ACEH (/ˈɑːtʃeɪ/ ); (Acehnese : ACèH ( ); Jawi : اچيه;
Dutch : ATJEH or ACHEH; Indonesian : PROVINSI ACEH) is a special
Indonesia . The territory is located at the northern end of
Sumatra . Its capital is
Banda Aceh . It is close to the Andaman and
Nicobar Islands of
India and separated from them by the
Andaman Sea .
Its population has the highest percentage of Muslims in Indonesia, who
mostly live according to
Sharia customs and laws.
There are 10 indigenous ethnic groups in this region, the largest
being the Acehnese people, accounting for approximately 80% to 90% of
the region's population.
Aceh is thought to have been the place where
the spread of
Indonesia began, and was a key factor of the
Islam in Southeast Asia .
Aceh (Kingdoms of
Lamuri ) around 1250 AD. In the early seventeenth century
Sultanate of Aceh
Sultanate of Aceh was the most wealthy, powerful and cultivated
state in the
Malacca Straits region.
Aceh has a history of political
independence and resistance to control by outsiders, including the
former Dutch colonists and the Indonesian government.
Aceh has substantial natural resources of oil and natural gas with
some estimates that
Aceh gas reserves are one of the largest in the
world. Relative to most of Indonesia, it is a religiously conservative
Aceh was the closest point of land to the epicenter of the 2004
Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami , which devastated much of the
western coast of the province. Approximately 170,000 Indonesians were
killed or went missing in the disaster. The disaster helped
precipitate the peace agreement between the government of Indonesia
Free Aceh Movement (GAM).
Aceh was first known as ACEH DARUSSALAM (1511–1959) and then later
as the DAERAH ISTIMEWA ACEH (1959–2001), NANGGROë ACEH DARUSSALAM
(2001–2009) and ACEH (2009–present). Past spellings of Aceh
include Acheh, Atjeh, and Achin.
* 1 History
* 1.1 Prehistory
* 1.2 Pre-Islamic
* 1.3 Beginnings of
Islam in Southeast Asia
Sultanate of Aceh
Sultanate of Aceh
* 1.6 Japanese occupation
* 1.7 Indonesian independence
* 1.8 Acehnese rebellion
* 1.9 Governors
Free Aceh Movement
Exxon Mobil human rights abuse lawsuit
* 1.13 Peace agreement and first local elections
* 2 Ecology and biodiversity
* 3 Government
* 3.1 Law
* 3.2 Administrative divisions
* 4 Economy
* 5 Demographics
* 5.1 Ethnic and cultural groups
* 5.2 Religion
* 6 See also
* 7 Notes
* 8 Further reading
* 9 External links
Mollusca piles in
Aceh Tamiang Regency
According to several archaeological findings, the first evidence of
human habitation in
Aceh is from a site near the Tamiang River where
shell middens are present. Stone tools and faunal remains were also
found on the site. Archeologists believe the site was first occupied
around 10,000 BC.
Not much has been uncovered about the pre-Islamic history of Aceh,
however there are several artifacts that linked pre-Islamic era with
Buddhism and culture from the Indochina region, as well as Old Malay
custom. Historic names such as Indrapurba, Indrapurwa, Indrapatra, and
Indrapuri gave some hint of Indian influence on this region. However,
there are no archaeological findings (such as statues or temples) that
link this region with Hinduism.
BEGINNINGS OF ISLAM IN SOUTHEAST ASIA
See also: Spread of
Indonesia Map of
Pasai , the first
Islamic kingdom in
South East Asia
South East Asia
Evidence concerning the initial coming and subsequent establishment
Islam in Southeast Asia is thin and inconclusive . The historian
Anthony Reid has argued that the region of the Cham people on the
south-central coast of Vietnam was one of the earliest Islamic centers
in Southeast Asia. Furthermore, as the Cham people fled the
Vietnamese, one of the earliest locations that they established a
relationship with was Aceh. Furthermore, it is thought that one of
the earliest centers of
Islam was in the
Aceh region. When Venetian
Marco Polo passed by
Sumatra on his way home from China in
1292 he found that Peureulak was a Muslim town while nearby 'Basma(n)'
and 'Samara' were not. 'Basma(n)' and 'Samara' are often said to be
Pasai and Samudra but evidence is inconclusive. The gravestone of
Sultan Malik as-Salih, the first Muslim ruler of Samudra, has been
found and is dated AH 696 (AD 1297). This is the earliest clear
evidence of a Muslim dynasty in the Indonesia-Malay area and more
gravestones from the thirteenth century show that this region
continued under Muslim rule.
Ibn Batutah , a Moroccan traveller,
passing through on his way to China in 1345 and 1346, found that the
ruler of Samudra was a follower of the Shafi\'i school of Islam.
The Portuguese apothecary
Tome Pires reported in his early
16th-century book Suma Oriental that most of the kings of
Palembang were Muslim. At Pasai, in what is now the North
Aceh Regency , there was a thriving international port. Pires
attributed the establishment of
Pasai to the 'cunning' of the
Muslim merchants. The ruler of Pasai, however, had not been able to
convert the people of the interior.
