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Aden
Aden
(UK: /ˈeɪdən/ AY-dən, US: /ˈɑːdɛn/ AH-den; Arabic: عدن‎ ʻAdin/ʻAdan  Yemeni: [ˈʕæden, ˈʕædæn]) is a port city in Yemen, located by the eastern approach to the Red Sea (the Gulf of Aden), some 170 km (110 mi) east of Bab-el-Mandeb. Its population is approximately 800,000 people. Aden's natural harbour lies in the crater of a dormant volcano, which now forms a peninsula joined to the mainland by a low isthmus. This harbour, Front Bay, was first used by the ancient Kingdom of Awsan between the 5th and 7th centuries BC. The modern harbour is on the other side of the peninsula. Aden
Aden
gives its name to the Gulf of Aden. Aden
Aden
consists of a number of distinct sub-centres: Crater, the original port city; Ma'alla, the modern port; Tawahi, known as "Steamer Point" in the colonial period; and the resorts of Gold Mohur. Khormaksar, located on the isthmus that connects Aden
Aden
proper with the mainland, includes the city's diplomatic missions, the main offices of Aden
Aden
University, and Aden International Airport
Aden International Airport
(the former British Royal Air Force station RAF Khormaksar), Yemen's second biggest airport. On the mainland are the sub-centres of Sheikh Othman, a former oasis area; Al-Mansura, a town planned by the British; and Madinat ash-Sha'b (formerly Madinat al-Itihad), the site designated as the capital of the South Arabian Federation
South Arabian Federation
and now home to a large power/desalinization facility and additional faculties of Aden University. Aden
Aden
encloses the eastern side of a vast, natural harbour that comprises the modern port. The volcanic peninsula of Little Aden
Aden
forms a near-mirror image, enclosing the harbour and port on the western side. Little Aden
Aden
became the site of the oil refinery and tanker port. Both were established and operated by British Petroleum until they were turned over to Yemeni government ownership and control in 1978. Aden
Aden
was the capital of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen until that country's unification with the Yemen
Yemen
Arab Republic in 1990, and again briefly served as Yemen's temporary capital during the aftermath of the 2014–15 Yemeni coup d'état, as declared by President Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi
Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi
after he fled the Houthi
Houthi
occupation of Sana'a.[1] From March to July 2015, the Battle of Aden
Aden
raged between Houthis
Houthis
and loyalists to President Hadi. Water, food, and medical supplies ran short in the city.[2] On 14 July, the Saudi Army launched an offensive to retake Aden
Aden
for Hadi's government. Within three days the Houthis
Houthis
had been removed from the city.[3] Since February 2018, Aden
Aden
has been seized by the Southern Transitional Council.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Antiquity 1.2 Medieval 1.3 British administration 1839–1967

1.3.1 Little Aden
Aden
1955 to 1967

1.4 Federation of South Arabia
Federation of South Arabia
and the Aden
Aden
Emergency 1.5 Independence

2 Main sites 3 Economy 4 Transportation 5 Climate 6 See also 7 Footnotes 8 References 9 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Aden and History of Yemen Antiquity[edit] A local legend in Yemen
Yemen
states that Aden
Aden
may be as old as human history itself. Some also believe that Cain and Abel
Cain and Abel
are buried somewhere in the city.[4] The port's convenient position on the sea route between India
India
and Europe
Europe
has made Aden
Aden
desirable to rulers who sought to possess it at various times throughout history. Known as Eudaemon (Ancient Greek: Ευδαίμων, meaning “blissful, prosperous,” in Ancient Greek) in the 1st century BC, it was a transshipping point for the Red Sea trade, but fell on hard times when new shipping practices by-passed it and made the daring direct crossing to India
India
in the 1st century AD, according to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. The same work describes Aden
Aden
as "a village by the shore," which would well describe the town of Crater while it was still little-developed. There is no mention of fortification at this stage, Aden
Aden
was more an island than a peninsula as the isthmus (a tombolo) was not then so developed as it is today. Medieval[edit]

Aden, with Portuguese fleet. in Braun & Hogenberg.1590

1951 stamp depicting Steamer Point with the outside of the volcanic rim of Crater in the background

