HOME
The Info List - Agaricomycetes


--- Advertisement ---



Agaricomycetidae

Agaricales
Agaricales
(32 fam., 410+ gen.) Amylocorticiales
Amylocorticiales
(1 fam., 14 gen.) Atheliales
Atheliales
(1 fam., 22 gen.) Boletales
Boletales
(16 fam., 95+ gen.) Jaapiales (1 fam., 1 gen.) Lepidostromatales
Lepidostromatales
(1 fam., 3 gen.)

Phallomycetidae

Geastrales
Geastrales
(1 fam., 8 gen.) Gomphales
Gomphales
(3 fam., 18 gen.) Hysterangiales
Hysterangiales
(5 fam., 18 gen.) Phallales
Phallales
(2 fam., 26 gen.)

incertae sedis (no subclass)

Auriculariales
Auriculariales
(6–7 fam., 30+ gen.) Cantharellales
Cantharellales
(7 fam., 39 gen.) Corticiales
Corticiales
(3 fam., 30+ gen.) Gloeophyllales
Gloeophyllales
(1 fam., 7 gen.) Hymenochaetales
Hymenochaetales
(3 fam., 50+ gen.) Polyporales
Polyporales
(9 fam., ~200 gen.) Russulales
Russulales
(12 fam., 80+ gen.) Sebacinales
Sebacinales
(1 fam., 8 gen.) Stereopsidales
Stereopsidales
(1 fam., 2 gen.) Thelephorales
Thelephorales
(2 fam., 18 gen.) Trechisporales
Trechisporales
(1 fam., 15 gen.)

The Agaricomycetes
Agaricomycetes
are a class of fungi in the division Basidiomycota. The taxon is roughly identical to that defined for the Homobasidiomycetes (alternatively called holobasidiomycetes) by Hibbett & Thorn,[2] with the inclusion of Auriculariales
Auriculariales
and Sebacinales. It includes not only mushroom-forming fungi, but also most species placed in the deprecated taxa Gasteromycetes
Gasteromycetes
and Homobasidiomycetes.[3] Within the subdivision Agaricomycotina, which already excludes the smut and rust fungi, the Agaricomycetes
Agaricomycetes
can be further defined by the exclusion of the classes Tremellomycetes
Tremellomycetes
and Dacrymycetes, which are generally considered to be jelly fungi. However, a few former "jelly fungi", such as Auricularia, are classified in the Agaricomycetes. According to a 2008 estimate, Agaricomycetes
Agaricomycetes
include 17 orders, 100 families, 1147 genera, and about 21000 species.[4] Modern molecular phylogenetic analyses have been since used to help define several new orders in the Agaricomycetes: Amylocorticiales, Jaapiales,[5] Stereopsidales,[6] and Lepidostromatales.[7]

Contents

1 Classification 2 Features 3 Ecology 4 Fossil record

4.1 Phylogeny

5 Genera incertae sedis 6 References 7 External links

Classification[edit] Although morphology of the mushroom or fruit body (basidiocarp) was the basis of early classification of the Agaricomycetes,[8] this is no longer the case. As an example, the distinction between the Gasteromycetes
Gasteromycetes
(including puffballs) and Agaricomycetes
Agaricomycetes
(most other agaric mushrooms) is no longer recognized as a natural one—various puffball species have apparently evolved independently from agaricomycete fungi. However, most mushroom guide books still group the puffballs or gasteroid forms separate from other mushrooms because the older Friesian classification is still convenient for categorizing fruit body forms. Similarly, modern classifications divide the gasteroid order Lycoperdales
Lycoperdales
between Agaricales
Agaricales
and Phallales. Features[edit] All members of the class produce basidiocarps and these range in size from tiny cups a few millimeters across to a giant polypore (Phellinus ellipsoideus) greater than several meters across and weighing up to 500 kilograms (1,100 lb).[9] The group also includes what are arguably the largest and oldest individual organisms on earth: the mycelium of one individual Armillaria gallica
Armillaria gallica
has been estimated to extend over 150,000 square metres (37 acres) with a mass of 10,000 kg (22,000 lb) and an age of 1,500 years.[10] Ecology[edit] Nearly all species are terrestrial (a few are aquatic), occurring in a wide range of environments where most function as decayers, especially of wood. However, some species are pathogenic or parasitic, and yet others are symbiotic (i.e., mutualistic), these including the important ectomycorrhizal symbionts of forest trees. General discussions on the forms and life cycles of these fungi are developed in the article on mushrooms, in the treatments of the various orders (links in table at right), and in individual species accounts. Fossil record[edit] The fruit bodies of Agaricomycetes
Agaricomycetes
are extremely rare in the fossil record, and the class does not yet pre-date the Early Cretaceous (146–100 Ma).[11] The oldest Agaricomycetes
Agaricomycetes
fossil, dating from the lower Cretaceous
Cretaceous
(130–125 Ma) is Quatsinoporites. It is a fragment of a poroid fruit body with features that suggest it could be a member of the family Hymenochaetaceae.[12] Based on molecular clock analysis, the Agaricomycetes
Agaricomycetes
are estimated to be about 290 million years old.[13] Phylogeny[edit] Modern molecular phylogenetics suggest the following relationships:[14]