SULTANATE OF ACEH
Sultanate of Aceh
Sultanate of Aceh was established by Sultan
Ali Mughayat Syah in
In 1584–88 the Bishop of
Malacca , D. João Ribeiro Gaio, based on
information provided by a former captive called Diogo Gil, wrote the
"Roteiro das Cousas do Achem" (Lisboa 1997) – a description of the
Later, during its golden era , in the 17th century, its territory and
political influence expanded as far as
Satun in southern
Malay Peninsula , and Siak in what is today the province of
Riau . As was the case with most non-Javan pre-colonial states,
Acehnese power expanded outward by sea rather than inland. As it
expanded down the Sumatran coast, its main competitors were
Portuguese Malacca on the other side of the
Straits of Malacca . It
was this seaborne trade focus that saw
Aceh rely on rice imports from
Java rather than develop self sufficiency in rice production.
Aceh Sultanate during the reign of
Sultan Iskandar Muda
After the Portuguese occupation of
Malacca in 1511, many Islamic
traders passing the
Malacca Straits shifted their trade to Banda Aceh
and increased the Acehnese rulers' wealth. During the reign of Sultan
Iskandar Muda in the 17th century, Aceh's influence extended to most
Sumatra and the
Malay Peninsula .
Aceh allied itself with the
Ottoman Empire and the Dutch East
India Company in their struggle
against the Portuguese and the
Johor Sultanate . Acehnese military
power waned gradually thereafter, and
Aceh ceded its territory of
Sumatra to the Dutch in the 18th century.
By the early nineteenth century, however,
Aceh had become an
increasingly influential power due to its strategic location for
controlling regional trade. In the 1820s it was the producer of over
half the world's supply of black pepper. The pepper trade produced new
wealth for the Sultanate and for the rulers of many smaller nearby
ports that had been under Aceh's control, but were now able to assert
more independence. These changes initially threatened Aceh's
integrity, but a new sultan Tuanku Ibrahim , who controlled the
kingdom from 1838 to 1870, reasserted power over nearby ports.
Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 the British ceded their colonial
Sumatra to the Dutch. In the treaty, the British
Aceh as one of their possessions, although they had no
actual control over the Sultanate. Initially, under the agreement the
Dutch agreed to respect Aceh's independence. In 1871, however, the
British dropped previous opposition to a Dutch invasion of Aceh,
possibly to prevent
France or the United States from gaining a
foothold in the region. Although neither the Dutch nor the British
knew the specifics, there had been rumors since the 1850s that Aceh
had been in communication with the rulers of
France and of the Ottoman
Aceh War General Köhler, commandant of Dutch
troops, died from a shot by an Acehnese sniper during the first attack
Pirates operating from
Aceh threatened commerce in the Strait of
Malacca ; the sultan was unable to control them. Britain was a
Aceh and gave the
Netherlands permission to eradicate the
pirates. The campaign quickly drove out the sultan but the local
leaders mobilized and fought the Dutch in four decades of guerrilla
war, with high levels of atrocities. The Dutch colonial government
declared war on
Aceh on 26 March 1873.
Aceh sought American help but
Washington rejected the request.
The Dutch tried one strategy after another over the course of four
decades. An expedition under Major General Johan Harmen Rudolf Köhler
in 1873 occupied most of the coastal areas. Köhler's strategy was to
attack and take the Sultan's palace. It failed. The Dutch then tried a
naval blockade, reconciliation, concentration within a line of forts,
and lastly passive containment. They had scant success. Reaching 15 to
20 million guilders a year, the heavy spending for failed strategies
nearly bankrupted the colonial government.
Aceh army was rapidly modernized, and
Aceh soldiers managed to
kill Köhler (a monument to this achievement has been built inside
Grand Mosque of Banda Aceh). Köhler made some grave tactical errors
and the reputation of the Dutch was severely harmed. In recent years
in line with expanding international attention to human rights issues
and atrocities in war zones, there has been increasing discussion
about some of the recorded acts of cruelty and slaughter committed by
Dutch troops during the period of warfare in Aceh.
Hasan Mustafa (1852–1930) was a chief 'penghulu,' or judge, for the
colonial government and was stationed in Aceh. He had to balance
traditional Muslim justice with Dutch law. To stop the
Hasan Mustafa issued a fatwa, telling the Muslims there in 1894, "It
is Incumbent upon the Indonesian Muslims to be loyal to the Dutch East
During World War II, Japanese troops occupied Aceh. The Acehnese
Ulama (Islamic clerics) fought against both the Dutch and the
Japanese, revolting against the Dutch in February 1942 and against
Japan in November 1942. The revolt was led by the All-
Scholars' Association (PUSA). The Japanese suffered 18 dead in the
uprising while they slaughtered up to 100 or over 120 Acehnese. The
revolt happened in Bayu and was centered around Tjot Plieng village's
religious school. During the revolt, the Japanese troops armed
with mortars and machine guns were charged by sword wielding Acehnese
under Teungku Abduldjalil (Tengku Abdul Djalil) in Buloh Gampong
Teungah and Tjot Plieng on 10 and 13 November. On May 1945 the
Acehnese rebelled again. The religious ulama party gained ascendancy
to replace district warlords (uleebalang) party that formerly
collaborated with the Dutch. Concrete bunkers still line the
Teungku Daud Beureu'eh, 3rd
Governor of Aceh and the regional
leader of Darul
After World War II, civil war erupted in 1945 between the district
warlords party, that supported the return of a Dutch government, and
the religious ulama party that supported the newly proclaimed state of
Indonesia. The ulama won, and the area remained free during Indonesian
War of Independence. The Dutch military itself never attempted to
invade Aceh. The civil war raised the religious ulama party leader,
Daud Bereueh , to the position of military governor of Aceh.