Although the pre-Islamic Himyar
Himyar
civilization was capable of building large structures, there seems to have been little fortification at this stage. Fortifications at Mareb and other places in Yemen
Yemen
and the Hadhramaut
Hadhramaut
make it clear that both the Himyar
Himyar
and the Sabean cultures were well capable of it. Thus, watch towers, since destroyed, are possible. However, the Arab historians Ibn al Mojawir and Abu Makhramah attribute the first fortification of Aden
Aden
to Beni Zuree'a. Abu Makhramah has also included a detailed biography of Muhammad Azim Sultan Qamarbandi Naqsh in his work, Tarikh ul-Yemen. The aim seems to have been twofold: to keep hostile forces out and to maintain revenue by controlling the movement of goods, thereby preventing smuggling. In its original form, some of this work was relatively feeble. After 1175 AD, rebuilding in a more solid form began, and ever since Aden
Aden
became a popular city attracting sailors and merchants from Egypt, Sindh, Gujarat, East Africa
East Africa
and even China. According to Muqaddasi, Persians formed the majority of Aden's population in the 10th century.[5][6] In 1421, China's Ming dynasty Yongle Emperor
Yongle Emperor
ordered principal envoy grand eunuch Li Xing and grand eunuch Zhou Man of Zheng He's fleet to convey an imperial edict with hats and robes to bestow on the king of Aden. The envoys boarded three treasure ships and set sail from Sumatra to the port of Aden. This event was recorded in the book Yingyai Shenglan by Ma Huan
Ma Huan
who accompanied the imperial envoy.[7] In 1513, the Portuguese, led by Afonso de Albuquerque, launched an unsuccessful four-day naval siege of Aden.[8] British administration 1839–1967[edit] Main article: Colony of Aden See also: State of Aden

Port
Port
of Aden
Aden
1890

Port
Port
of Aden
Aden
(around 1910). Ships lying off Steamer Point at the entrance to the modern inner harbour.[9]

Map of Aden
Aden
peninsula, ca. 1914

Esplanade Road in the late 1930s

Before British administration, Aden
Aden
was ruled by the Portuguese between 1513–1538 and 1547–1548. It was ruled by the Ottoman Empire between 1538–1547 and 1548–1645. In 1609 The Ascension was the first English ship to visit Aden, before sailing on to Mocha during the Fourth voyage of the East India Company.[10] After Ottoman rule, Aden
Aden
was ruled by the Sultanate of Lahej, under suzerainty of the Zaidi imams of Yemen. Aden
Aden
was at this time[when?] a small village with a population of 600 Arabs, Somalis, Jews
Jews
and Indians—housed for the most part in huts of reed matting erected among ruins recalling a vanished era of wealth and prosperity. In 1838, under Muhsin bin Fadl, Lahej ceded 194 km2 (75 sq mi) including Aden
Aden
to the British. On 19 January 1839, the British East India
India
Company landed Royal Marines
Royal Marines
at Aden
Aden
to secure the territory and stop attacks by pirates against British shipping to India. In 1850 it was declared a free trade port with the liquor, salt, arms, and opium trades developing duties as it won all the coffee trade from Mokha.[11] The port lies about equidistant from the Suez Canal, Mumbai, and Zanzibar, which were all important British possessions. Aden
Aden
had been an entrepôt and a way-station for seamen in the ancient world. There, supplies, particularly water, were replenished, so, in the mid-19th century, it became necessary to replenish coal and boiler water. Thus Aden acquired a coaling station at Steamer Point and Aden
Aden
was to remain under British control until November 1967. Until 1937, Aden
Aden
was governed as part of British India
India
and was known as the Aden
Aden
Settlement. Its original territory was enlarged in 1857 by the 13 km2 (5.0 sq mi) island of Perim, in 1868 by the 73 km2 (28 sq mi) Khuriya Muriya Islands, and in 1915 by the 108 km2 (42 sq mi) island of Kamaran. The settlement would become Aden Province
Aden Province
in 1935. In 1937, the Settlement was detached from India
India
and became the Colony of Aden, a British Crown colony. The change in government was a step towards the change in monetary units seen in the stamps illustrating this article. When British India
India
became independent in 1947, Indian rupees (divided into annas) were replaced in Aden
Aden
by East African shillings. The hinterland of Aden
Aden
and Hadhramaut
Hadhramaut
were also loosely tied to Britain as the Aden Protectorate
Aden Protectorate
which was overseen from Aden.

