the possibility was consistently denied by the company.[57] However, on 6 April 2006 BBC
BBC
News reported that it was indeed to sell its stake, then "conservatively valued" at £2.4 billion.[58] Due to the slow pace of informal negotiations, BAE
BAE
exercised its put option, which saw investment bank Rothschild appointed to give an independent valuation. Six days after this process began, Airbus
Airbus
announced delays to the A380 with significant effects on the value of Airbus
Airbus
shares. On 2 June 2006 Rothschild valued BAE's share at £1.87 billion, well below BAE's, analysts' and even EADS' expectations.[59] The BAE
BAE
board recommended that the company proceed with the sale and on 4 October 2006 shareholders voted in favour; the sale was completed on 13 October making EADS the sole shareholder of Airbus.[60] In March 2007 EADS Defence and Security Systems division was awarded an eight-year, £200m contract to provide the IT infrastructure for the FiReControl project in the UK.[61] Transition from Airbus
Airbus
Industrie GIE to Airbus
Airbus
SAS[edit]

Airbus A340
Airbus A340
300 introduced in 1993

Airbus A330
Airbus A330
introduced in 1994

The retention of production and engineering assets by the partner companies in effect made Airbus
Airbus
Industrie a sales and marketing company.[62] This arrangement led to inefficiencies due to the inherent conflicts of interest that the four partner companies faced; they were both GIE shareholders of, and subcontractors to, the consortium. The companies collaborated on development of the Airbus range, but guarded the financial details of their own production activities and sought to maximise the transfer prices of their sub-assemblies.[53] It was becoming clear that Airbus
Airbus
was no longer a temporary collaboration to produce a single plane as per its original mission statement, it had become a long term brand for the development of further aircraft. By the late 1980s work had begun on a pair of new medium-sized aircraft, the biggest to be produced at this point under the Airbus
Airbus
name, the Airbus A330
Airbus A330
and the Airbus
Airbus
A340.[63][64] In the early 1990s the then Airbus
Airbus
CEO Jean Pierson argued that the GIE should be abandoned and Airbus
Airbus
established as a conventional company.[65] However, the difficulties of integrating and valuing the assets of four companies, as well as legal issues, delayed the initiative. In December 1998, when it was reported that British Aerospace and DASA were close to merging,[66] Aérospatiale
Aérospatiale
paralysed negotiations on the Airbus
Airbus
conversion; the French company feared the combined BAe/DASA, which would own 57.9% of Airbus, would dominate the company and it insisted on a 50/50 split.[67] However, the issue was resolved in January 1999 when BAe abandoned talks with DASA in favour of merging with Marconi Electronic Systems
Marconi Electronic Systems
to become BAE Systems.[68][69][48] Then in 2000 three of the four partner companies (DaimlerChrysler Aerospace, successor to Deutsche Airbus; Aérospatiale-Matra, successor to Sud-Aviation; and CASA) merged to form EADS, simplifying the process. EADS now owned Airbus
Airbus
France, Airbus
Airbus
Deutschland and Airbus
Airbus
España, and thus 80% of Airbus Industrie.[53][70] BAE Systems
BAE Systems
and EADS transferred their production assets to the new company, Airbus
Airbus
SAS, in return for shareholdings in that company.[53][71] Development of the A380[edit] Main article: Airbus
Airbus
A380

Airbus
Airbus
A380, the largest passenger jet in the world, introduced in 2007.