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The Acehnese revolted soon after its inclusion into an independent
Indonesia, a situation created by a complex mix of what the Acehnese
regarded as transgressions against and betrayals of their rights.
Soekarno , the first president of Indonesia, had reneged on his
promise made on 16 June 1948 that
Aceh would be allowed to rule itself
in accordance with its religious values which had been in place for
Aceh was politically dismantled and incorporated into the
province of North
Sumatra in 1950. This resulted in the Acehnese
Rebellion of 1953–59 which was led by Daud Beureu\'eh who on 20
September 1953 declared a free independent
Aceh under the leadership
Sekarmadji Maridjan Kartosoewirjo . In 1959, the Indonesian
government attempted to placate the Acehnese by offering wide-ranging
freedom in matters relating to religion, education and culture.
Governor of Aceh
Teuku Nyak Arif
October 3, 1945
as Resident of Aceh
Teuku Daud Syah
Governor of Aceh Darussalam
Teungku Daud Beureu\'eh
Teuku Sulaiman Daud
as Governor of
Special Region of Aceh
Nyak Adam Kamil
Abdullah Muzakir Walad
Abdul Madjid Ibrahim
Died in office
as Governor of
Special Region of Aceh
June 21, 2000
Left office before 2nd term ends
June 21, 2000
July 19, 2004
as Governor of Nanggroë
July 19, 2004
December 30, 2005
December 30, 2005
Februari 8, 2007
Februari 8, 2007
Februari 8, 2012
as Governor of Aceh; 1st term
Tarmizi Abdul Karim
Februari 8, 2012
June 25, 2012
June 25, 2012
July 5, 2017
July 5, 2017
FREE ACEH MOVEMENT
Insurgency in Aceh Women soldiers of the Free
Aceh Movement with GAM commander Abdullah Syafei'i, 1999
During the 1970s, under an agreement with the Indonesian central
government, American oil and gas companies began exploitation of Aceh
natural resources. Alleged unequal distribution of profits between
central government and the native people of
Aceh induced Dr. Hasan
Muhammad di Tiro , former ambassador of Darul Islam, to call for an
independent Aceh. He proclaimed independence in 1976.
The movement had a small number of followers initially, and Dr. Hasan
Muhammad di Tiro himself had to live in exile in Sweden. Meanwhile,
the province followed
Suharto 's policy of economic development and
industrialization. During the late 1980s several security incidents
prompted the Indonesian central government to take repressive measures
and to send troops to Aceh. Human rights abuse was rampant for the
next decade, resulting in many grievances on the part of the Acehnese
toward the Indonesian central government. In 1990, the Indonesian
government initiated military operations against GAM by deploying more
than 12.000 Indonesian army in the region.
During the late 1990s, chaos in
Java and an ineffective central
government gave an advantage to the
Free Aceh Movement and resulted in
the second phase of the rebellion, this time with large support from
the Acehnese people. This support was demonstrated during the 1999
Banda Aceh which was attended by nearly half a million
people (of four million population of the province). Indonesian
central government responded in 2001 by broadening Aceh's autonomy,
giving its government the right to apply
Sharia law more broadly and
the right to receive direct foreign investment. This was again
accompanied by repressive measures, however, and in 2003 an offensive
began and a state of emergency was proclaimed in the Province. The war
was still going on when the tsunami disaster of 2004 struck the
EXXON MOBIL HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE LAWSUIT
Main article: ExxonMobil violations in
On 21 June 2001 11 villagers from an Acehnese village in the North
Aceh Regency used the
Alien Tort Claims Act to sue
Exxon Mobil in
United States federal court
United States federal court for human rights abuses at the Arun
natural gas field. The villagers claim they were tortured, raped, or
murdered by soldiers from the Indonesian military. They claimed that
Exxon Mobil created barracks to be used for torture of detainees and
Indonesian military unit which guarded the Exxon-Mobil
natural gas field heavy equipment to cover mass burials after a clash
Exxon Mobil reportedly shut down the site because
of escalating violence. The villagers need to reveal their identities
in order to receive Indonesian government protection, but are
reluctant to do so for fear of reprisals from the Indonesian military.
2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami
2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami
Aftermath of the tsunami in
The western coastal areas of Aceh, including the cities of Banda Aceh
Calang , and
Meulaboh , were among the areas hardest-hit by the
tsunami resulting from the magnitude 9.2
Indian Ocean earthquake on 26
December 2004. While estimates vary, over 170,000 people were killed
by tsunami in
Aceh and about 500,000 were left homeless. The tragedy
of the tsunami was further compounded several months later, when the
2005 M8.6 Nias–
Simeulue earthquake struck the sea bed between the
Simeulue Island in
Nias in North Sumatra. This
second quake killed a further 1346 people on
Nias and Simeulue,
displaced tens of thousands more, and caused the tsunami response to
be expanded to include Nias. the World Health Organisation estimates a
100% increase in prevalence of mild and moderate mental disorders in
Aceh's general population after the tsunami.