Aden
Aden
is known for its boat-oriented stamps. Mukalla
Mukalla
is on the Hadhramaut
Hadhramaut
coast, about 500 km (311 mi) east of Aden, in what was then the Aden
Aden
Protectorate.

Aden's location also made it a useful entrepôt for mail passing between places around the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
and Europe. Thus, a ship passing from Suez to Bombay could leave mail for Mombasa
Mombasa
at Aden
Aden
for collection. See Postage stamps
Postage stamps
and postal history of Aden. The 1947 Aden riots
1947 Aden riots
saw more than 80 Jews
Jews
killed, their property looted and schools burned by a Muslim mob. After the Suez Crisis
Suez Crisis
in 1956, Aden
Aden
became the main location in the region for the British. Aden
Aden
sent a team of two to the 1962 British Empire
British Empire
and Commonwealth Games in Perth, Western Australia. Little Aden
Aden
1955 to 1967[edit]

Mualla Main Road, 1966. Vehicles at the time drove on the left, in the British custom

Little Aden
Aden
is still dominated by the oil refinery built for British Petroleum. Little Aden
Aden
was well known to seafarers for its tanker port with a very welcoming seaman's mission near to the BP Aden
Aden
tugs' jetties, complete with swimming pool and air conditioned bar. The accommodation areas for the refinery personnel were known by the original Arabic names of Bureika and Ghadir. Bureika was wooden housing bunkhouses built to accommodate the thousands of skilled men and laborers imported to build the refinery, later converted to family housing, plus imported prefabricated houses "the Riley-Newsums" that are also to be found in parts of Australia (Woomera). Bureika also had a protected bathing area and Beach Club. Ghadir housing was stone built, largely from the local granite quarry; much of this housing still stands today, now occupied by wealthier locals from Aden. Little Aden
Aden
also has a local township and numerous picturesque fishing villages, including the Lobster Pots of Ghadir. The British Army had extensive camps in Bureika and through Silent Valley in Falaise Camp, these successfully protected the refinery staff and facilities throughout the troubles, with only a very few exceptions. Schooling was provided for children from kindergarten age through to primary school, after that, children were bussed to The Isthmus
Isthmus
School in Khormaksar, though this had to be stopped during the Aden
Aden
Emergency.

1955 British passport for former Aden
Aden
protectorate citizens – Qu'aiti
Qu'aiti
State in Hadhramaut
Hadhramaut
الدولة القعيطية

Federation of South Arabia
Federation of South Arabia
and the Aden
Aden
Emergency[edit]

Aden
Aden
in 1960

Main articles: Federation of South Arabia
Federation of South Arabia
and Aden
Aden
Emergency In order to stabilize Aden
Aden
and the surrounding Aden Protectorate
Aden Protectorate
from the designs of the Egyptian backed republicans of North Yemen, the British attempted to gradually unite the disparate states of the region in preparation for eventual independence. On 18 January 1963, the Colony of Aden
Colony of Aden
was incorporated into the Federation of Arab Emirates of the South against the wishes of North Yemen. The city became the State of Aden
State of Aden
and the Federation was renamed the Federation of South Arabia (FSA). An insurgency against British administration known as the Aden Emergency began with a grenade attack by the communist's National Liberation Front (NLF), against the British High Commissioner on 10 December 1963, killing one person and injuring fifty, and a "state of emergency" was declared. In 1964, Britain announced its intention to grant independence to the FSA in 1968, but that the British military would remain in Aden. The security situation deteriorated as NLF and FLOSY (Front for the Liberation of Occupied South Yemen) vied for the upper hand. In January 1967, there were mass riots between the NLF and their rival FLOSY supporters in the old Arab quarter of Aden
Aden
town. This conflict continued until mid February, despite the intervention of British troops. During the period there were as many attacks on the British troops by both sides as against each other culminating in the destruction of an Aden Airways
Aden Airways
DC3 plane in the air with no survivors. The increased violence was a determining factor in the British ensuring all families were evacuated more quickly than initially intended, as recorded in From Barren Rocks to Living Stones. On 30 November 1967 British troops were evacuated, leaving Aden
Aden
and the rest of the FSA under NLF control. The Royal Marines, who had been the first British troops to arrive in Aden
Aden
in 1839, were the last to leave — with the exception of a Royal Engineer detachment (10 Airfields Squadron left Aden
Aden
on 13 December 1967). Independence[edit] See also: South Yemen