Basidiomycetes (outgroup)

Agaricomycetes

Cantharellales

Sebacinales

Auriculariales

Stereopsidales

Phallomycetidae

Geastrales

Hysterangiales

Gomphales

Phallales

Trechisporales

Hymenochaetales

Thelephorales

Polyporales

Corticiales

Jaapiales

Gloeophyllales

Russulales

Agaricomycetidae

Agaricales

Boletales

Amylocorticiales

Lepidostromatales

Atheliales

Genera incertae sedis[edit] There are many genera in the Agaricomycetes
Agaricomycetes
that have not been classified in any order or family. These include:

Akenomyces Aldridgea Anixia Arrasia[15] Arthrodochium Arualis Atraporiella Cenangiomyces Ceraceopsis Corticomyces Cruciger Dendrosporomyces Ellula Fibulochlamys Fibulocoela Fibulotaeniella Geotrichopsis[16] Gloeoradulum Gloeosynnema Glomerulomyces Glutinoagger Grandinia Granulocystis Hallenbergia Hyphobasidiofera Hypolyssus Intextomyces Korupella Minostroscyta[17] Mylittopsis Odonticium Pagidospora Peniophorella Phlyctibasidium Pseudasterodon Pycnovellomyces Resinicium Riessia Riessiella Skvortzovia Taiwanoporia[18] Timgrovea Titaeella Trechinothus Tricladiomyces Trimitiella Tubulicrinopsis Xanthoporus Xenosoma

References[edit]