In mid-1988 a group of Airbus
Airbus
engineers led by Jean Roeder began working in secret on the development of an ultra-high-capacity airliner (UHCA), both to complete its own range of products and to break the dominance that Boeing
Boeing
had enjoyed in this market segment since the early 1970s with its 747.[72] The project was announced at the 1990 Farnborough Air Show, with the stated goal of 15% lower operating costs than the 747-400.[73] Airbus
Airbus
organised four teams of designers, one from each of its partners (Aérospatiale, DaimlerChrysler Aerospace, British Aerospace, CASA) to propose new technologies for its future aircraft designs. In June 1994 Airbus began developing its own very large airliner, then designated as A3XX.[33][74][75] Airbus
Airbus
considered several designs, including an odd side-by-side combination of two fuselages from the Airbus
Airbus
A340, which was Airbus's largest jet at the time.[76] Airbus
Airbus
refined its design, targeting a 15% to 20% reduction in operating costs over the existing Boeing
Boeing
747–400. The A3XX design converged on a double-decker layout that provided more passenger volume than a traditional single-deck design. Five A380s were built for testing and demonstration purposes.[77] The first A380 was unveiled at a ceremony in Toulouse
Toulouse
on 18 January 2005, and its maiden flight took place on 27 April 2005. After successfully landing three hours and 54 minutes later, chief test pilot Jacques Rosay said flying the A380 had been "like handling a bicycle".[78] On 1 December 2005, the A380 achieved its maximum design speed of Mach 0.96.[77] On 10 January 2006, the A380 made its first transatlantic flight to Medellín
Medellín
in Colombia.[79] The Airbus A380
Airbus A380
was delayed in October 2006 due to the use of incompatible software used to design the aircraft. Primarily, the Toulouse
Toulouse
assembly plant used the latest version 5 of CATIA
CATIA
(made by Dassault), while the design centre at the Hamburg
Hamburg
factory were using the older and incompatible version 4.[80] The result was that the 530 km of cables wiring throughout the aircraft had to be completely redesigned.[81] Although no orders had been cancelled, Airbus
Airbus
still had to pay millions in late-delivery penalties.[80] The first aircraft delivered was to Singapore Airlines
Singapore Airlines
on 15 October 2007 and entered service on 25 October 2007 with an inaugural flight between Singapore
Singapore
and Sydney.[82][83] Two months later Singapore Airlines CEO Chew Choong Seng said that the A380 was performing better than both the airline and Airbus
Airbus
had anticipated, burning 20% less fuel per passenger than the airline's existing 747-400
747-400
fleet.[84] Emirates was the second airline to take delivery of the A380 on 28 July 2008 and started flights between Dubai
Dubai
and New York[85] on 1 August 2008.[86] Qantas
Qantas
followed on 19 September 2008, starting flights between Melbourne and Los Angeles on 20 October 2008.[87] Expansion and sale of BAE
BAE
stake[edit] In 2003, Airbus
Airbus
and the Kaskol Group created an Airbus
Airbus
Engineering centre in Russia, which started with 30 engineers and since has emerged as a model of success for Airbus’ globalisation strategy. It was the first engineering facility to open in Europe outside the company’s home countries. Equipped with state-of-the-art communications equipment and linked with Airbus
Airbus
engineering sites in France
France
and Germany, the facility performs extensive work in disciplines such as fuselage structure, stress, system installation and design. In 2011, the centre employs some 200 engineers who have completed over 30 large-scale projects for the A320, the A330/ A340
A340
and the A380 programmes. Russian engineers also performed more than half of all design work on the A330-200F freighter, with its activity related to fuselage structure design, floor grids installation and junctions design. The centre currently is involved in the A320neo Sharklets design development and numerous design works for the A350 XWB programme.[88] On 6 April 2006 BAE Systems
BAE Systems
planned to sell its 20% share in Airbus, then "conservatively valued" at €3.5 billion (US$4.17 billion).[89] Analysts suggested the move to make partnerships with U.S. firms more feasible, in both financial and political terms.[90] BAE
BAE
originally sought to agree on a price with EADS through an informal process. Due to lengthy negotiations and disagreements over price, BAE
BAE
exercised its put option, which saw investment bank Rothschild appointed to give an independent valuation. In June 2006 Airbus
Airbus
was embroiled in significant international controversy over an announcement of further delays in the delivery of its A380. Following the announcement the value of associated stock plunged by up to 25% in a matter of days, although it soon recovered afterwards. Allegations of insider trading on the part of Noël Forgeard, CEO of EADS, its majority corporate parent, promptly followed. The loss of associated value was of grave concern to BAE, press described a "furious row" between BAE
BAE
and EADS, with BAE believing the announcement was designed to depress the value of its share.[91] A French shareholder group filed a class action lawsuit against EADS for failing to inform investors of the financial implications of the A380 delays while airlines awaiting deliveries demanded compensation.[92] As a result, EADS chief Noël Forgeard and Airbus
Airbus
CEO Gustav Humbert resigned on 2 July 2006.[93] On 2 July 2006 Rothschild valued BAE's stake at £1.9 billion (€2.75 billion), well below the expectation of BAE, analysts, and even EADS.[94] On 5 July BAE
BAE
appointed independent auditors to investigate how the value of its share of Airbus
Airbus
had fallen from the original estimates to the Rothschild valuation; however in September 2006 BAE
BAE
agreed to the sale of its stake in Airbus
Airbus
to EADS for £1.87 billion (€2.75 billion, $3.53 billion), pending BAE
BAE
shareholder approval.[95] On 4 October shareholders voted in favour of the sale,[96] leaving Airbus
Airbus
entirely owned by EADS. 2008–2013[edit] On 29 February 2008, the United States
United States
Air Force awarded a $35 billion contract for aerial refueling tankers (the KC-45) to Northrop Grumman, with EADS as a major subcontractor. The contract, one of the largest created by the Department of Defence, is initially valued at $35 billion but has the potential to grow to $100 billion. Under the contract, Northrop Grumman
Northrop Grumman
and EADS would build a fleet of 179 planes, based on the existing Airbus
Airbus
330, to provide in-air refueling to military aircraft, from fighter jets to cargo planes. While final assembly of the craft would take place at an Airbus
Airbus
plant near Mobile, Alabama, parts would come from suppliers across the globe.[97] However, the award was protested by Boeing, the other bidder on the project, which was upheld by the GAO. In response to the new contest, on 8 March 2010, Northrop Grumman
Northrop Grumman
announced it was abandoning its bid for the new contract, with its CEO stating that the revised bid requirement favored Boeing.[98] On 20 April 2010, EADS announced it was re-entering the competition and intended to enter a bid with the KC-45.[99] EADS reported a 763 million euros loss for 2009 as a result of a 1.8 billion euros charge on the troubled Airbus A400M
Airbus A400M
project and a 240 million euros charge related to the A380.[100] On 12 September 2012 it was reported[101] that BAE
BAE
and EADS were in discussions regarding a possible merger. In the event of the merger, BAE
BAE
shareholders would own 40 % and EADS 60 % of the new enlarged organisation.[102][103] A key French EADS shareholder Lagardere asked EADS to rethink the proposed merger plan as the conditions were unsatisfactory.[104] The bosses of BAE Systems
BAE Systems
and EADS issued a joint statement seeking political support for their proposed 35 billion euro (US$45 billion) merger from the British, French and German governments; and reiterated that the combination is borne out of opportunity, not necessity and the new company would be greater than the sum of its parts.[105][106][107] It was reported on 10 October 2012, that the merger between BAE Systems
BAE Systems
and EADS had been called off.[108] From EADS NV to Airbus
Airbus
SE[edit] In January 2014, EADS was reorganised as Airbus
Airbus
Group NV, with three divisions (Airbus, Airbus
Airbus
