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ABU MUSLIM ABD AL-RAHMAN IBN MUSLIM AL-KHORASANI or AL-KHURASANI (Arabic : أبو مسلم عبد الرحمن بن مسلم الخراساني‎‎ born 718-19 or 723-27, died in 755), born VEHZāDāN PūR-I VANDāD HORMOZ (Persian : وهزادان پور ونداد هرمزد‎‎), was a Persian general in service of the Abbasid dynasty , who led the Abbasid Revolution that toppled the Umayyad
Umayyad
dynasty .

CONTENTS

* 1 Origin and name * 2 Crushing a Shiite rebellion in Bukhara
Bukhara
* 3 Rise and revolution * 4 Death * 5 Books * 6 Trivia * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links

ORIGIN AND NAME

According to the _ Encyclopedia Iranica _, "sources differ regarding his original name and his origin. Some make him a descendant of Gōdarz and of the vizier Bozorgmehr and call him Ebrāhīm; some name him Behzādān, son of Vendād Hormoz; and others relate him to the ʿ Abbasids or to ʿAlī’s family . These suggestions are all doubtful". He was possibly of Persian origin and was the mowlā of an Arab tribe. Other sources refer to him as a Yaminite, a Kurd, an Arab or even a descendant of the ancient Iranian aristocracy. It is also said that he was born in Sar-e Pol Province of present-day Afghanistan to a Tajik family.

CRUSHING A SHIITE REBELLION IN BUKHARA

There was an Arab by the name Sharik ibn Shaikh al-Mahri in Bukhara
Bukhara
, who wanted to spread Shia Islam firmly and oppose anyone against him. Soon, he got the support of several local rulers and many local people.

When this news reached Abu Muslim, he along with Ziyad ibn Salih came there to find out the details, and soon they got involved in a fight. Abu Muslim fought Sharik ibn Shaikh al-Mahri and his Shiite supporters for thirty-seven days with no victory, everyday Abu Muslim's side was losing soldiers and several taken as prisoners. After that, all of a sudden Sharik ibn Shaikh al-Mahri died, and his supporters started to crumble but were still hostile. The rebellion was eventually crushed and most of the Shia supporters were hanged.

RISE AND REVOLUTION

Abu Muslim observed the revolt in Kufa in 736 tacitly. With the death of the Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik in 743, the Islamic world was launched into civil war. Abu Muslim was sent to Khorasan by the Abbasids initially as a propagandist and then to revolt on their behalf. He took Merv in December 747 (or January 748), defeating the Umayyad
Umayyad
governor Nasr ibn Sayyar , as well as Shayban al-Khariji , a Kharijite aspirant to the caliphate. He became the de facto governor of Khorasan, and gained fame as a general in the late 740s in defeating the rebellion of Bihafarid , the leader of a syncretic Persian sect that were Mazdaism . Abu Muslim received support in suppressing the rebellion both from purist Muslims and Zoroastrians. In 750, Abu Muslim became leader of the Abbasid army and defeated the Umayyads at Battle of the Zab . Abu Muslim stormed Damascus
Damascus
, the capital of the Umayyad
Umayyad
caliphate, later that year.

His heroic role in the revolution and military skill, along with his conciliatory politics toward Shia , Sunnis , Zoroastrians , Jews , and Christians , made him extremely popular among the people. Although it appears that Abu al-'Abbas al-Saffah trusted him in general, he was wary of his power, limiting his entourage to 500 men upon his arrival to Iraq
Iraq
on his way to Hajj
Hajj
in 754. Abu al-'Abbas's brother, al-Mansur (r. 754-775), advised al-Saffah on more than one occasion to have Abu Muslim killed, fearing his rising influence and popularity. It seems that this dislike was mutual, with Abu Muslim aspiring to more power and looking down in disdain on al-Mansur, feeling al-Mansur owed Abu Muslim for his position. When the new caliph's uncle, Abdullah ibn Ali rebelled, Abu Muslim was requested by al-Mansur to crush this rebellion, which he did, and Abdullah was given to his nephew as a prisoner. Abdullah was ultimately executed.