^ Doweld A. (2001). Prosyllabus Tracheophytorum, Tentamen systematis plantarum vascularium (Tracheophyta) [An attempted system of the vascular plants]. Moscow, Russia: GEOS. pp. 1–111. ISBN 5-89118-283-1.  ^ Hibbett DS, Thorn RG (2001). McLaughlin DJ, et al., eds. The Mycota, Vol. VII. Part B., Systematics and Evolution. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag. pp. 121–168.  ^ Hibbett DS; et al. (2007). "A higher level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi". Mycological Research. 111 (5): 509–547. doi:10.1016/j.mycres.2007.03.004. PMID 17572334.  ^ Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA (2008). Dictionary of the Fungi
Fungi
(10th ed.). Wallingford, UK: CAB International. pp. 12–13. ISBN 0-85199-826-7.  ^ Binder M, Larsson KH, Matheny PB, Hibbett DS (2010). " Amylocorticiales
Amylocorticiales
ord. nov. and Jaapiales ord. nov.: Early diverging clades of Agaricomycetidae
Agaricomycetidae
dominated by corticioid forms". Mycologia. 102 (4): 865–880. doi:10.3852/09-288. PMID 20648753.  ^ Sjökvist E, Pfeil BE, Larsson E, Larsson K-H (2014). " Stereopsidales
Stereopsidales
– a new order of mushroom-forming fungi". PLoS ONE. 9 (8): e106204. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...995227S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0095227. PMC 4002437 . PMID 24777067.  ^ Hodkinson BP, Moncada B, Lücking R (2014). "Lepidostromatales, a new order of lichenized fungi (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes), with two new genera, Ertzia and Sulzbacheromyces, and one new species, Lepidostroma winklerianum". Fungal Diversity. 64 (1): 165–179. doi:10.1007/s13225-013-0267-0.  ^ Fries EM (1874). Hymenomycetes Europaei (in Latin). Uppsala: Typis Descripsit Ed. Berling. p. 1.  ^ Cui B-K, Dai Y-C (2011). "Fomitiporia ellipsoidea has the largest fruiting body among the fungi". Fungal Biology. 115 (9): 813–814. doi:10.1016/j.funbio.2011.06.008. PMID 21872178.  ^ Smith M, Bruhn JH, Anderson JB (1992). "The fungus Armillaria bulbosa is among the largest and oldest living organisms". Nature. 356 (6368): 428–431. Bibcode:1992Natur.356..428S. doi:10.1038/356428a0.  ^ Kiecksee, Anna Philie; Seyfullah, Leyla J.; Dörfelt, Heinrich; Heinrichs, Jochen; Süß, Herbert; Schmidt, Alexander R. (2012). "Pre- Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Agaricomycetes
Agaricomycetes
yet to be discovered: Reinvestigation of a putative Triassic
Triassic
bracket fungus from southern Germany". Fossil Record. 15 (2): 85–89. doi:10.1002/mmng.201200006.  ^ Smith, S.Y.; Currah, R.S.; Stockey, R.A. (2004). " Cretaceous
Cretaceous
and Eocene poroid hymenophores from Vancouver Island, British Columbia". Mycologia. 96 (1): 180–186. doi:10.2307/3762001. PMID 21148842.  ^ Floudas D.; Binder, M.; Riley, R.; Barry, K.; Blanchette, R.A.; Henrissat, B.; Martínez, AT.; Otillar, R.; Spatafora, J.W.; Yadav, J.S.; Aerts, A.; Benoit, I.; Boyd, A.; Carlson A.; Copeland, A.; Coutinho, P.M.; de Vries, R.P.; Ferreira, P.; Findley, K.; Foster, B.; Gaskell, J.; Glotzer, D.; Górecki, P.; Heitman, J.; Hesse, C.; Hori, C.; Igarashi, K.; Jurgens, J.A.; Kallen, N.; Kersten, P.; Kohler, A.; Kües, U.; Kumar, TK.; Kuo, A.; LaButti, K.; Larrondo, L.F.; Lindquist, E.; Ling, A.; Lombard, V.; Lucas, S.; Lundell, T.; Martin, R.; McLaughlin, D.J.; Morgenstern, I.; Morin, E.; Murat, C.; Nagy, L.G.; Nolan, M.; Ohm, R.A.; Patyshakuliyeva, A.; Rokas, A.; Ruiz-Dueñas, F.J.; Sabat, G.; Salamov, A.; Samejima, M.; Schmutz, J.; Slot, J.C.; St John, F.; Stenlid, J.; Sun, H.; Sun S.; Syed K.; Tsang, A.; Wiebenga A.; Young, D.; Pisabarro, A.; Eastwood, DC.; Martin, F.; Cullen, D.; Grigoriev I.V.; Hibbett, D.S. (2012). "The Paleozoic origin of enzymatic lignin decomposition reconstructed from 31 fungal genomes". Science. 336 (6089): 1715–1719. Bibcode:2012Sci...336.1715F. doi:10.1126/science.1221748. PMID 22745431.  ^ Hibbett D, Bauer R, Binder M, Giachini AJ, Hosaka K, Justo A, Larsson E, Larsson K-H, Lawrey JD, Miettinen O, Nagy LG, Nilsson RH, Weiss M, Thorn RG (2014). "Agaricomycetes". In McLaughlin DJ, Spatafora JW. Systematics and Evolution. The Mycota: A Comprehensive Treatise on Fungi
Fungi
as Experimental Systems for Basic and Applied Research. 7A (2nd ed.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. pp. 373–429. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-55318-9_14. ISBN 978-3-642-55317-2.  ^ Berniccia, Annarosa; Gorjón, Sergio P.; Nakasone, Karen K. (2011). "Arrasia rostrata (Basidiomycota), a new corticioid genus and species from Italy" (PDF). Mycotaxon. 118: 257–264. doi:10.5248/118.257.  ^ Tzean, S.S.; Estey, R.H. (1991). "Geotrichopsis mycoparasitica gen. et sp. nov. (Hyphomycetes), a new mycoparasite". Mycological Research. 95 (12): 1350–1354. doi:10.1016/S0953-7562(09)80383-3.  ^ Hjortstam, Kurt; Ryvarden, Leif (2001). "Corticioid species (Basidiomycotina, Aphyllophorales) from Colombia III". Mycotaxon. 79: 189–200.  ^ Chang, TunTschu; Chou, Wen Neng (2003). "Taiwanoporia, a new aphyllophoralean genus". Mycologia. 95 (6): 1215–1218. doi:10.1080/15572536.2004.11833029. JSTOR 3761921. PMID 21149022. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Agaricomycetes.

Data related to Agaricomycetes
Agaricomycetes
at Wikispecies Tree of Life Agaricomycetes
Agaricomycetes
by David S. Hibbett Overview of the Basidiomycota
Basidiomycota
from Aarhus University, Denmark Evolution & Morphology in the Homobasidiomycetes

Taxon
Taxon
identifiers

Wd: Q27720 EoL: 2865511 EPPO: 1AGARL Fungorum: 501297 GBIF: 186 ITIS: 936303 MycoBank: 501297 NCBI: 15

.