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Ahmad al-Fārūqī al-Sirhindī (1564–1624) was an Indian Islamic scholar, a Hanafi
Hanafi
jurist, and a prominent member of the Naqshbandī Sufi
Sufi
order. He has been described as the Mujaddid
Mujaddid
Alf saānī, meaning the "reviver of the second millennium",[3]:92 for his work in rejuvenating Islam
Islam
and opposing the dissident opinions prevalent in the time of Mughal Emperor Akbar.[4] While early South Asian scholarship credited him for contributing to conservative trends in Indian Islam, more recent works, notably by ter Haar, Friedman, and Buehler, have pointed to Sirhindi's significant contributions to Sufi epistemology and practices.[5] Most of the Naqshbandī suborders today, such as the Mujaddidī, Khālidī, Saifī, Tāhirī, Qasimiya and Haqqānī sub-orders, trace their spiritual lineage through Sirhindi. Sirhindi's shrine, known as Rauza Sharif, is located in Sirhind, Punjab, India.

Contents

1 Early life and education 2 Views

2.1 Importance of Sufism
Sufism
in Shari’ah 2.2 Oneness of appearance (wahdat ash-shuhūd) and Oneness of being (wahdat al-wujūd) 2.3 Reality of the Quran (haqiqat-i quran) and Ka'ba (haqiqat-i ka'ba-yi rabbani) versus The Reality of Muhammad
Muhammad
(haqiqat-i Muhammadi)

3 Sufi
Sufi
lineage

3.1 Naqshbandi
Naqshbandi
chain

4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

Early life and education[edit] Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi
Ahmad Sirhindi
was born on Friday[6] 26 June 1564 in the village of Sirhind.[3]:90 He received most of his early education from his father, Shaykh 'Abd al-Ahad, his brother, Shaykh Muhammad
Muhammad
Sadiq and from Shaykh Muhammad
Muhammad
Tahir al-Lahuri.[7] He also memorised the Qur'an. He then studied in Sialkot,[3]:90 in modern-day Pakistan, which had become an intellectual centre under the Kashmir-born scholar Maulana Kamaluddin Kashmiri.[8] There he learned logic, philosophy and theology and read advanced texts of tafsir and hadith under another scholar from Kashmir, Sheikh Yaqub Sarfi Kashmiri (1521-1595), who was a sheikh of the tariqa Hamadaniyya. He gave Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi bayah in Hamadaniyya Path, Sufi
Sufi
Order founded by Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani. Hamadani is well known as Ali Saani (second Ali) and Said-Ul-Auliya. He was a great preacher in Islamic history, he traveled around the world and propagated Islam
Islam
in different countries.[9][10] Qazi Bahlol Badakhshani taught him jurisprudence, prophet Muhammad's biography and history.[11][12] Sirhindi also made rapid progress in the Suhrawardī, the Qadirī, and the Chistī turūq, and was given permission to initiate and train followers at the age of 17. He eventually joined the Naqshbandī order through the Sufi
Sufi
missionary Shaykh Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqī, and became a leading master of this order. His deputies traversed the length and breadth of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
in order to popularize the order and eventually won some favour with the Mughal court.[13] Views[edit]

Part of a series on Islam Sufism
Sufism
and Tariqat

Ideas

Abdal Al-Insān al-Kāmil Baqaa Dervish Dhawq Fakir Fanaa Haal Haqiqa Ihsan Irfan Ishq Keramat Kashf Lataif Manzil Marifa Nafs Nūr Qalandar Qutb Silsila Sufi
Sufi
cosmology Sufi
Sufi
metaphysics Sufi
Sufi
philosophy Sufi
Sufi
poetry Sufi
Sufi
psychology Salik Tazkiah Wali Yaqeen