Defence and Space, and Airbus Helicopters.[12][109][110] On 27 May 2015 the company became a Societas Europaea
Societas Europaea
(SE) (Latin: European Company), having been a Naamloze vennootschap
Naamloze vennootschap
(public limited company).[13] In September 2016, Airbus
Airbus
Group announced that it would merge with its largest division, Airbus
Airbus
SAS, into a new entity and introduce a single Airbus brand,[111] the merge to take effect on 1 January 2017.[112] The group reorganized under the brand name of "Airbus" in January 2017. The subsidiaries Airbus Helicopters
Airbus Helicopters
and Airbus Defence and Space
Airbus Defence and Space
became operating divisions of the same company.[113] Airbus
Airbus
Group SE changed its legal name to Airbus
Airbus
SE at its 2017 annual meeting on 12 April 2017.[15] 2007 restructuring of Airbus
Airbus
SAS[edit] On 9 October 2006 Christian Streiff, Humbert's successor, resigned due to differences with parent company EADS over the amount of independence he would be granted in implementing his reorganisation plan for Airbus.[114] He was succeeded by EADS co- CEO Louis Gallois, bringing Airbus
Airbus
under more direct control of its parent company. On 28 February 2007, CEO Louis Gallois
Louis Gallois
announced the company's restructuring plans. Entitled Power8, the plan would see 10,000 jobs cut over four years; 4,300 in France, 3,700 in Germany, 1,600 in the UK and 400 in Spain. 5,000 of the 10,000 would be at subcontractors. Plants at Saint Nazaire, Varel
Varel
and Laupheim
Laupheim
face sell off or closure, while Meaulte, Nordenham
Nordenham
and Filton
Filton
are "open to investors".[115] As of 16 September 2008 the Laupheim
Laupheim
plant has been sold to a Thales-Diehl consortium to form Diehl Aerospace and while the design activities at Filton
Filton
have been retained, the manufacturing operations have been sold to British company GKN.[116] The announcements resulted in Airbus
Airbus
unions in France
France
and Germany
Germany
threatening strike action.[117] 2011 A320neo
A320neo
record orders[edit] At the 2011 Paris Air Show, Airbus
Airbus
received total orders valued at about $72.2 billion for 730 aircraft, representing a new record in the civil aviation industry. The A320neo
A320neo
("new engine option") model, announced in December 2010, received 667 orders; this, together with previous orders, resulted in a total of 1029 orders within six months of launch date, creating another industry record.[118] 2016 deal with Iran[edit] In January 2016 Airbus
Airbus
announced it has signed a tentative agreement with Iran
Iran
to sell 118 Airbus
Airbus
aircraft along with a comprehensive civil aviation cooperation package as a part of the implementation of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action
Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action
(JCPOA).[119] Boeing
Boeing
has also announced its will to sell 80 jets directly to Iran
Iran
Air as part of a proposed deal worth up to $17.6bn.[120] However, In early July 2016, US House of Representatives
US House of Representatives
passed amendments that would block US Department of Treasury
US Department of Treasury
funds from granting export licences or reexport of passenger commercial aircraft. Boeing
Boeing
reacted that if its deal with Iran
Iran
is blocked by the US Congress, all other companies that supply to its rivals should be prohibited as well. Airbus, too, has said that it requires US's approval to export airliners to Iran, because parts of its aircraft are made in the US.[121] The deal between Iran
Iran
Air and Airbus
Airbus
was finally implemented, and the first new purchased Airbus
Airbus
aircraft, an A321, landed in Tehran's International Mehr Abad Airport
Mehr Abad Airport
on January 12, 2017; Airbus
Airbus
stated that the delivery has been in full compliance with the JCPOA and US government Office of Foreign Assets Control
Office of Foreign Assets Control
licenses.[122] 2017[edit] On 30 June, Airbus
Airbus
said its airliner sales team would now report directly to Tom Enders
Tom Enders
and by-pass Fabrice Bregier, which will lead programs, support and services, engineering, manufacturing, procurement and quality while Enders will lead sales and marketing.[123] On 16 October, Airbus
Airbus
and Bombardier Aerospace
Bombardier Aerospace
announced a partnership on the CSeries
CSeries
program, with Airbus
Airbus
acquiring a 50.01% majority stake, Bombardier keeping 31% and Investissement Québec 19%, to expand in an estimated market of more than 6,000 new 100-150 seat aircraft over 20 years; Airbus’ supply chain expertise should save production costs but headquarters and assembly remain in Québec while U.S. customers would benefit from a second Final Assembly Line in Mobile, Alabama.[124] In the fall, Der Spiegel
Der Spiegel
investigated systematic corruption and improper intermediates usage in past sales and questioned whether Enders can survive the scandal as he did not react quickly enough, then Handelsblatt
Handelsblatt
reported the French government wants to control Airbus
Airbus
again and Bregier wants to get Enders fired to gain his position.[125] Sales chief John Leahy was supposed to retire at the end of 2017 to be replaced by his deputy Kiran Rao.[126] A few weeks before the switch, Rao told Airbus
Airbus
CEO Tom Enders
Tom Enders
that he was no longer available. After investigations into alleged bribery, Enders is taking personal responsibility for the sales organization compliance. Leahy should stay till a successor is found, maybe Frenchmen Eric Schulz, aerospace engineer and president of Rolls-Royce plc
Rolls-Royce plc
Civil Aerospace or Christian Scherer, CEO of ATR Aircraft, strategist and salesman.[127] Schulz should replace Leahy on 25 January.[128] In November, Paul Eremenko, Airbus’s CTO, quit after two years. French unions held him for responsible for the job cuts made at a French research facility nearby Paris. Tom Enders, Airbus
Airbus
chief executive, was counting on Paul Eremenko to create a radically different approach to R&D.[129] On 28 November 2017, Airbus
Airbus
announced a partnership with Rolls-Royce plc and Siemens
Siemens
to develop the E-Fan X
E-Fan X
hybrid-electric aircraft demonstrator, to fly in 2020.[130] Enders CEO mandate runs until April 2019 and his reconduction is decided by Airbus' board, but in December he said would not seek a third mandate while he was in April as he is pressured over corruption investigations.[131] On 15 December, the Board confirmed Enders will not stay beyond April 2019 and announced that in February 2018 Brégier will be replaced by Guillaume Faury, currently Airbus Helicopters CEO.[132] The renewal should have been disclosed in early 2018, the media hype accelerated its timing but not the decision. When told by the board that he would not succeed Enders as CEO, Bregier chose to leave. Besides Enders, Bregier, Leahy and Eremenko, engineering chief Charles Champion is retiring at the end of 2017, Airbus North America
Airbus North America
chairman Allan McArtor is leaving, as is the unit’s CEO Barry Eccleston to be replaced by Jeff Knittel, CEO of lessor CIT Aerospace. Head of military aircraft Fernando Alonso, civil aircraft division COO Tom Williams and head of programs Didier Evrard are also nearing retirement.[133] For 2017, Airbus
Airbus
announced it received 1,109 net orders from 44 customers in 2017, and delivered 718 aircraft to 85 customers: 558 A320
A320
Family (including 181 A320neo); 67 A330s; 78 A350
A350
XWBs and 15 A380s.[134] 2018[edit] As UK leaves the EU, Airbus
Airbus
has been approached by at least seven governments (France, Germany, Spain, U.S., China, Mexico and South Korea) for wing production competitiveness. Currently produced in Broughton and designed in Filton
Filton
since 1970, wing production employs 15,000, over 10% of Airbus
Airbus
staff. Composite wings will be needed to lower fuel burn by 30% for the A320
A320
replacement.[135] Tom Enders
Tom Enders
later promised the U.K. government Business Secretary Greg Clark
Greg Clark
that Airbus would retain its British operations “long into the future’’ and see the U.K. as a “home country and a competitive place to invest.’’ [136] Airbus
Airbus
will designate a new CEO to succeed Enders by the end of 2018, which will be submitted to shareholders at the spring 2019 annual meeting, with planemaking boss and former Eurocopter
Eurocopter
head Guillaume Faury as the main internal candidate.[137] Competition with Boeing[edit] Main article: Competition between Airbus
Airbus
and Boeing