View of Aden
Aden
from the sea

Aden
Aden
became the capital of the new People's Republic of South Yemen which, in 1970, was renamed the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. With the unification of northern and southern Yemen
Yemen
in 1990, Aden
Aden
was no longer a national capital but remained the capital of Aden Governorate which covered an area similar to that of the Aden
Aden
Colony. On 29 December 1992, Al Qaeda
Al Qaeda
conducted its first known terrorist attack in Aden, bombing the Gold Mohur Hotel, where US servicemen were known to have been staying en route to Somalia
Somalia
for Operation Restore Hope. A Yemeni and an Austrian tourist died in the attack.[12] Aden
Aden
was briefly the centre of the secessionist Democratic Republic of Yemen
Yemen
from 21 May 1994 but was reunited by Republic of Yemen
Yemen
troops on 7 July 1994. Members of al Qaeda attempted to bomb the US guided-missile destroyer The Sullivans at the port of Aden
Aden
as part of the 2000 millennium attack plots. The boat that had the explosives in it sank, forcing the planned attack to be aborted. The bombing attack on destroyer USS Cole took place in Aden
Aden
on 12 October 2000. In 2007 growing dissatisfaction with unification led to the formation of the secessionist South Yemen
Yemen
Movement. According to the New York Times, the Movement's mainly underground leadership includes socialists, Islamists and individuals desiring a return to the perceived benefits of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen.[13] President Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi
Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi
fled to Aden, his hometown, in 2015 after being deposed in a coup d'état. He declared that he was still Yemen's legitimate president and called on state institutions and loyal officials to relocate to Aden.[14] In a televised speech on 21 March 2015, he declared Aden
Aden
to be Yemen's "economic and temporary capital" while Sana'a
Sana'a
is controlled by the Houthis.[1] Aden
Aden
was hit by violence in the aftermath of the coup d'état, with forces loyal to Hadi clashing with those loyal to former president Ali Abdullah Saleh in a battle for Aden International Airport
Aden International Airport
on 19 March 2015.[15] After the airport battle, the entire city became a battleground for the Battle of Aden, which left large parts of the city in ruins and has killed at least 198 people since March 25, 2015.[2] On 14 July 2015, the Saudi Arabian Army
Saudi Arabian Army
launched an offensive to win control of the city. Within three days, the city was cleared of Houthi
Houthi
rebels, ending the Battle of Aden
Aden
with a coalition victory.[3] Main sites[edit]

A street scene at the old town of Aden. 1999

Aden
Aden
has a number of historical and natural sites of interest to visitors. These include:

The historical British churches.[16] A Catholic church, built during the Colonial period, in the Muallah was damaged by bombing twice in 2015. The Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
Temple The Cisterns of Tawila—an ancient water-catchment system located in the sub-centre of Crater Sira Fort The Aden
Aden
Minaret[17] Little Ben, a miniature BigBen Clock Tower overlooking Steamer Point. Built during the colonial period, this was restored in 2012 after 3 decades of neglect since the British withdrawal of 1967. The Palace of the Sultanate of Lahej/National Museum—The National Museum was founded in 1966 and is located in what used to be the Palace of the Sultanate of Lehej. Northern forces robbed it during the 1994 Civil War, but its collection of pieces remains one of the biggest in Yemen.[18][19] The Aden
Aden
Military Museum The Rimbaud House, which opened in 1991, is the two-story house of French poet Arthur Rimbaud
Arthur Rimbaud
who lived in Aden
Aden
from 1880–1891. Rimbaud moved to Aden
Aden
on his way to Ethiopia in an attempt for a new life. As of the late 1990s, the first floor of the house belonged to the French Consulate, a cultural centre and a library. The house is located in al-Tawahi—the European Quarter of Aden—and is politically and culturally debated for its French nature in an area previously colonized by Britain.[20] The fortifications of Jebal Hadid and Jebal Shamsan The beaches of Aden
Aden
and Little Aden—Some of the popular beaches in Aden
Aden
consist of Lover’s Bay Beach, Elephant Beach and Gold Beach. The popular beach in Little Aden
Aden
is called Blue Beach.[18] Some beaches are private and some are public, which is subject to change over time due to the changing resort industry. According to the Wall Street Journal, kidnappings on the beaches and the threat of Al Qaeda has caused problems for the resort industry in Aden, which used to be popular among locals and Westerners.[21] Al-Aidaroos Mosque[17] Main Pass – now called Al-Aqba Road is the only road into Aden through Crater. This gateway bridge overlooking Aden
Aden
city was built during the Ottoman Empire. It was demolished in 1964 by British authorities to widen the existing roadway. A painted crest of the 24th British army battalion is still visible on the brickwork leading up the hill. A quarter scale miniature stone replica of the now demolished Main Pass Bridge is located at the nearby Al Aqba intersection/roundabout.