The population of
Aceh before the December 2004 tsunami was 4,271,000
(2004). The population as of 15 September 2005 was 4,031,589, and at
January 2014 was 4,731,705.
As of February 2006, more than a year after the tsunami, a large
number of people were still living in barrack-style temporary living
centers (TLC) or tents . Reconstruction was visible everywhere, but
due to the sheer scale of the disaster, and logistic difficulties,
progress was slow. A study in 2007 estimates 83.6% of the population
has psychiatric illness, while 69.8% suffers from severe emotional
The ramifications of the tsunami went beyond the immediate impact to
the lives and infrastructure of the Acehnese living on the coast.
Since the disaster, the Acehnese rebel movement GAM, which had been
fighting for independence against the Indonesian authorities for 29
years, has signed a peace deal (15 August 2005). The perception that
the tsunami was punishment for insufficient piety in this proudly
Muslim province is partly behind the increased emphasis on the
importance of religion post-tsunami. This has been most obvious in the
increased implementation of
Sharia law, including the introduction of
the controversial 'WH' or Syariah police. As homes are being built and
people's basic needs are met, the people are also looking to improve
the quality of education , increase tourism, and develop responsible,
sustainable industry. Well-qualified educators are in high demand in
Aceh. Boats washed ashore near local businesses in down town
Sumatra following a massive
Tsunami that struck the area on 26
While parts of the capital
Banda Aceh were unscathed, the areas
closest to the water, especially the areas of Kampung Jawa and
Meuraxa, were completely destroyed. Most of the rest of the western
Aceh was severely damaged. Many towns completely disappeared.
Other towns on Aceh's west coast hit by the disaster included Lhoknga
Leupung , Lamno,
Teunom , and the island of Simeulu
. Affected or destroyed towns on the region's north "> Martti
Ahtisaari, facilitator in Aceh-
Indonesia peace agreement
The 2004 tsunami helped trigger a peace agreement between the GAM and
the Indonesian government. The mood in post-
Indonesia in the
liberal-democratic reform period, as well as changes in the Indonesian
military, helped create an environment more favorable to peace talks.
The roles of newly elected president
Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono
Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono and vice
Jusuf Kalla were highly significant. At the same time, the
GAM leadership was undergoing changes, and the
Indonesian military had
inflicted so much damage on the rebel movement that it had little
choice but to negotiate with the central government. The peace talks
were first initiated Juha Christensen , a Finnish peace activist, and
then formally facilitated by a
Finland -based NGO, the Crisis
Management Initiative led by former Finnish President Martti Ahtisaari
. The resulting peace agreement, generally known as the Helsinki MOU,
was signed on 15 August 2005. Under the agreement
Aceh would receive
special autonomy and government troops would be withdrawn from the
province in exchange for GAM's disarmament. As part of the agreement,
European Union dispatched 300 monitors . Their mission expired on
15 December 2006, following local elections.
Aceh has been granted broader autonomy through
Legislation covering special rights agreed upon in 2002 as well as the
right of the Acehnese to establish local political parties to
represent their interests. Human rights advocates protested that
previous human rights violations in the province needed to be
During elections for the provincial governor held in December 2006,
the former GAM and national parties participated. The election was won
Irwandi Yusuf , whose base of support consisted largely of ex-GAM
ECOLOGY AND BIODIVERSITY
Aceh has the largest range of biodiversity in the Asian Pacific
region. Among the rarer large mammals are the
Sumatran rhinoceros ,
Sumatran tiger ,
Sumatran elephant . In 2014, there
were 460 Sumatran elephants in
Aceh including at least eight baby
elephants. The area has been suffering from deforestation since the
1970s. The first wood pulp mill in
Aceh was built in 1982. The
Aceh intends a law by which 1.2 million hectares would
be opened for commercial use. This proposal has caused many protests.
Within the country,
Aceh is governed not as a province but as a
special territory (daerah istimewa), an administrative designation
intended to give the area increased autonomy from the central
Regional elections have been held in
Aceh in recent years for senior
positions at the provincial, regency (kabupaten) and district
(kecamatan) levels. In the 2006 elections ,
Irwandi Yusuf was elected
as the provincial governor for 2007–2012 and in elections in April
Zaini Abdullah was elected as governor for 2012–2017.
Islamic criminal law in Aceh
Islamic criminal law in Aceh Use of sharia in
Southeast Asia: Choice between sharia and secular courts, only on
personal status issues
Sharia applies in personal status issues only
Sharia applies in full, including criminal law
Beginning with the promulgation of Law 44/1999, Aceh's governor began
to issue limited
Sharia -based regulations, for example requiring
female government employees to wear Islamic dress. These regulations
were not enforced by the provincial government, but as early as April
1999, reports emerged that groups of men in
Aceh were engaging in
vigilante violence in an effort to impose Sharia, for example, by
conducting "jilbab raids," subjecting women who were not wearing
Islamic headscarves to verbal abuse, cutting their hair or clothes,
and committing other acts of violence against them. The frequency of
these and other attacks on individuals considered to be violating
Sharia principles appeared to increase following the enactment of Law
44/1999 and the governor's
Sharia regulations. In 2014, a group of
scholars who call themselves Tadzkiiratul Ummah , started to paint the
pants of men and women as a call for heavier Islamic law enforcement
in the area.