   Airbus
Airbus
orders

   Airbus
Airbus
deliveries

   Boeing
Boeing
orders

   Boeing
Boeing
deliveries

Annual net orders and aircraft deliveries by Airbus
Airbus
and Boeing Commercial Airplanes, respectively, since 1991.[138][139]

v t e

Airbus
Airbus
is in tight competition with Boeing
Boeing
every year for aircraft orders although Airbus
Airbus
has secured over 50% of aircraft orders in the decade since 2003.[140] Airbus
Airbus
won a greater share of orders in 2003 and 2004. In 2005, Airbus achieved 1111 (1055 net) orders,[141] compared to 1029 (net of 1002) for the same year at rival Boeing[142] However, Boeing
Boeing
won 55% of 2005 orders proportioned by value; and in the following year Boeing
Boeing
won more orders by both measures. Airbus
Airbus
in 2006 achieved its second best year ever in its entire 35-year history in terms of the number of orders it received, 824, second only to the previous year.[143] Airbus plans to increase production of A320
A320
airliners to reach 40 per month by 2012, at a time when Boeing
Boeing
is increasing monthly 737 production from 31.5 to 35 per month.[144] Regarding operational aircraft, there were 7,264 Airbus
Airbus
aircraft operational at April 2013.[140] Although Airbus
Airbus
secured over 50% of aircraft orders in the decade since 2003, the number of Boeing aircraft still in operation at April 2013 still exceeded Airbus
Airbus
by 21% because Airbus
Airbus
made a late entry into the market, 1972 vs. 1958 for Boeing; this lead is diminishing as older aircraft are progressively retired. Though both manufacturers have a broad product range in various segments from single-aisle to wide-body, their aircraft do not always compete head-to-head. Instead they respond with models slightly smaller or bigger than the other in order to plug any holes in demand and achieve a better edge. The A380, for example, is designed to be larger than the 747. The A350XWB competes with the high end of the 787 and the low end of the 777. The A320
A320
is bigger than the 737-700 but smaller than the 737–800. The A321 is bigger than the 737–900 but smaller than the previous 757-200. Airlines see this as a benefit since they get a more complete product range, from 100 seats to 500 seats, than if both companies offered identical aircraft.[145]

The first Airbus A350
Airbus A350
XWB on its maiden flight.

In recent years the Boeing
Boeing
777 has outsold its Airbus
Airbus
counterparts, which include the A340
A340
family as well as the A330-300. The smaller A330-200 competes with the 767, outselling its Boeing
Boeing
counterpart in recent years. The A380 is anticipated to further reduce sales of the Boeing
Boeing
747, gaining Airbus
Airbus
a share of the market in very large aircraft, though frequent delays in the A380 programme have caused several customers to consider the refreshed 747–8.[146] Airbus
Airbus
has also proposed the A350
A350
XWB to compete with the Boeing
Boeing
787 Dreamliner, after being under great pressure from airlines to produce a competing model.[147][148] A³[edit] In 2015, Airbus
Airbus
Group said it was establishing a R&D center and venture capital fund in Silicon Valley.[149][150] Airbus
Airbus
CEO Fabrice Bregier stated: "What is the weakness of a big group like Airbus
Airbus
when we talk about innovation? We believe that we have better ideas than the rest of the world. We believe that we know because we control the technologies and platforms. The world has shown us in the car industry, the space industry and the hi-tech industry that this is not true. And we need to be open to others' ideas and others' innovations,"[151] Airbus
Airbus
Group CEO Tom Enders
Tom Enders
stated that "The only way to do it for big companies is really to create spaces outside of the main business where we allow and where we incentivize experimentation... That is what we have started to do but there is no manual... It is a little bit of trial and error. We all feel challenged by what the Internet companies are doing."[152] Six months after launch, the Airbus
Airbus
Group Venture fund in Silicon Valley became fully operational in January 2016.[153] Historical emblems[edit] Emblems of Airbus
Airbus
Industrie GIE (1970–2000) and Airbus
Airbus
SAS (2001–2016), until the latter on 1 January 2017 merged with its parent company, Airbus
Airbus
Group SE:

1970–2000

2001–2010

2010–2013

2014–2016

Emblems of the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company NV (2000–2014), Airbus
Airbus
Group NV (2014–2015) and Airbus
Airbus
Group SE (2015–2017):

2000–2010

2010–2013

2014–2017

2017-

Products[edit] Civilian[edit]

The Airbus
Airbus
A380, the largest airliner

The Airbus
Airbus
product line started with the A300, the world's first twin-aisle, twin-engined aircraft. A shorter, re-winged, re-engined variant of the Airbus
Airbus
A300A300 is known as the A310. Building on its success, Airbus
Airbus
launched the A320, particularly notable for being the first commercial jet to use a fly-by-wire control system. The A320
A320
has been, and continues to be, a great commercial success. The A318 and A319 are shorter derivatives with some of the latter under construction for the corporate business jet market as Airbus
Airbus
Corporate Jets. A stretched version is known as the A321. The A320
A320
family's primary competitor is the Boeing
Boeing
737 family.[154] The longer-range widebody products— the twin-jet A330
A330
and the four-engine A340— have efficient wings, enhanced by winglets. The Airbus
Airbus
A340-500 has an operating range of 16,700 kilometres (9,000 nmi), the second longest range of any commercial jet after the Boeing
Boeing
777-200LR (range of 17,446 km or 9,420 nautical miles).[155] All Airbus
Airbus
aircraft developed since then have cockpit systems similar to the A320, making it easier to train crew. Production of the four-engine A340
A340
was ended in 2011 due to lack of sales compared to its twin-engine counterparts, such as the Boeing
Boeing
777.[156] Airbus
Airbus
is studying a replacement for the A320
A320
series, tentatively dubbed NSR, for "New Short-Range aircraft".[157][158] Those studies indicated a maximum fuel efficiency gain of 9–10% for the NSR. Airbus
Airbus
however opted to enhance the existing A320
A320
design using new winglets and working on aerodynamical improvements.[159] This "A320 Enhanced" should have a fuel efficiency improvement of around 4–5%, shifting the launch of an A320
A320
replacement to 2017–2018. On 24 September 2009, the COO Fabrice Bregier stated to Le Figaro
Le Figaro
that the company would need from €800 million to €1 billion over six years to develop the new aircraft generation and preserve the company technological lead from new competitors like C919,[160] scheduled to operate by 2015–2020.[161] In July 2007, Airbus
Airbus
delivered its last A300 to FedEx, marking the end of the A300/ A310
A310
production line. Airbus
Airbus
intends to relocate Toulouse A320
A320
final assembly activity to Hamburg, and A350/A380 production in the opposite direction as part of its Power8 organisation plan begun under ex- CEO Christian Streiff.[162] Airbus
Airbus
supplied replacement parts and service for Concorde
Concorde
until its retirement in 2003.[163][164]

Product list and details (date information from Airbus)

Aircraft Description Seats Max 1st flight Production ceased

A300 2 engines, twin aisle 228–254 361 1972-10-28 2007-03-27 (561 built)

A310 2 engines, twin aisle, modified A300 187 279 1982-04-03 2007-03-27 (255 built)

A318 2 engines, single aisle, shortened 6.17 m from A320 107 132 2002-01-15

A319 2 engines, single aisle, shortened 3.77 m from A320 124 156 1995-08-25

A320 2 engines, single aisle 150 180 1987-02-22

A321 2 engines, single aisle, lengthened 6.94 m from A320 185 236 1993-03-11

A330 2 engines, twin aisle 246—300 406–440 1992-11-02

A340 4 engines, twin aisle 239–380 380-440 1991-10-25 2008-09 (A340-200) 2011-11-10 (all other variants, 377 built)[156]

A350 2 engines, twin aisle 270–350 550 2013-06-14

A380 4 engines, double deck, twin aisle 555 853 2005-04-27

VIP aircraft Airbus A330
Airbus A330
of Qatar Amiri Flight
Qatar Amiri Flight
taxiing on Zagreb airport