Practices

Anasheed Dhikr Haḍra Muraqaba Qawwali Sama Whirling Ziyarat

Sufi
Sufi
orders

Akbari Alians Ashrafia Azeemia Ba 'Alawi Bayrami Bektashi Burhaniyya Chishti Galibi Gulshani Haqqani Anjuman Hurufi Idrisi Issawiyya Jelveti Jerrahi Khalidi

İskenderpaşa İsmailağa

Khalwati Kubrawi Madari Meivazhi Malamati Mevlevi Mouridi Noorbakshia Naqshbandi Naqshbandi
Naqshbandi
Haqqani Nasuhi Ni'matullāhī Nuqtavi Qadiri Qalandari Rifa'i Safavi Saifia Shadhili Shattari Suhrawardi Sunbuli Sülaymaniyya Tijani Ussaki Uwaisi Zahedi Zikris

List of sufis

Notable early Notable modern Singers

Topics in Sufism

Tawhid Sharia Tariqa Haqiqa Ma'rifa Art History Music Shrines Texts

Portal

v t e

Ahmad Sirhindi's teaching emphasized the inter-dependence of both the Sufi
Sufi
path and shariah, stating that "what is outside the path shown by the prophet is forbidden." Arthur Buehler explains that Sirhindi's concept of shariah is a multivalent and inclusive term encompassing outward acts of worship, faith, and the Sufi
Sufi
path. Sirhindi emphasizes Sufi
Sufi
initiation and practices as a necessary part of shariah, and criticizes jurists who follow only the outward aspects of the sharia. In his criticism of the superficial jurists, he states: "For a worm hidden under a rock, the sky is the bottom of the rock."[14] Importance of Sufism
Sufism
in Shari’ah[edit] According to Simon Digby, "modern hagiographical literature emphasizes [Sirhindi's] reiterated profession of strict Islamic orthodoxy, his exaltation of the shariah and exhortations towards its observance."[15] On the other hand, Yohanan Friedmann, apparently oblivious to the fact that shariah and Sufism
Sufism
are not mutually exclusive terms, questions how committed Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi
Ahmad Sirhindi
was to shariah by commenting: "it is noteworthy that while Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi never wearies of describing the minutest details of Sufi experience, his exhortations to comply with the shariah remain general to an extreme."[16] Friedmann also claims "Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi
Ahmad Sirhindi
was primarily a Sufi
Sufi
interested first and foremost in questions of mysticism.".[17] Ahmad Sirhindi
Ahmad Sirhindi
wrote a letter to mughal emperor Jehangir
Jehangir
emphasizing that he is now correcting the wrong path taken by his father, emperor Akbar. Oneness of appearance (wahdat ash-shuhūd) and Oneness of being (wahdat al-wujūd)[edit] Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi
Ahmad Sirhindi
advanced the notion of wahdat ash-shuhūd (oneness of appearance).[3]:93 According to this doctrine, the experience of unity between God and creation is purely subjective and occurs only in the mind of the Sufi
Sufi
who has reached the state of fana' fi Allah (to forget about everything except Almighty Allah).[18] Sirhindi considered wahdat ash-shuhūd to be superior to wahdat al-wujūd,[3]:92 which he understood to be a preliminary step on the way to the Absolute Truth.[19] Despite this, Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi
Ahmad Sirhindi
still used Ibn al-'Arabi's vocabulary without hesitation.[3]:95 Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi
Ahmad Sirhindi
writes:

I wonder that Shaykh Muhyī 'l-Dīn appears in vision to be one of those with whom God is pleased, while most of his ideas which differ from the doctrines of the People of truth appear to be wrong and mistaken. It seems that since they are due to error in kashf, he has been forgiven... I consider him as one of those with whom God is well-pleased; on the other hand, I believe that all his ideas in which he opposes (the people of truth) are wrong and harmful.[20]