Upon the enactment of the
Special Autonomy Law in 2001, Aceh's
provincial legislature enacted a series of qanuns (local laws)
governing the implementation of Sharia. Five qanuns enacted between
2002 and 2004 contained criminal penalties for violations of Sharia:
Qanun 11/2002 on "belief, ritual, and promoting Islam," which contains
the Islamic attire requirement; Qanun 12/2003 prohibiting the
consumption and sale of alcohol; Qanun 13/2003 prohibiting gambling;
Qanun 14 /2003 prohibiting "seclusion"; and Qanun 7/2004 on the
payment of Islamic alms. With the exception of gambling, none of the
offenses are prohibited outside of Aceh.
Responsibility for enforcement of the qanuns rests both with the
National Police and with a special
Sharia police force unique to Aceh,
known as the
Wilayatul Hisbah (
Sharia Authority). All of the qanuns
provide for penalties including fines, imprisonment, and caning , the
latter a punishment unknown in most parts of Indonesia. Between
mid-2005 and early 2007, at least 135 people were caned in
transgressing the qanuns. In April 2016, a 60-year-old non-Muslim
woman was sentenced to 30 lashes for selling alcohol drinks. The
controversy is that qanun is not allowed for non-Muslim person, and
national law should be used instead as in other parts of Indonesia.
In April 2009,
Partai Aceh won control of the local parliament in
Aceh's first post-war legislative elections. In September 2009, one
month before the new legislators were to take office, the outgoing
parliament unanimously endorsed two new qanuns to expand the existing
Sharia framework in Aceh.
* One bill, the Qanun on Criminal Procedure (Qanun Hukum Jinayat),
to create an entirely new procedural code for the enforcement of
Sharia by police, prosecutors, and courts in Aceh.
* The other bill, the Qanun on Criminal Law (Qanun Jinayat),
reiterated the existing criminal
Sharia prohibitions, at times
enhancing their penalties, and a host of new criminal offenses,
including ikhtilat (intimacy or mixing), zina (adultery, defined as
willing intercourse by unmarried people), sexual harassment, rape, and
homosexual conduct. The law authorized punishments including up to 60
lashes for "intimacy," up to 100 lashes for engaging in homosexual
conduct, up to 100 lashes for adultery by unmarried persons, and death
by stoning for adultery by a married person.
In practice since the introduction of the new laws, there has been a
considerable increase in the use of the penalties provided set out in
the laws. As an example, in August 2015 six men in Bireun regency were
arrested and caned for betting on the names of passing buses. And it
was reported that on just one day, 18 September 2015, a total of 34
people were caned in
Banda Aceh and in the nearby regency of Aceh
Two gay men are to be publicly lashed 85 times each under sharia law
after being filmed by vigilantes in Indonesia. An Islamic court in the
Aceh passed down its first sentence for homosexuality on
the International Day Against Homophobia and Transphobia, 17 May 2017
in spite of international appeals to spare the couple.
Administratively, the special region is subdivided into eighteen
regencies (kabupaten) and five autonomous cities (kota). The capital
and the largest city is
Banda Aceh , located on the coast near the
northern tip of Sumatra. Some local areas are pushing to create new
autonomous areas, usually with the stated goal of enhancing local
control over politics and development.
The cities and regencies (subdivided into the districts of Aceh), are
listed below with their populations at the 2010 Census and according
to the latest estimates for January 2014.
by Statute AREA (IN KM²)
2010 Census Population
2014 Estimates HDI
Banda Aceh City
0.822 (Very High)
Aceh Besar Regency
Aceh Jaya Regency
Aceh Singkil Regency
Banyak Islands ) Singkil
Aceh Tamiang Regency
Bener Meriah Regency
Simpang Tiga Redelong
Gayo Lues Regency
Nagan Raya Regency
Pidie Jaya Regency
Aceh Barat Daya)
NOTE: UU is an abbreviation from Undang-Undang (the
of law ).
In 2006, economy of
Aceh grew by 7.7% after having minimal growth
since the devastating tsunami. This growth was primarily driven by
the reconstruction effort with massive growth in the
The ending of the conflict, and the reconstruction program resulted
in the structure of the economy changing significantly since 2003.
Service sectors played a more dominant role whilst the share of the
oil and gas sectors continued to decline.