Relations deteriorated quickly when al-Mansur sent an agent to inventorize the spoils of war, and then appointed Abu Muslim governor of Syria
Syria
and Egypt
Egypt
, outside his powerbase. After an increasingly acrimonious correspondence between Abu Muslim and al-Mansur, Abu Muslim feared he was going to be killed if he appeared in the presence of the Caliph. He later changed his mind and decided to appear in his presence due to a combination of perceived disobedience, al-Mansur's promise to keep him as governor of Khorasan, and the assurances of some of his close aides, some of whom were bribed by al-Mansur. He went to Iraq
Iraq
to meet al-Mansur in al-Mada\'in in 755. Al-Mansur proceeded to enumerate his grievances against Abu Muslim, who kept reminding the Caliph of his efforts to enthrone him. Against Abu Muslim were also charges of being a zindiq or heretic. al-Mansur then signaled five of his guards behind a portico to kill him. Abu Muslim's mutilated body was thrown in the river Tigris
Tigris
, and his commanders were bribed to acquiesce to the murder.

DEATH

DURING THE RULE OF AL SAFAH, ABU MUSLIM WAS THINKING HIMSELF AS "REAL FOUNDER OF ABASSID DYNASTY. HE BECAME VERY PROUD. AFTER THE DEATH OF AL SAFAH, ABU MUSLIM DID NOT CONDOLE AL MANSOUR. HE DID NOT GREET AL MANSOUR FOR BECOMING KHALIFA. HE DID NOT MEET AL MANSOUR. After defeating rebellious persons, Abu Muslim was asked to maintain a list of "Maal E Ghanimat" and inform to caliph. Abou Muslim became angry and said, " I am trustful for the killing of enemies but untrustful for Maal E Ghanimat. When caliph came to know to know about the power of Abu Muslim in Khorasan. He ordered Abu Muslim to leave Khorasan and to go Egypt
Egypt
and Syria
Syria
but Abu Muslim refused to obey. He stayed in Khorasan. Khalifa Mansour asked his uncle Eisa Bin Ali and some other Abassids to agree Abu Muslim to meet Khalifa Al Mansour. Abu Dawood and Abu Ishaq were close friends of Abu Muslim Khorasani.They became the trustworthy man of Caliph۔ Both of the friends agreed abu Muslim to meet Khalifa. Abu Muslim agreed and went to meet. He was received warmly by ameers of Banu hashim and other officers. Abu Muslim was happy and satisfied to see the situation. He met the Caliph for short time and went to his place of residence.Next day, Khalifah ordered his men to kill Abu Muslim when he would come to meet him. They did so. Abu Muslim was killed by the men of Khalifa. His murder was not well received by the residents of Khorasan , and there was resentment and rebellion among the population over the brutal methods used by Al-Mansur. He became a legendary figure for many in Persia
Persia
, and several Persian heretics started revolts claiming he had not died and would return; the latter included his own propagandist Ishaq al-Turk , the Zoroastrian cleric Sunpadh in Nishapur
Nishapur
, the Abu Muslimiyya subsect of the Kaysanites Shia , and al-Muqanna in Khorasan. Even Babak claimed descent from him

BOOKS

At least three epic romances were written about him:

* Marzubānī, Muḥammad ibn ʻImrān, _Akhbār shuʻarāʾ al-Shīʻah_ * Muḥammad ibn Ḥasan, Abū Ṭāhir Ṭarsūsī, _Abū Muslimʹnāmah_ * Zidan, Jorji, _ Abu Muslim al Khorasani_

TRIVIA

* Abu Muslem FC, an Iranian football club is named after him.

SEE ALSO

* Babak Khorramdin * Sunpadh or Sinbad the Magus * Behafarid

REFERENCES

* ^ Sabatino Moscati : "Abū Muslim", in The Encyclopaedia of Islam. New Edition , Vol. I., pg. 141. * ^ "ABŪ MOSLEM ḴORĀSĀNĪ". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 20 October 2015. * ^ Yūsofī, Ḡ. Ḥ. (1983). "ABŪ MOSLEM ḴORĀSĀNĪ". _Encyclopedia Iranica, Vol. I, Fasc. 4_. pp. 341–344. * ^ Sabatino Moscati : "Abū Muslim", in The Encyclopaedia of Islam. New Edition , Vol. I., pg. 141. * ^ _ Abu Muslim Khorasani_, _Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia_, Volume 1, ed. Alexander Mikaberidze , (ABC-CLIO, 2011), 23. * ^ Florian Iller