Reality of the Quran (haqiqat-i quran) and Ka'ba (haqiqat-i ka'ba-yi rabbani) versus The Reality of Muhammad
Muhammad
(haqiqat-i Muhammadi)[edit] Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi
Ahmad Sirhindi
had originally declared the reality of the Quran (haqiqat-i quran) and the reality of the Ka'ba (haqiqat-i ka'ba-yi rabbani) to be above the reality of Muhammad
Muhammad
(haqiqat-i Muhammadi). This caused fury of opposition, particularly among certain Sufis
Sufis
and ulama of Hijaz who objected to the Ka'ba having exalted spiritual "rank" than the Prophet.[21] Sirhindi argued in response that the reality of the Prophet is superior to any creature. The real Ka'ba is worthy of prostration since it is not created and is covered with the veil of nonexistence. It is this Ka'ba in the essence of God that Sirhindi was referring to as the reality of the Ka'ba, not the appearance of the Ka'ba (surat-i ka'ba), which is only a stone.[22] By the latter part of the nineteenth century, the consensus of the Naqshbandi
Naqshbandi
community had placed the prophetic realities closer to God than the divine realities. The rationale for this development may have been to neutralize unnecessary discord with the large Muslim community whose emotional attachment to Muhammad
Muhammad
was greater than any understanding of philosophical fine points.[23] Further information: Sufi
Sufi
metaphysics Sufi
Sufi
lineage[edit] Naqshbandi
Naqshbandi
chain[edit] Naqshbandi
Naqshbandi
Sufis
Sufis
claim that Ahmad Sirhindi
Ahmad Sirhindi
is descended from a long line of "spiritual masters" all the way up to Muhammad.[24]

Muhammad, d.11 AH, buried Medina Saudi Arabia (570/571 - 632 CE) Abu Bakr, d. 13 AH, buried Medina, Saudi Arabia Salman al-Farsi, d. 35 AH buried Madaa'in, Saudi Arabia Qasim ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abu Bakr, d.107AH buried Medina, Saudi Arabia. Jafar Sadiq
Jafar Sadiq
d. 148 AH buried Medina, Saudi Arabia. Bayazid Bastami, d. 261 AH buried Bastaam, Iran (804 - 874 CE). Abu al-Hassan al-Kharaqani, d. 425 AH buried Kharqaan, Iran. Abul Qasim Gurgani, d. 450 AH buried Gurgan, Iran. Abu Ali Farmadi, (after which moves to Turkmenistan) d. 477 AH buried Tous, Khorasan, Iran. Abu Yaqub Yusuf Hamadani, d. 535 AH buried Maru, Khorosan, Iran. Abdul Khaliq Ghujdawani, d. 575 AH buried Ghajdawan, Bukhara, Uzbekistan. Arif Reogari, d. 616 AH buried Reogar, Bukhara, Uzbekistan. Mahmood Anjir-Faghnawi, d. 715 AH buried Waabakni, Mawarannahr, Uzbekistan. Azizan Ali Ramitani, d. 715 AH buried Khwarezm, Bukhara, Uzbekistan. Muhammad
Muhammad
Baba Samasi, d. 755 AH buried Samaas, Bukhara, Uzbekistan. Amir Kulal, d. 772 AH buried Saukhaar, Bukhara, Uzbekistan. Muhammad
Muhammad
Baha'uddin Naqshband, d. 791 AH buried Qasr-e-Aarifan, Bukhara, Uzbekistan (1318–1389 CE). Ala'uddin Attar Bukhari, buried Jafaaniyan, Mawranahar, Uzbekistan. Yaqub Charkhi, d. 851 AH buried in Tajikistan Ubaidullah Ahrar, d. 895 AH buried Samarkand, Uzbekistan. Muhammad
Muhammad
Zahid Wakhshi, d. 936 AH buried Wakhsh, Malk Hasaar buried in Tajikistan. Durwesh Muhammad, d. 970 AH buried Samarkand, Uzbekistan. Muhammad
Muhammad
Amkanagi, (after which moves to India) d. 1008 AH buried Akang, Bukhara, Uzbekistan. Razi ūd-Dīn Muhammad
Muhammad
Baqī Billah, d. 1012 AH buried Delhi, India. Ahmad al-Farūqī al-Sirhindī, d. 1034 AH buried Sirhind, India (1564–1624 CE)