SECTOR (% SHARE OF ACEH GDP)
Agriculture and fisheries
Oil, Gas and Mining
Manufacturing (incl oil & gas manufact)
Electricity and Water Supply
Building / Construction
Trade, hotels and restaurants
Transport & Communication
NOTE: ... = less than 0.5%
After peaking at around 40% in December 2005, largely as a result of
Dutch disease impact of sudden aid flows into the province,
inflation declined steadily and was 8.5% in June 2007, close to the
national level in
Indonesia of 5.7%. Persistent inflation means that
Aceh's consumer price index (CPI) remains the highest in Indonesia. As
a result, Aceh's cost competitiveness has declined as reflected in
both inflation and wage data. Although inflation has slowed down, CPI
has registered steady increases since the tsunami. Using 2002 as a
base, Aceh's CPI increased to 185.6 (June 2007) while the national CPI
increased to 148.2. There have been relatively large nominal wage
increases in particular sectors, such as construction where, on
average, workers' nominal wages have risen to almost Rp.60,000 per
day, from Rp.29,000 pre-tsunami. This is also reflected in Aceh's
minimum regional wage (UMR, or Upah Minimum Regional), which increased
by 55% from Rp.550,000 pre-tsunami to Rp.850,000 in 2007, compared
with an increase of 42% in neighboring North
Sumatra , from Rp.537,000
Poverty levels increased slightly in
Aceh in 2005 after the tsunami,
but by less than expected. The poverty level then fell in 2006 to
below the pre-tsunami level, suggesting that the rise in
tsunami-related poverty was short lived and reconstruction activities
and the end of the conflict most probably facilitated this decline.
However, poverty in
Aceh remains significantly higher than in the rest
of Indonesia. A large number of the Acehnese remain vulnerable to
poverty, reinforcing the need for further sustained efforts at
development in the post-tsunami construction period.
Badan Pusat Statistik 2010, Kementerian Kesehatan Estimasi
The population of
Aceh was not adequately documented during the
Indonesia 2000 census because the insurgency complicated the process
of collecting accurate information. An estimated 170,000 people died
Aceh in the 2004 tsunami which further complicates the task of
careful demographic analysis. According to the most recent (2010)
census, the total population of
Aceh in 2010 was 4,486,570.
ETHNIC AND CULTURAL GROUPS
Aceh is a diverse region occupied by several ethnic and language
groups. The major ethnic groups are the Acehnese (who are distributed
throughout Aceh), Gayo (in central and eastern part), Alas (in
Southeast Aceh Regency
Southeast Aceh Regency ), Tamiang-Malays (in
Aceh Tamiang Regency ),
Aneuk Jamee (descendant from Minangkabau , concentrated in southern
and southwestern), Kluet (in
South Aceh Regency ), and
Simeulue Island). There is also a significant population of Chinese ,
who are influential in the business and financial communities. Among
the present day Acehnese can be found some individuals of
Turkish , and Indian descent.
Acehnese language is widely spoken within the Acehnese
population. This is a member of the Aceh-Chamic group of languages,
whose other representatives are mostly found in Vietnam and Cambodia,
and is also closely related to the Malay group of languages. Acehnese
also has many words borrowed from Malay and
Arabic and traditionally
was written using
Arabic script . Acehnese is also used as local
language in Langkat and Asahan (North
Sumatra ), and Kedah (Malaysia),
and once dominated Penang. Alas and Kluet are closely related
languages within the
Batak group. The Jamee language originated from
Minangkabau language in West
Sumatra , with just a few variations and
RELIGION IN ACEH (2010 CENSUS)
other, asked or not stated
According to 2010 census of the Central Statistics Agency, Muslims
Aceh with more than 98% or 4,413,200 followers and only
50,300 Protestants and 3,310 Catholics. Religious issues are often
sensitive in Aceh. There is very strong support for
Islam across the
special region, and sometimes other religious groups – such as
Christians or Buddhists – feel that they are subject to social or
community pressure to limit their activities. The official explanation
for this action, supported by both the
Governor of Aceh Zaini Abdullah
and the Indonesian Home Affairs Minister
Gamawan Fauzi from Jakarta,
was that the churches did not have the appropriate permits. Earlier in
April 2012, a number of churches in the Singkil regency in southern
Aceh had also been ordered to close. In response, some Christians
voiced concern about these actions. In 2015 a church was burned down
and another attacked in which a Muslim rioter was shot, causing
Joko Widodo to call for calm.
* ^ A B C D
Estimasi Penduduk Menurut Umur Tunggal Dan Jenis Kelamin 2014
* ^ Aris Ananta; Evi Nurvidya Arifin; M. Sairi Hasbullah; Nur Budi
Handayani; dan Agus Pramono (2015). Demography of Indonesia's
Ethnicity. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies dan BPS – Statistics
* ^ Map of areas with
Sharia influence in law.
* ^ How An Escape Artist Became Aceh\'s Governor,
Time Magazine ,
15 February 2007
* ^ United Nations. Economic and social survey of Asia and the
Pacific 2005. 2005, page 172
* ^ Daniel Perret (24 February 2007). "
Aceh as a Field for Ancient
History Studies" (PDF). Asia Research Institute-National University of
Singapore . Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 January 2008.
Retrieved 29 January 2010.
* ^ Reid (1988 and 1993)
* ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 4
* ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 7
* ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 17
* ^ *D. G. E. Hall, A History of South-east Asia. London:
* ^ A B C Ricklefs, M.C. (2001) A history of modern
c.1200. Stanford: Stanford University Press. p 185–188.