The Airbus Corporate Jets
Airbus Corporate Jets
markets and modifies new aircraft for private and corporate customers. It has a model range that parallels the commercial aircraft offered by the company, ranging from the A318 Elite to the double-deck Airbus A380
Airbus A380
Prestige. Following the entry of the 737 based Boeing
Boeing
Business Jet, Airbus
Airbus
joined the business jet market with the A319 Corporate Jet in 1997. Although the term Airbus Corporate jet was initially used only for the A319CJ, it is now often used for all models, including the VIP widebodies. As of December 2008, 121 corporate and private jets are operating, 164 aircraft have been ordered, including an A380 Prestige and 107 A320
A320
family Corporate Jet.[165]

Consumer products[edit] In June 2013, Airbus
Airbus
announced that it was developing a range of "smart suitcases" known as Bag2Go for air travellers, in conjunction with luggage-maker Rimowa
Rimowa
and IT firm T-Systems.[166][167] The cases feature a collection of built-in electronic gadgets which communicate with a smartphone app and with the IT systems of the airline, to assist the traveller and improve reliability and security of baggage handling. Gadgets include a weighing scale and a location tracker, using GPS
GPS
for location-tracking, RFID
RFID
for identification, and a SIM card for messaging.[168][169] Since then, similar products, with more gadgets, have been announced by Delsey
Delsey
and Bluesmart.[citation needed] Military[edit] In the late 1990s Airbus
Airbus
became increasingly interested in developing and selling to the military aviation market. It embarked on two main fields of development: aerial refuelling with the Airbus A310
Airbus A310
MRTT (Multi-Role Tanker Transport) and the Airbus A330
Airbus A330
MRTT, and tactical airlift with the A400M.

The first A400M
A400M
in Seville
Seville
on 26 June 2008

In January 1999 Airbus
Airbus
established a separate company, Airbus
Airbus
Military SAS, to undertake development and production of a turboprop-powered tactical transport aircraft, the Airbus Military
Airbus Military
A400M.[170][171] The A400M
A400M
is being developed by several NATO
NATO
members, Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg, Spain, Turkey, and the UK, as an alternative to relying on foreign aircraft for tactical airlift capacity, such as the Ukrainian Antonov An-124 Ruslan[172] and the American C-130 Hercules.[173][174] The A400M
A400M
project has suffered several delays;[175][176] Airbus
Airbus
has threatened to cancel the development unless it receives state subsidies.[177][178] Pakistan placed an order for the Airbus A310
Airbus A310
MRTT in 2008, which will be a conversion of an existing airframe as the base model A310
A310
is no longer in production.[179] On 25 February 2008 Airbus
Airbus
won an order for three air refuelling MRTT aircraft, adapted from A330
A330
passenger jets, from the United Arab Emirates.[180] On 1 March 2008 a consortium of Airbus
Airbus
and Northrop Grumman
Northrop Grumman
had won a $35 billion contract to build the new in-flight refuelling aircraft KC-45A, a US built version of the MRTT, for the USAF.[181] The decision drew a formal complaint from Boeing,[182][183] and the KC-X
KC-X
contract was cancelled to begin bidding afresh.[184][185] New supersonic passenger plane[edit] In September 2014, Aerion
Aerion
partnered with Airbus
Airbus
(mainly Airbus Defence)[186] to collaborate on designing the Aerion
Aerion
AS2, a supersonic 11-seater private business jet, hoping for a market entry in 2021.[187] Airbus
Airbus
aircraft numbering system[edit] The Airbus
Airbus
numbering system is an alpha numeric model number followed by a dash and a three digit number.[188] The model number often takes the form of the letter "A" followed by a '3', a digit, then followed normally by a '0', for example A330. There are some exceptions such as: A318, A319, A321 and A400M. The succeeding three digit number represents the aircraft series, the engine manufacturer and engine version number respectively. To use an A320-200 with International Aero Engines (IAE) V2500-A1 engines as an example; The code is 2 for series 200, 3 for IAE and engine version 1, thus the aircraft number is A320-231. An additional letter is sometimes used. These include, 'C' for a combi version (passenger/freighter), 'F' for a freighter model, 'R' for the long range model, and 'X' for the enhanced model. Engine codes[edit]

Code Manufacturing company

0 General Electric (GE)

1 CFM International (GE and SNECMA, now a subsidiary of Safran)

2 Pratt & Whitney (P&W)

3 International Aero Engines (P&W, R-R, MTU, Kawasaki, Mitsubishi, and IHI)

4 Rolls-Royce (R-R)

5 CFM International (GE and SNECMA/Safran) ( CFM International LEAP-1A for A320
A320
NEO Family)

6 Engine Alliance
Engine Alliance
(GE and P&W)

7 Pratt & Whitney (P&W) (Pratt & Whitney PW1100G for A320 NEO)

Orders and deliveries[edit]

Aircraft Orders Deliveries In operation Unfilled

A300

561

561

239

A310

255

255

83

A320ceo*

8,125

7,730

7,381

395

A320neo*

5,995

249

249

5,746

A330ceo*

1,486

1,390

1,358

96

A330neo*

220

220

A340*

377

377

276

A350

854

142

142

712

A380

317

222

222

95

Totals

18,190

10,926

9,950

7,264

* All models included. Data as of 31 December 2017.[189] Organisation[edit] Divisions[edit]

Revenues by division, as of 2014:[190]   Commercial aircraft (69%)   Defence and Space (21%)   Helicopters (10%)

Commercial aircraft[edit] Commercial aircraft generated 67% of total revenue for the group in 2013.[191] The product portfolio of such aircraft encompasses short range models such as the A320
A320
family and the world's largest passenger airliner, the A380.

EADS Sogerma Airbus
Airbus
Executive and Private Aviation

Defence and Space[edit] The division Airbus Defence and Space
Airbus Defence and Space
was formed in January 2014 as part of the group restructuring from the former EADS divisions Airbus Military, Astrium, and Cassidian
Cassidian
(composed of Cassidian
Cassidian
Electronics – develops and manufactures sensors, radars, avionics and electronic warfare systems for military and security applications, Cassidian
Cassidian
Air Systems – develops manned and unmanned aerial systems (UAVs), mission avionics, electronic defence and warning systems and Cassidian Systems – provides global security solutions such as command & control, lead system integration, TETRA and TETRAPOL communication systems for public safety, industry, transportation and defence. This line of business was the first one in the world to begin field tests with TETRA Enhanced Data Service (TEDS).[192]).[193]

EADS 3 Sigma – a Hellenic company focused in the design, development, production and services provision of airborne and surface target drone systems.