See also[edit]

Mujaddid Ali Hujwiri

References[edit]

^ http://www.worldknowledge1.com/biography/sheikh-ahmed-sirhindi.php, Biography of Ahmad Sirhindi
Ahmad Sirhindi
in Urdu Language, Retrieved 3 Nov 2016 ^ http://storyofpakistan.com/mujaddid-alf-sani, Biography of Ahmad Sirhindi, Retrieved 3 Nov 2016 ^ a b c d e f g Annemarie Schimmel. Islam
Islam
in the Indian Subcontinent. ISBN 9004061177.  ^ Glasse, Cyril, The New Encyclopedia of Islam, Altamira Press, 2001, p.432 ^ Aziz Ahmad, Studies in Islamic Culture in the Indian Environment, Oxford University Press, 1964. Friedmann, Yohannan. Shaikh Aḥmad Sirhindī: An Outline of His Thought and a Study of His Image in the Eyes of Posterity. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2000. Haar, J.G.J. ter. Follower and Heir of the Prophet: Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi (1564-1624) as Mystic. Leiden: Van Het Oosters Instituut, 1992. Buehler, Arthur. Revealed Grace: The Juristic Sufism
Sufism
of Aḥmad Sirhindi (1564-1624). Louisville, Kentucky: Fons Vitae, 2011. ^ http://www.ahmadsirhindi.com/ ^ Itzchak Weismann, The Naqshbandiyya: Orthodoxy and Activism in a Worldwide Sufi
Sufi
Tradition, Routledge
Routledge
(2007), p. 62 ^ S.Z.H. Jafri, Recording the Progress of Indian History: Symposia Papers of the Indian History Congress, 1992-2010, Primus Books (2012), p. 156 ^ ;Jeelani Allaie History of Kashmir ^ Anna Zelkina, In Quest for God and Freedom: The Sufi
Sufi
Response to the Russian Advance in the North Caucasus, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers (200), p. 88 ^ Khwaja Jamil Ahmad, One Hundred greater Muslims, Ferozsons (1984), p. 292 ^ Sufism
Sufism
and Shari'ah: A study of Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi's effort to reform Sufism, Muhammad
Muhammad
Abdul Haq Ansari, The Islamic Foundation, 1997, p. 11. ^ Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, Routledge, 2006, p. 755. ^ Arthur Buehler. Revealed Grace. Fons Vitae, 2014, p. 97 ^ Review by Simon Digby of Yohanan Friedmann Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi: an outline of his thought and a study of his image in the eyes of posterity, McGill-Queen's University Press, 1971 Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 38, No. 1 (1975), pp. 177-179 ^ Review by Simon Digby of Yohanan Friedmann Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi: an outline of his thought and a study of his image in the eyes of posterity, McGill-Queen's University Press, 1971, p.42 Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 38, No. 1 (1975), pp. 177-179 ^ Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi: an outline of his thought and a study of his image in the eyes of posterity, McGill-Queen's University Press, 1971, p.xiv Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 38, No. 1 (1975), pp. 177-179 ^ "Shaykh Aḥmad Sirhindī". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 6 April 2018.  ^ Annemarie Schimmel, Islam
Islam
in the Indian Subcontinent, p. 94. ISBN 9004061177 ^ Sufism
Sufism
and Shari'ah: A study of Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi's effort to reform Sufism, Muhammad
Muhammad
Abdul Haq Ansari, The Islamic Foundation, 1997, p.247 ^ Sirhindi, Ahmad (1984). Mabda'a wa-ma'ad. Karachi: Ahmad Brothers. p. 78.  ^ Ahmad, Nur (1972). Maktubat-i Imam Rabbani 3 vols. Ed. Karachi: Education Press. pp. 147( letter 124).  ^ Buehler, Arthur (1998). Sufi
Sufi
Heirs of the Prophet: the Indian Naqshbandiyya and the rise of the mediating sufi shaykh. Columbia, S.C USA: University of South Carolina Press. pp. 246–247 (Appendix 2). ISBN 1-57003-201-7.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 November 2010. Retrieved 14 July 2010. 