Nicholas Tarling , ed. (1992). The Cambridge History of
Southeast Asia: Volume 2, the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries.
Cambridge U.P. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-521-35506-3 .
* ^ E.H. Kossmann, The Low Countries 1780–1940 (1978) pp
* ^ Linawati Sidarto, 'Images of a grisly past', The
Weekender, July 2011 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27
June 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-26.
* ^ Mufti Ali, "A Study of Hasan Mustafa's 'Fatwa: 'It Is Incumbent
upon the Indonesian Muslims to be Loyal to the Dutch East Indies
Government,'" Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society, April 2004,
Vol. 52 Issue 2, pp 91–122
* ^ Martinkus 2004, p. 47.
* ^ Ricklefs 2001, p. 252.
* ^ "Tempo: Indonesia\'s Weekly News Magazine, Volume 3, Issues
43–52" 2003, p. 27.
* ^ atjehcyberID. "Sejarah Jejak Perlawanan Aceh". ATJEH CYBER
WARRIOR. Retrieved 17 May 2016.
* ^ "Waspada, Sabtu 17 Maret 2012". Issuu. Retrieved 17 May 2016.
* ^ "Waspada, Sabtu 17 Maret 2012". Issuu. Retrieved 17 May 2016.
* ^ "Berita Kadjian Sumatera:
Sumatra Research Bulletin, Volumes
1–4" 1971, p. 35.
* ^ Nasution 1963, p. 89.
* ^ "Sedjarah Iahirnja Tentara Nasional Indonesia" 1970, p. 12.
* ^ "20 tahun
Indonesia merdeka, Volume 7", p. 547.
* ^ "Sedjarah TNI-Angkatan Darat, 1945–1965. " 1965, p. 8.
* ^ "20 tahun
Indonesia merdeka, Volume 7", p. 545.
* ^ Atjeh Post, Minggu Ke III September 1990. halaman I & Atjeh
Post, Minggu Ke IV September 1990 halaman I
* ^ Jong 2000, p. 189.
* ^ A B *M Nur El-Ibrahimy, Peranan Teungku M.
Daud Bereueh dalam
Pergolakan di Aceh, 2001.
* ^ *A.H. Nasution, Seputar Perang Kemerdekaan Indonesia, Jilid II,
* ^ Banerjee, Neela (2001-06-21). "Lawsuit Says Exxon Aided Rights
Abuses". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-04-23.
* ^ For details of the impact of the tsunami in Aceh, see
Jayasuriya, Sisira and Peter McCawley in collaboration with Bhanupong
Nidhiprabha, Budy P. Resosudarmo and Dushni Weerakoon, The Asian
Tsunami: Aid and Reconstruction after a Disaster, Cheltenham UK and
Northampton MA USA: Edward Elgar and Asian Development Bank Institute,
* ^ Wise, Cat (2011). "Tsunami-Devastated Aceh, an
Mental Health Woes". Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved from
on 13 Apr. 2014
* ^ Souza, R., Bernatsky, S., Ryes, R., Jong, K. (2007). "Mental
Health Status of Vulnerable Tsunami-Affected Communities: A Survey in
Aceh Province, Indonesia". Journal of Traumatic Stress. 20(3),
* ^ Stefan G. Koeberle. "Preliminary Damage and Losses Assessment
on". Web.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2013-07-13.
* ^ "
Tsunami Museum". The Irrawaddy. March–April
* ^ A very useful and detailed account of the negotiation process
from the Indonesian side is in the book by the Indonesian key
Hamid Awaludin , Peace in Aceh: Notes on the peace process
between the Republic of
Indonesia and the
Aceh Freedom Movement (GAM)
in Helsinki, translated by Tim Scott, 2009, Centre for Strategic and
International Studies , Jakarta. ISBN 978-979-1295-11-6 .
* ^ "Asia Times Online :: Southeast Asia news – A happy, peaceful
anniversary in Aceh". Atimes.com. 2006-08-15. Retrieved 2013-07-13.
* ^ Hillman, Ben (2012). "'Power Sharing and Political Party
Engineering in Conflict-Prone Societies: The Indonesian Experiment in
Aceh". Conflict Security and Development. 12 (2): 149–169. doi
* ^ Author(s): Veena Siddharth, Asia advocacy director
(2005-08-27). "Next steps for
Aceh after the peace pact Human Rights
Watch". Hrw.org. Retrieved 2013-07-13.
* ^ A B Simanjuntak, Hotli; Sangaji, Ruslan (20 May 2013).
"Scientists urged to stand up for Aceh\'s biodiversity". The Jakarta
* ^ "Gajah Sumatera Hanya Tersisa 460 Ekor di Aceh". 19 August
* ^ McGregor, Andrew (2010). "Green and REDD? Towards a Political
Deforestation in Aceh, Indonesia". Human Geography. 3 (2):
* ^ "Aceh: ecological war zone". Down to Earth (47). 2000. Archived
from the original on 3 March 2012.
* ^ A B The
Jakarta Post. "Global calls to save
Aceh forest". The
Jakarta Post. Retrieved 17 May 2016.
* ^ A B C D E F "Policing Morality Abuses in the Application of
Sharia in Aceh, Indonesia". Human Rights Watch. 2010. pp. 13–17.