The Airbus Military
Airbus Military
division, which manufactured tanker, transport and mission aircraft; Eurocopter, the world's largest helicopter supplier; Astrium, provided systems for aerial, land, naval and civilian security applications including Ariane, Galileo and Cassidian. Through Cassidian, EADS was a partner in the Eurofighter
Eurofighter
consortium as well as in the missile systems provider MBDA. Helicopters[edit] Airbus
Airbus
Helicopters, formerly known as Eurocopter, is a helicopter manufacturing and support company. See also: Airbus
Airbus
Helicopters, Inc. Subsidiaries[edit]

Airbus Group Inc.
Airbus Group Inc.
– (previously EADS North America) the U.S. holding company for the North American activities of Airbus
Airbus
Group Airbus Transport International
Airbus Transport International
- Cargo Airline managing the transportation of Airbus
Airbus
parts between different facilities. Stelia Aerospace HENSOLDT EADS EFW Dornier Consulting Premium AEROTEC[194] Airbus
Airbus
APWorks[195] Tesat-Spacecom (de) Satair

Joint ventures[edit]

Name Holding Description

Dassault Aviation

10%

manufacturer of Dassault Rafale and Dassault Mirage 2000

Eurofighter
Eurofighter
GmbH

46%

manufacturer of Eurofighter
Eurofighter
Typhoon

MBDA

37.5%

develops and manufactures missiles

ArianeGroup

50%

manufacturer of Ariane 5
Ariane 5
and Ariane 6
Ariane 6
launch vehicles

Arianespace

30%

Launch service provider

ATR

50%

regional aircraft manufacturer

DAHER-SOCATA

30%

general aviation aircraft manufacturer

CSeries
CSeries
Aircraft Limited Partnership (CSALP)

50.01%

Bombardier CSeries
CSeries
aircraft

In September 2014 Airbus
Airbus
considered divesting Dassault and several other units to focus on aerospace.[196] They reduced their shareholding in Dassault Aviation to 10 % by the end of 2016. Governance[edit]

Current CEO, Tom Enders

The corporate management of the Airbus
Airbus
Group as of March 2017:[197] Chief Executive Officer: Thomas Enders Executive Committee:

Member Title

Fernando Alonso Head of Military Aircraft, Airbus
Airbus
Defence and Space

Thierry Baril Chief Human Resources Officer of Airbus
Airbus
& Airbus
Airbus
Commercial Aircraft

Fabrice Brégier Chief Operating Officer of Airbus
Airbus
and President of Airbus
Airbus
Commercial Aircraft

Guillaume Faury Chief Executive Officer of Airbus
Airbus
Helicopters

John Harrison Group General Counsel Airbus

Dirk Hoke Chief Executive Officer of Airbus
Airbus
Defence and Space

John Leahy Chief Operating Officer - Customers - Airbus
Airbus
Commercial Aircraft

Allan McArtor Chief Executive Officer of Airbus
Airbus
North America

Klaus Richter Chief Procurement Officer of Airbus
Airbus
& Airbus
Airbus
Commercial Aircraft

Harald Wilhelm Chief Financial Officer of Airbus

Tom Williams Chief Operating Officer of Airbus
Airbus
Commercial Aircraft

The original Executive Committee is appointed by the board of directors, itself appointed by Daimler AG
Daimler AG
and SOGEADE. Both appoint four directors plus one independent director. As of July 2003 SEPI
SEPI
no longer nominates a board member, but a Spanish director is retained as the 11th member.[198] The board also appoints the company's chairpersons, one from the Daimler nominated directors and from the SOGEADE nominated directors. In late 2004 Noël Forgeard (then Airbus CEO) was nominated by Lagardère as the next French CEO of EADS. Forgeard had suggested that this system should be abolished in favour of a single CEO in a move that DaimlerChrysler saw as an attempt to engineer a French dominated management team. Following protracted arguments, which caused embarrassment to EADS at the Paris Air Show, the appointment was confirmed by the EADS Board of Directors on 25 June 2005. At the same meeting the Board, in consultation with partner BAE
BAE
Systems, named Gustav Humbert as President and CEO of Airbus.[199] Corporate affairs[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2016)

The subsidiary Airbus
Airbus
Middle East is headquartered in the Dubai Airport Free Zone.[200] This subsidiary opened in 2006.[201] The subsidiary Airbus
Airbus
Japan K.K. (エアバス・ジャパン株式会社) is headquartered in the Roppongi Hills Mori Tower
Roppongi Hills Mori Tower
in Roppongi, Minato, Tokyo.[202] International manufacturing presence[edit]

The main Airbus
Airbus
factory in Blagnac
Blagnac
is located next to Toulouse-Blagnac Airport. (43°36′44″N 1°21′47″E / 43.61222°N 1.36306°E / 43.61222; 1.36306)

Main Airbus
Airbus
factory in Hamburg, Germany

Main Airbus
Airbus
factory in Getafe, Madrid, Spain

Airbus
Airbus
has several final assembly lines for different models and markets. These are:

Toulouse, France
France
(A320, A330
A330
family, A350
A350
family and A380) Hamburg, Germany
Germany
(A318, A319 and A321) Seville, Spain
Spain
(A400M) Tianjin, China
China
(A319 and A320). Mobile, Alabama, US (A319, A320
A320
and A321)

Airbus, however, has a number of other plants in different European locations, reflecting its foundation as a consortium. An original solution to the problem of moving aircraft parts between the different factories and the assembly plants is the use of the Airbus
Airbus
Beluga, a modified cargo aircraft capable of carrying entire sections of fuselage. This solution has also been investigated by Boeing, which retrofitted 4 747-400s to transport the components of the 787. An exception to this scheme is the A380, whose fuselage and wings are too large[203] for sections to be carried by the Beluga. Large A380 parts are brought by ship to Bordeaux, and then transported to the Toulouse assembly plant by the Itinéraire à Grand Gabarit, a specially enlarged waterway and road route. Airbus
Airbus
opened an assembly plant in Tianjin, People's Republic of China for its A320
A320
series airliners in 2009.[204][205][206] Airbus
Airbus
started constructing a $350 million component manufacturing plant in Harbin, China
China
in July 2009, which will employ 1,000 people.[207][208][209] Scheduled to be operated by the end of 2010, the 30,000 square metre plant will manufacture composite parts and assemble composite work-packages for the A350
A350
XWB, A320
A320
families and future Airbus
Airbus
programmes. Harbin
Harbin
Aircraft Industry Group Corporation, Hafei Aviation Industry Company Ltd, Avi China
China
Industry & Technology Company and other Chinese partners hold the 80% stake of the plant while Airbus
Airbus
control the remaining 20%.[210] North America is an important region to Airbus
Airbus
in terms of both aircraft sales and suppliers. 2,000 of the total of approximately 5,300 Airbus
Airbus
jetliners sold by Airbus
Airbus
around the world, representing every aircraft in its product line from the 107-seat A318 to the 565-passenger A380, are ordered by North American customers. According to Airbus, US contractors, supporting an estimated 120,000 jobs, earned an estimated $5.5 billion (2003) worth of business. For example, one version of the A380 has 51% American content in terms of work share value. Plans for a Mobile, Alabama
Mobile, Alabama
aircraft assembly plant were unveiled by Airbus
Airbus
CEO Fabrice Brégier from the Mobile Convention Centre on 2 July 2012. The plans include a $600 million factory at the Mobile Aeroplex at Brookley for the assembly of the A319, A320
A320
and A321 aircraft. It could employ up to 1,000 full-time workers when operational. Construction began on 8 April 2013, and became operable by 2015,[211] producing up to 50 aircraft per year by 2017.[212][213] Financial information[edit]