Further reading[edit]

Dr. Burhan Ahmad Faruqi, Mujaddid’s Conception of Tawhid, 1940 Classical Islam
Islam
and the Naqshbandi
Naqshbandi
Sufi
Sufi
Tradition, Shaykh Muhammad Hisham Kabbani, Islamic Supreme Council of America (June 2004), ISBN 1-930409-23-0. Shari'at and Ulama in Ahmad Sirhindi's Collected Letters by Arthur F. Buehler.

External links[edit]

Biography of Hadrat Imâm Rabbânî Biography of Imam Rabbani Ahmad al-Faruqi as-Sirhindi (from the Naqshbandi-Haqqani Sufi
Sufi
Order). Translations of Imam Rabbani's Letters in various languages

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Abu Hanifa
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Abu Mansur al-Maturidi Al-Tahawi Isa ibn Aban Yahya ibn Aktham

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Ali Hujwiri Sarakhsi

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7th/13th

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Al-Hakim al-Tirmidhi Al-Ḫaṣṣāf Badr al-Din al-Ayni Ibn Abi al-Izz Mulla Shams ad-Din al-Fanari Uthman bin Ali Zayla'i

10th/16th

Abdul-Haqq Dehlavi Abu Sa'ud al-Ḥanafi Ahmad Sirhindi Ali al-Qari Ibrāhīm al-Ḥalabī

11th/17th

Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulsi Khayr al-Din al-Ramli Qazi Syed Rafi Mohammad

12th/18th

Makhdoom Muhammad
Muhammad
Hashim Thattvi Murtada al-Zabidi Qazi Syed Inayatullah Qazi Syed Mohammad Rafi Qazi Syed Mohammad Zaman Shah Abdul Aziz Shah Waliullah Dehlawi Syed Hayatullah Syed Mohammad Ashraf

13th/19th

Abd Allah ibn Abbas ibn Siddiq Al-Maydani Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi Haji Dost Muhammad
Muhammad
Qandhari Ibn Abidin Khalil Ahmad Saharanpuri Meher Ali Shah Rashid Ahmad Gangohi Shibli Nomani Yusuf Ma Dexin Ashraf Ali Thanwi Husain Ahmad Madani Anwar Shah Kashmiri Shabbir Ahmad Usmani Muhammad
Muhammad
Zakariya Kandhlawi Mahmud al-Hasan

14th/20th

Abd Allah Siraj Abdul Hamid Qadri Badayuni Abdul Haq Kanthapuram A.P. Aboobacker Musliyar Abul Hasan Ali Hasani Nadwi Akhtar Raza Khan Arshadul Qaudri Asad Muhammad
Muhammad
Saeed as-Sagharji Azizul Haque Faraz Rabbani Ghulam Rasool Jamaati Hamid Raza Khan Mohammad Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi Muhammad
Muhammad
Abdul Malek Muhammad
Muhammad
Idrees Dahiri Muhammad
Muhammad
Masihullah Khan Muhammad
Muhammad
Taqi Usmani Muhammad
Muhammad
Zahid Al-Kawthari Muntakhib al-Haqq Mustafa Raza Khan Qadri Nurul Islam
Islam
Farooqi Qamaruzzaman Azmi Qazi Mian Muhammad
Muhammad
Amjad Shabbir Ahmad Usmani Shah Saeed Ahmed Raipuri Syed Shujaat Ali Qadri Yusuf Motala

Scholars of other Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence

Hanbali Maliki Shafi'i Zahiri

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 32839461 LCCN: n84074749 ISNI: 0000 0001 1616 9247 SELIBR: 368894 SUDOC: 122260791 BNF:

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