Economy[edit] Historically, Aden
Aden
would import goods from the African coast and from Europe, the United States, and India.[22][23] As of 1920, the British described it as "the chief emporium of Arabian trade, receiving the small quantities of native produce, and supplying the modest wants of the interior and of most of the smaller Arabian ports." At the docks, the city provided coal to passing ships. The only item being produced by the city, as of 1920, was salt.[23] Also, the port was the stop ships had to take when entering the Bab-el-Mandeb; this was how cities like Mecca had received goods by ship. Yemen
Yemen
Airlines, the national airline of South Yemen, had its head office in Aden. On 15 May 1996, Yemen
Yemen
Airlines merged with Yemenia.[24][25] During the early 20th century Aden
Aden
was a notable centre of coffee production. Women processed coffee beans, grown in the Yemen highlands.[26] Frankincense, wheat, barley, alfalfa, and millet was also produced and exported from Aden.[27][28] The leaves and stalks of the alfalfa, millet and maize produced in Aden
Aden
were generally used as fodder.[28] As of 1920, Aden
Aden
was also gathering salt from salt water. An Italian company called Agostino Burgarella Ajola and Company gathered and process the salt under the name Aden
Aden
Salt
Salt
Works. There was also a smaller company from India, called Abdullabhoy and Joomabhoy Lalji & Company that owned a salt production firm in Aden. Both companies exported the salt. Between 1916–1917, Aden produced over 120,000 tons of salt. Aden
Aden
has also produced potash, which was generally exported to Mumbai.[29] Aden
Aden
produced jollyboats. Charcoal
Charcoal
was produced as well, from acacia, and mainly in the interior of the region. Cigarettes were produced by Jewish and Greek populations in Aden. The tobacco used was imported from Egypt.[30] Transportation[edit]

Aden's harbour in 1960

Historically, Aden's harbour has been a major hub of transportation for the region. As of 1920, the harbour was 13 by 6 km (8 by 4 mi) in size. Passenger ships landed at Steamer Point now called Tawahi.[22] During the British Colonial period motor vehicles drove on the left, as in the United Kingdom. On 1 January 1977, Aden, in line with Yemen and neighbouring states, changed to driving on the right. The city was served by Aden
Aden
International Airport, the former RAF Khormaksar station which is 10 km (6.2 mi) away from the city, before the Battle of Aden Airport and the 2015 military intervention in Yemen
Yemen
closed this airport along with other airports in Yemen. July 22, Aden International Airport
Aden International Airport
was declared fit for operation again after the Houthi
Houthi
forces were driven from the city, and a Saudi plane carrying aid reportedly became the first plane to land in Aden
Aden
in four months.[31] The same day, a ship chartered by the World Food Programme
World Food Programme
carrying fuel docked in Aden's port.[32] Climate[edit] Aden
Aden
has a hot desert climate (BWh) in the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system. Although it is extremely dry year-round, it is humid throughout the year.