Revenues by region, as of 2013:[190]   Europe (36%)   Asia-Pacific (33%)   North America (15%)   Middle East (9%)   Africa and Latin America (7%)

In October 2005 the British Ministry of Defence warned European politicians to stop, as it sees it, interfering in the corporate governance of EADS. The former UK Defence Procurement Minister Lord Drayson hinted that the UK government, a major customer for EADS, may withhold future contracts. "As a key customer, we see it as important for EADS to move in a direction that is free from political interference."[214] On 4 April 2006, DaimlerChrysler announced its intention to reduce its shareholding from 30 % to 22.5 %. The company places a value of the stake at "approximately €2.0 billion."[215] Lagardère will reduce its holding by an identical amount. However, Caisse des Dépôts et Consignations, a unit of the French government, acquired 2.25 % of EADS. At issue as a result is the fact that the German and French shareholdings are now in imbalance.[216] On 30 August 2006, shortly after the stock price decline caused by the A380 delivery delays, more than 5 % of EADS stock has been reportedly purchased by the Russian state-owned Vneshtorgbank.[217] Now its share is nearly 6 %. In December 2007, Vneshtorgbank
Vneshtorgbank
sold EADS shares to another state-controlled bank Vneshekonombank. EADS sharers are to be delivered by Vneshekonombank
Vneshekonombank
to the charter capital of JSC "United Aircraft Corporation" in 2008.[citation needed] On 3 October 2006, shortly after EADS admitted further delays in the Airbus
Airbus
380 programme would cost the company 4.8 billion euros in lost earnings in 2010, EADS shares, traded on the Paris arm of Euronext, were suspended after they surpassed the 10 % loss limit. Trading resumed later in the day with the one-day loss holding at 7 %. In 2007, Dubai
Dubai
Holding acquired 3.12 % of EADS stock, making the Dubai
Dubai
buy-out fund one of the largest institutional shareholders.[218] In 2008, EADS had arms sales equivalent of $17.9 billion, which constituted 28 % of total revenue.[219] In April 2013, Daimler sold its shares in EADS.[220] As of 30 September 2015[update], 74 % of Airbus
Airbus
Group stock is publicly traded on six European stock exchanges, while the remaining 25.9 % is owned by a "Contractual Partnership".[5] As at 31 December 2014, the partnership is owned by SOGEPA (10.94%), GZBV (10.92%) and SEPI
SEPI
(4.12%). SOGEPA is owned by the French State, GZBV is majority owned by KfW, while SEPI
SEPI
is a Spanish state holding company.[221]

Finances[222] 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004

Sales EUR billion 59.256 56.480 49.128 45.752 42.822 43.265 39.123 39.434 34.206 31.761

EBITDA in Mio. EUR 4.575 4.142 3.473 2.769 1.446 4.439 1.751 2.033 4.365 3.841

EBIT in Mio. EUR 2.661 2.186 1.696 1.231 (322) 2.830 52 399 2.852 2.432

Research and development costs EUR million 3.160 3.142 3.152 2.939 2.825 2.669 2.608 2.458 2.075 2.126

Consolidated net income EUR million 1.465 1.198 1.104 584 (722) 1.613 (433) 199 1.769 1.342

Earnings per share in EUR 1,85 1,46 1,27 0,68 (0,94) 1,95 (0,56) 0,12 2,11 1,50

Dividend per share in EUR 0,75 0,60 0,45 0,22 0,00 0,20 0,12 0,12 0,65 0,50

Free cash flow in EUR million (818) 3.472 958 2.707 585 2.559 3.354 2.029 2.413 1.614

New orders in EUR million 218.681 102.471 131.027 83.147 45.847 98.648 136.799 69.018 92.551 44.117

Order backlog at 31.12. in EUR million 686.734 566.463 540.978 448.493 389.067 400.248 339.532 262.810 253.235 184.288

Employees (number) 31.12. 144.061 140.405 133.115 121.691 119.506 118.349 116.493 116.805 113.210 110.662

accounted for under IFRS; The fiscal year ends on 31/12.