Retrieved 2 April 2013.
* ^ Edi Sumardi (December 4, 2014). "Ini Hukuman Bagi Wanita
Berpakaian Ketat, Celananya Disemprot Cat".
* ^ Rachmadin Ismail (April 14, 2016). "Hukuman Cambuk Pertama
Terhadap Non Muslim di
Aceh Jadi Sorotan".
* ^ Hotli Simanjuntak and Ina Parlina, '
Aceh fully enforces
Jakarta Post, 7 February 2014.
* ^ 'Six men caned for betting on passing buses in Aceh\', The
Jakarta Post, 27 August 2015.
* ^ Hotli Simanjuntak, 'Dozens of sharia vilators caned in Aceh\',
Jakarta Post, 19 September 2015.
* ^ Lizzie Dearden (17 May 2017). "
Sharia court in Indonesia
sentences two gay men to 85 lashes each after being caught having
* ^ Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
* ^ Indeks-Pembangunan-Manusia-2014
* ^ World Bank, Jakarta,
Aceh Economic Update November 2007.
* ^ World Bank, Jakarta,
Poverty Assessment 2008.
* ^ A useful survey of the state of development up to 2010 is in
the UNDP Provincial Human Development Report
* ^ Edward Aspinall, Ben Hillman, and Peter McCawley, Governance
and capacity-building in post-crisis Aceh\', a report by Australian
National University Enterprise, Canberra, for UNDP, Jakarta, 2012.
* ^ "Waspada Online". Waspada Online. Retrieved 17 May 2016.
* ^ "Population by Region and Religion in Indonesia". BPS . 2010.
* ^ "Regent orders churches closed, destroyed in Aceh". Retrieved
13 June 2012.
* ^ Bagus BT Saragih, 'Closed churches lack permits: Gamawan\'
Archived 26 October 2012 at the
Wayback Machine ., The
25 October 2012.
* ^ "Jokowi calls for calm amid clashes in Aceh". Channel NewsAsia
. 14 October 2015. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
* Indonesia. Angkatan Darat. Pusat Sedjarah Militer (1965). Sedjarah
TNI-Angkatan Darat, 1945–1965. . PUSSEMAD. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
* Indonesia. Panitia Penjusun Naskah Buku "20 Tahun Indonesia
Merdeka.", Indonesia. 20 tahun
Indonesia merdeka, Volume 7.
Departement Penerangan. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
* Indonesia. Departemen Penerangan. 20 tahun
Volume 7. Departemen Penerangan R.I. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
* Jong, Louis (2002). The collapse of a colonial society: the Dutch
Indonesia during the Second World War. Volume 206 of Verhandelingen
van het Koninklijk Nederlands Geologisch Mijnbouwkundig Genootschap,
Volume 206 of Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-,
Land- en Volkenkunde (illustrated ed.). KITLV Press. ISBN
90-6718-203-6 . Retrieved 10 March 2014.
* Martinkus, John (2004). Indonesia\'s Secret War in Aceh
(illustrated ed.). Random House Australia. ISBN 1-74051-209-X .
Retrieved 10 March 2014.
* Abdul Haris Nasution (1963). Tentara Nasional Indonesia, Volume 1.
Ganaco. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
* Ricklefs, Merle Calvin (2001). A History of Modern
C. 1200 (illustrated ed.). Stanford University Press. ISBN
0-8047-4480-7 . Retrieved 10 March 2014.
* Tempo: Indonesia\'s Weekly News Magazine, Volume 3, Issues
43–52. Arsa Raya Perdana. 2003. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
* Berita Kadjian Sumatera:
Sumatra Research Bulletin, Volumes 1–4.
Sumatra Research Council (Hull, England), University of
Hull Centre for South-East Asian Studies. Dewan Penjelidikan Sumatera.
1971. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
* Sedjarah Iahirnja Tentara Nasional Indonesia. Contributor
Indonesia. Angkatan Darat. Komando Daerah Militer II Bukit Barisan.
Sejarah Militer. Sedjarah Militer Dam II/BB. 1970. Retrieved 10 March
* Bowen, J. R. (1991). Sumatran politics and poetics : Gayo history,
1900–1989. New Haven, Yale University Press.
* Bowen, J. R. (2003). Islam, Law, and Equality in Indonesia
Cambridge University Press
* Iwabuchi, A. (1994). The people of the Alas Valley : a study of an
ethnic group of Northern Sumatra. Oxford, England ; New York,
* McCarthy, J. F. (2006). The Fourth Circle. A Political Ecology of
Sumatra's Rainforest Frontier, Stanford University Press.
* Miller, Michelle Ann. (2009). Rebellion and Reform in Indonesia.
Jakarta\'s Security and Autonomy Policies in Aceh. London and New
York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-45467-4
* Miller, Michelle Ann, ed. (2012). Autonomy and Armed Separatism in
South and Southeast Asia (Singapore: ISEAS).
* Siegel, James T. 2000. The rope of God. Ann Arbor: University of
Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08682-0 ; A classic ethnographic and
historical study of Aceh, and
Islam in the region. Originally
published in 1969
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for ACEH .
* Media related to