Climate data for Aden

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 31.1 (88) 31.7 (89.1) 35.0 (95) 37.8 (100) 41.1 (106) 41.1 (106) 41.1 (106) 42.8 (109) 38.3 (100.9) 38.9 (102) 35.0 (95) 32.8 (91) 42.8 (109)

Average high °C (°F) 28.5 (83.3) 28.6 (83.5) 30.2 (86.4) 32.2 (90) 34.1 (93.4) 36.6 (97.9) 35.9 (96.6) 35.3 (95.5) 35.4 (95.7) 33.0 (91.4) 30.7 (87.3) 28.9 (84) 32.4 (90.3)

Daily mean °C (°F) 25.7 (78.3) 26.0 (78.8) 27.2 (81) 28.9 (84) 31.0 (87.8) 32.7 (90.9) 32.1 (89.8) 31.5 (88.7) 31.6 (88.9) 28.9 (84) 27.1 (80.8) 26.0 (78.8) 29.1 (84.4)

Average low °C (°F) 22.6 (72.7) 23.2 (73.8) 24.0 (75.2) 25.6 (78.1) 27.7 (81.9) 28.8 (83.8) 28.0 (82.4) 27.5 (81.5) 27.8 (82) 24.6 (76.3) 23.2 (73.8) 22.9 (73.2) 25.5 (77.9)

Record low °C (°F) 15.6 (60.1) 17.2 (63) 18.9 (66) 18.9 (66) 21.1 (70) 23.9 (75) 22.8 (73) 23.3 (73.9) 25.0 (77) 18.9 (66) 18.3 (64.9) 16.7 (62.1) 15.6 (60.1)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 6 (0.24) 3 (0.12) 5 (0.2) 2 (0.08) 1 (0.04) 0 (0) 3 (0.12) 3 (0.12) 5 (0.2) 1 (0.04) 3 (0.12) 5 (0.2) 36 (1.42)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 3 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 3 20

Average relative humidity (%) 72 72 74 74 72 66 65 65 69 68 70 70 70

Mean monthly sunshine hours 241.8 203.4 217.0 240.0 303.8 282.0 241.8 269.7 270.0 294.5 285.0 257.3 3,106.3

Mean daily sunshine hours 7.8 7.2 7.0 8.0 9.8 9.4 7.8 8.7 9.0 9.5 9.5 8.3 8.5

Source: Deutscher Wetterdienst[33]

Aden
Aden
mean sea temperature[33]

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

25 °C (77 °F) 25 °C (77 °F) 26 °C (79 °F) 27 °C (81 °F) 29 °C (84 °F) 30 °C (86 °F) 29 °C (84 °F) 29 °C (84 °F) 30 °C (86 °F) 28 °C (82 °F) 27 °C (81 °F) 25 °C (77 °F)

See also[edit]

History of the Jews
Jews
in Aden Military history of Britain Postage stamps
Postage stamps
and postal history of Aden Yemen
Yemen
Ports Authority

Footnotes[edit]