Sales of military equipment in 2012 amounted to 15.4 billion US dollars.[223] Environmental record[edit] Airbus
Airbus
has committed to the "Flightpath 2050", an aviation industry plan to reduce noise, CO2, and NOx emissions.[224] Airbus
Airbus
was the first aerospace business to become ISO 14001 certified, in January 2007; this is a broader certification covering the whole organisation, not just the aircraft it produces.[225] Biofuel[edit] Airbus
Airbus
has joined Honeywell
Honeywell
and JetBlue
JetBlue
in an effort to reduce pollution and dependence on oil. They are trying to develop a biofuel that could be used by 2030. The companies propose supplying almost one third of the world's aeroplane fuel needs without affecting food resources. Algae is viewed as a possible alternative energy source because it absorbs carbon dioxide during its growth, and because its use will not affect food production. However, algae and other vegetation-based fuels are still just experiments, and fuel-bearing algae has been expensive to develop.[226] Airbus
Airbus
recently operated the first alternative fuel flight on a mixture of 60% kerosene and 40% gas to liquids (GTL) fuel in one engine. It did not cut carbon emissions, but it was free of sulphur emissions.[227] Alternative fuel was able to work properly in Airbus' aeroplane engine, demonstrating that alternative fuels should not require new aeroplane engines. This flight and the company's long term efforts are considered big strides towards environmentally friendly aeroplanes.[227] Controversies[edit] Cluster bomb
Cluster bomb
allegation[edit] In 2005 the Government Pension Fund of Norway
Government Pension Fund of Norway
recommended the exclusion of several companies producing cluster bombs or components. EADS and its sister company EADS Finance BV were among them, arguing that EADS manufactures "key components for cluster bombs". The criticism was centred around TDA, a joint venture between EADS and Thales S.A. TDA produced the mortar ammunition PR Cargo, which can be considered cluster ammunition, however this definition has since been successfully battled by EADS. EADS and its subsidiaries are now regarded as fulfilling all the conditions of the Ottawa Treaty. According to the new point of view, no product of EADS or its subsidiaries falls into the category of antipersonnel mines as defined by the Ottawa Treaty
Ottawa Treaty
("landmines under the Ottawa Treaty"). In April 2006, the fund declared that the basis for excluding EADS from investments related to production of cluster munitions is no longer valid, however its shareholding of MBDA
MBDA
means the fund still excludes EADS due to its indirect involvement in nuclear weapons production.[228] Allegations of bribery[edit] Saudi Arabia[edit] In August 2012 the UK Serious Fraud Office opened a criminal investigation into an EADS subsidiary, GPT Special
Special
Project Management Ltd, in connection with bribery allegations made by the subsidiary's former programme director, Ian Foxley. Foxley alleged that luxury cars were bought for senior Saudis, and that millions of pounds sterling was paid to mysterious Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
companies, and that this may have been done to secure a £2 billion contract to renew the Saudi Arabian National Guard's military telecommunications network.[229] Foxley's allegations were backed up by two other GPT employees.[230] South Africa[edit] In 2003 Tony Yengeni, former chief whip of South Africa's African National Congress, was convicted of fraud relating to an arms deal with South Africa, in which EADS were major players,[231] worth around $5 billion. BBC
BBC
reported that EADS had admitted that it had "rendered assistance" to some 30 senior officials to obtain luxury vehicles, including defence force chief General Siphiwe Nyanda.[232] In March 2003 the South African State completely withdrew the charges of bribery against the former head of EADS South Africa.[233] In September 2004 the Munich
Munich
prosecutor's office issued a formal order on dismissal regarding the bribery charges against him due to his innocence in relation to the said car sales (file no. 572 Js 39830/01). Turkey[edit] According to the investigation conducted by the Guardian Newspaper, Airbus
Airbus
has launched an internal investigation into possible corruption after the Guardian uncovered a series of questionable financial transactions resulting in an unexplained payment. Hundreds of pages of leaked bank records, internal memos and financial statements reveal that two companies secretly controlled by the aviation giant engaged in transactions involving €19m (£16.7m), a large part of which was then routed to a mysterious company via a tax haven. The scheme hinges on an unexplained purchase of shares between two purportedly independent companies in 2007. Eolia Limited, a Maltese company in the business of retrofitting passenger jets to transport cargo, bought 26% of Avinco Holdings, a Dutch company that sells secondhand aircraft and helicopters. Both companies present themselves to the world as independent entities. Neither company’s website mentions any significant external support or backing from other firms. In reality, however, both companies were secretly under Airbus’s effective control. This payment was allegedly the tip of the iceberg with a slush fund of around EUR 80 million created at the level of PSP Conversions LLP, Eolia Limited's subsidiary in Cyprus. [234] Insider trading
Insider trading
investigation[edit] On 2 June 2006 co- CEO Noël Forgeard and Airbus
Airbus
CEO Gustav Humbert resigned following the controversy caused by the June 2006 announcement that deliveries of the A380 would be delayed by a further six months. Forgeard was one of a number of executives who exercised stock options in November 2005 and March 2006. He and 21 other executives are under investigation as to whether they knew about the delays in the Airbus A380 project which caused a 26 % fall in EADS shares when publicised.[235] The French government's actions were also under investigation; The state-owned bank Caisse des Dépots et Consignations (CDC) bought part of Lagardère's 7.5 % stake in EADS in April 2006, allowing that latter to partially escape the June 2006 losses.[235] Subsidy conflicts[edit] Boeing
Boeing
has continually protested over "launch aid" and other forms of government aid to Airbus, while Airbus
Airbus
has argued that Boeing
Boeing
receives illegal subsidies through military and research contracts and tax breaks.[236] In July 2004 former Boeing
Boeing
CEO Harry Stonecipher accused Airbus
Airbus
of abusing a 1992 bilateral EU-US agreement providing for disciplines for large civil aircraft support from governments. Airbus
Airbus
is given reimbursable launch investment (RLI), called "launch aid" by the US, from European governments with the money being paid back with interest plus indefinite royalties, but only if the aircraft is a commercial success.[237] Airbus
Airbus
contends that this system is fully compliant with the 1992 agreement and WTO
WTO
rules. The agreement allows up to 33 per cent of the programme cost to be met through government loans which are to be fully repaid within 17 years with interest and royalties. These loans are held at a minimum interest rate equal to the cost of government borrowing plus 0.25%, which would be below market rates available to Airbus
Airbus
without government support.[238] Airbus
Airbus
claims that since the signature of the EU-US agreement in 1992, it has repaid European governments more than U.S.$6.7 billion and that this is 40% more than it has received. Airbus
Airbus
argues that the military contracts awarded to Boeing, the second largest U.S. defence contractor, are in effect a form of subsidy, such as the controversy surrounding the Boeing
Boeing
KC-767 military contracting arrangements. The significant U.S. government support of technology development via NASA
NASA
also provides significant support to Boeing, as do the large tax breaks offered to Boeing, which some people claim are in violation of the 1992 agreement and WTO rules. In its recent products such as the 787, Boeing
Boeing
has also been offered direct financial support from local and state governments.[239] In January 2005 the European Union
European Union
and United States
United States
trade representatives, Peter Mandelson
Peter Mandelson
and Robert Zoellick
Robert Zoellick
respectively, agreed to talks aimed at resolving the increasing tensions.[240][241] These talks were not successful with the dispute becoming more acrimonious rather than approaching a settlement.[242] WTO
WTO
ruled in August 2010 and in May 2011 that Airbus
Airbus
had received improper government subsidies through loans with below market rates from several European countries.[243] In a separate ruling in February 2011, WTO
WTO
found that Boeing
Boeing
had received local and federal aid in violation of WTO
WTO
rules.[244] See also[edit]

Airbus
Airbus
Training Centre Europe European Union
European Union
defence procurement Aerospace industry in the United Kingdom Airbus affair – ongoing controversy over Air Canada
Air Canada
deal Boeing Bombardier Aerospace Comac Competition between Airbus
Airbus
and Boeing Embraer Stelia Aerospace Thor – World's first 3D-printed aircraft United Aircraft Corporation

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Further reading[edit]

Congressional Research Service (1992). Airbus
Airbus
Industrie: An Economic and Trade Perspective. U.S. Library of Congress.  Heppenheimer, T.A. (1995). Turbulent Skies: The History of Commercial Aviation. John Wiley. ISBN 0-471-19694-0.  Lynn, Matthew (1997). Birds of Prey: Boeing
Boeing
vs. Airbus, a Battle for the Skies. Four Walls Eight Windows. ISBN 1-56858-107-6.  McGuire, Steven (1997). Airbus
Airbus
Industrie: Conflict and Cooperation in U.S.E.C. Trade Relations. St. Martin's Press.  McIntyre, Ian (1982). Dogfight: The Transatlantic Battle Over Airbus. Praeger Publishers. ISBN 0-275-94278-3.  Thornton, David Weldon (1995). Airbus
Airbus
Industrie: The Politics of an International Industrial Collaboration. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-12441-4. 

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