^ a b "Yemen's President Hadi declares new 'temporary capital'". Deutsche Welle. 2015-03-21. Retrieved 2015-03-21.  ^ a b Fahim, Karim; Bin Lazrq, Fathi (2015-04-10). "Yemen's Despair on Full Display in 'Ruined' City". New York Times
New York Times
Company. New York Times. Retrieved 2015-04-11.  ^ a b "Proxies and paranoia". The Economist. Economist Group. The Economist. 2015-07-25. Retrieved 2015-07-30.  ^ Modern Middle East Nations and Their Strategic Place in the World: Yemen, 2004, by Hal Markovitz. ISBN 1-59084-521-8 ^ Lawrence G. Potter (2009). The Persian Gulf in History. p. 180. ISBN 9780230618459.  ^ Dr Pirouz Mojtahed-Zadeh (2013). Security and Territoriality in the Persian Gulf: A Maritime Political Geography. p. 64. ISBN 9781136817175.  ^ Ma Huan
Ma Huan
Ying-yai Sheng-lan, The Overall Survey of the Ocean's Shores, 1433, translated by J.V.G. Mills, with foreword and preface, Hakluty Society, London 1970; reprinted by the White Lotus Press 1997. ISBN 974-8496-78-3 ^ Broeze (2013-10-28). Gateways Of Asia. Routledge. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-136-16895-6.  ^ Port
Port
of Aden
Aden
inner harbour[permanent dead link] ^ J. K. Laughton, ‘Jourdain, John (c.1572–1619)’, rev. H. V. Bowen, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, Jan 2008 ^ Great Britain Hydrographic Dept (1900). The Red Sea
Red Sea
and Gulf of Aden Pilot (5th ed.). Order of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. p. 348.  ^ "Timeline: Al Qaeda's Global Context: Al Qaeda's First Attack". Frontline: The Man Who Knew. pbs.org. Archived from the original on 15 December 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-30.  ^ Worth, Robert F. (2010-02-28). "In Yemen's South, Protests Could Cause More Instability". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 4 March 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-08.  ^ "Head of GCC visits embattled Hadi in Aden". The Daily Star. 2015-02-26. Retrieved 2015-02-26.  ^ Hendawi, Hamza (20 March 2015). "Fierce gun battle between factions at Yemen
Yemen
airport". The Scotsman. Retrieved 21 March 2015.  ^ http://www.yementimes.com/en/1537/Culture/192/Aden%E2%80%99s-rich-religious-heritage.htm ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-12-20. Retrieved 2016-12-03.  ^ a b McLaughlin, Daniel (2008). Yemen. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 183.  ^ "Arabia Antica: Pre-islamic Arabia, Culture and Archaeology: About". arabiantica.humnet.unipi.it. Retrieved 2016-11-14.  ^ Taminian, Lucine (1998). "Rimbaud's House in Aden, Yemen: Giving Voice(s) to the Silent Poet". Cultural Anthropology. 13 (4): 464. doi:10.1525/can.1998.13.4.464. JSTOR 656569.  ^ Abi Habib, Maria (2013-06-06). "Aden, Once The Lively Beach Resort of Yemen, Struggles Under Sway of Al Qaeda". The Wall Street Journal.  ^ a b Prothero, G.W. (1920). Arabia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 68.  ^ a b Prothero, G.W. (1920). Arabia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 69.  ^ "North and South Yemen
Yemen
Airlines to Merge". Flight International. 10–16 April 1996. 10. ^ " Yemenia
Yemenia
background Archived 2009-10-27 at the Wayback Machine.". Yemenia. Retrieved on 26 October 2009. ^ Prothero, G.W. (1920). Arabia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 83.  ^ Prothero, G.W. (1920). Arabia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 84.  ^ a b Prothero, G.W. (1920). Arabia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 86.  ^ Prothero, G.W. (1920). Arabia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 98.  ^ Prothero, G.W. (1920). Arabia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 99.  ^ " Aden
Aden
Airport ready to operate". Yemen
Yemen
Times. 2015-07-22. Retrieved 2015-07-27.  ^ "New WFP Ship Arrives In Aden
Aden
Port
Port
With Fuel For Humanitarian Operations". World Food Programme. United Nations. 2015-07-22. Retrieved 2015-07-30.  ^ a b "Klimatafel von Aden-Chormaksar / Jemen" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961–1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 25 February 2016. 

References[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Aden

Norris, H.T.; Penhey, F.W. (1955). "The Historical Development of Aden's defences". The Geographical Journal. CXXI part I. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Aden.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Aden.

Aden
Aden
travel guide from Wikivoyage ArchNet.org. "Aden". Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: MIT School of Architecture and Planning. Archived from the original on 2007-07-02. 

v t e

Aden
Aden
Governorate

Capital: Aden

Districts

Al Buraiqeh District Al Mansura District Al Mualla District Ash Shaikh Outhman District Attawahi District Crater District Dar Sad District Khur Maksar District

v t e

Yemeni cities and towns by population

1,000,000 and more

Sana'a

100,000-999,999

Aden Dhamar Al Hudaydah Ibb Mukalla Taiz

10,000-99,999

Abs 'Amran Ataq Bajil Bayt al-Faqih Al Bayda' Beihan Dimnat Chadir Al Ghaydah Hais Hajjah Al Houta Khamir Al-Mahabischa Al Mahwit Al-Marawi'a Ma'rib Mocha Mudiyah Rada'a Sayyan Seiyun Ash Shihr Socotra Tarim Thula Yarim Zabid Zinjibar

<9,999

Dammaj Habban Al Hajjarah Hutayb Jaʿār Jibla Kawkaban Manakhah Mukayras Sa'dah Shaharah Shibam At Tawilah Wadi Dawan

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 262968255 GND: 40004

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