`Abd Allah al-Zubayr or ibn Zubayr (Arabic: عبد الله بن
الزبير ‘Abdallāh ibn az-Zubayr; 624–692) was an Arab
sahabi whose father was Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, and whose mother was Asma
bint Abi Bakr, daughter of the first
Caliph Abu Bakr. He was the
nephew of Aisha, third wife of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad.
Abd-Allah ibn al-Zubayr was the first Muslim to be born in Medina
after the hijrah. He is regarded as the sixth righteous
Islam who ruled the region from 683 till his death in 692.[citation
needed] His caliphate was, however, challenged by Abdul Malik ibn
Marwan after the death of his father.
ibn Zubayr led a rebellion against the
Umayyad Caliphate but was
defeated and killed in
Mecca in 692 AD after a six-month siege by
general Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf.
2 Yazid reign
3 Ibn al-Zubayr's caliphate
4 Death by Abd al-Malik
5 Family tree
6 Timeline of the two caliphates
7 See also
Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr was a member of the
Bani Hashim tribe and was
born one year and 8 months after the hijra of
Muhammad to Medina. As
such, he was the first Muslim child born in Medina. He was the
cousin of Qasim ibn
Abu Bakr who, in turn, was the
grandfather of Jafar al-Sadiq.
He was born of mutah.
According to leading scholars such as al-Raghib al-Isphahani, Abu
Dawood al-Tayalisi,[who?] and Qadhi Sanaullah Panipati,[who?] he is
perhaps the most important and famous personality born to a temporary
marriage (Nikah mut'ah) between Zubayr al-Awaam and Asma bint Abi
Ibn 'Abbas said about him: "his (maternal) grandfather,
Abu Bakr was
(the Prophet's) companion in the cave, his mother, Asma' was
'Dhatun-Nitaq', his aunt, '
Aisha was the mother of the Believers, his
paternal aunt, Khadija was the wife of the Prophet , and the paternal
aunt of the Prophet was his grandmother. He himself is pious and
chaste in Islam, well versed in the Knowledge of the Quran".
As a young man, Abd Allah was an active participant in numerous Muslim
campaigns against both the Byzantine and
Sassanid empires. He marched
to Sbeitla, Tunisia, the capital of self-proclaimed local emperor
Gregory the Patrician. Gregory was defeated and killed in the Battle
of Sufetula in 647 CE. After the death of Uthman ibn Affan, he stayed
politically inactive during the civil wars that followed; however when
Umayyad Dynasty came to power and
Yazid I became the heir apparent
he refused to swear allegiance.
Muawiyah I died, in 680, his son
Yazid I took over. Husayn bin
Ali Muhammad's grandson felt that he had to confront him. Both Abu
Bakr's family and Ali's family felt
Yazid I was unjust and stood up to
him. Robert Payne quotes Muawiyah in History of
Islam as telling his
son Yazid to defeat Hussein, who was surely preparing an army against
him, but to deal with him gently thereafter as Hussein was a
descendent of Muhammad; but to deal with Abdullah al-Zubair switfly,
as Muawiyah feared him the most.
Ibn al-Zubayr's caliphate
Main article: Ibn al-Zubair's revolt
Upon the accession of Yazid I, al-Zubayr refused to swear allegiance
to the new caliph, and went to Mecca. He advised
Husayn bin Ali
Husayn bin Ali to
Mecca his base and fight against Yazid.
When Hussain was martyred in Karbala, Ibn al-Zubair collected the
Mecca and made the following speech:
"O people! No other people are worse than Iraqis and among the Iraqis,
the people of
Kufa are the worst. They repeatedly wrote letters and
called Imam Husayn to them and took bay'at (allegiance) for his
caliphate. But when Ibn Zeyad arrived in Kufa, they rallied around him
and martyr Imam Husayn who was pious, observed the fast, read the
Quran and deserved the caliphate in all respects
After his speech, the people of
Mecca declared that no one deserved
the caliphate more than Ibn al-Zubair and requested to take an oath of
allegiance to his caliphate. When he heard about this, Yazid had a
silver chain made and sent to
Mecca with the intention of having Walid
ibn Utbah arrest Ibn al-Zubair with it.
Medina Husayn's family had a strong support base and the
people were willing to stand up for them. Husayn's remaining family
moved back to Medina.
Eventually he consolidated his power by sending a governor to Kufa.
Soon, Ibn Zubayr established his power in Iraq, southern
Arabia and in
the greater part of Syria, and parts of Egypt. Ibn Zubayr benefited
greatly from widespread dissatisfaction among the populace with
Umayyad rule. Yazid tried to end Ibn Zubayr's rebellion by invading
the Hejaz, and took
Medina after the bloody Battle of al-Harrah. He
then invaded the
Tihamah and lay siege to
Mecca but his sudden death,
in 683, ended the campaign and threw the Umayyads into disarray
with civil war eventually breaking out.
Death by Abd al-Malik
Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik then sent against ibn al-Zubayr the
general al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf. When Hajjaj approached Mecca, he sent a
letter to Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr telling him he had three choices; to
be taken and chained to Abd al-Malik who was then the caliph of
Damascus; to leave by himself wherever he wished, renouncing claim on
all the lands he had under his control; or to continue fighting to the
death. He then went to his mother (Asma bint Abu Bakr) for advice, and
she was over a hundred years old. So Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr said to
In death I will find peace and tranquility. My people have deserted
me, even my children and my family, and I am left with a handful of
men around me. And the people (al-Hajjaj) are willing to give me
whatever I want from this world (i.e. they would let him leave freely
without hindrance). So what is your counsel?
Thereupon Asma replied to her son:
You know better than me your circumstances. But I say to you this: if
you know you are upon the truth, go forth and die like your
companions; and if you are after this world, then you are the most
wretched of men, for you have wasted yourself and those who are with
you. And for how long shall you live in this world? And if you are
upon the truth, but now that your companions have left you, you have
become weak... this is not the action of a free man and a man of the
Then he said, "I am afraid I will be mutilated by the people of
al-Sham", to which she replied "My son, a slaughtered goat does not
feel the pain when it is skinned". He kissed her upon the forehead and
I swear by Allah, this is my opinion. I have no desire to live in this
world, for my aspiration is the life of the hereafter, and all my life
I have stood up for truth. But I wanted to know your opinion so that
your opinion strengthens my opinion!
And then his mother said, “Come closer my son!” When he came
closer to her, she embraced him and when she did so, she felt that he
had some metal armour on. And she said, “O’ my son! What is
this? For people who want Shahaadah don’t wear this!”
He said, “O’ my mother! I only did this to comfort you!”
My son, take it off. Tie your belt so when you fall, your ‘awrah is
not exposed! Fight with bravery for you are the son of Zubayr and the
Abu Bakr and your grandmother was Safiyyah.
That day he fought bravely and would repel huge numbers of men until
finally, they threw a rock upon him and he was on the floor and was
still fighting. Then they cut off his leg and finally, they martyred
him. And when they martyred him, al-Hajjaj came to the mother of
Abdullah and wanted to break her resolve, and he said, “How has
Allah dealt with His enemy?” but she answered, “You have ruined
his life, but he has ruined for you the hereafter!"
They beheaded Abdullah ibn Zubayr and stuck his body up on a cross.
The men of al Hajjaj were saying, “Allahu Akbar, Takbir!” and
Abdullah ibn ‘Umar went by and he heard them saying that,
and he turned towards his body and said,
I was there the day Abdullah was born and I am here the day he
has died, and I heard those who said Takbir the day he was born and I
heard those who have said Takbir the day he has died, and I swear by
Allah those who said Takbir the day when he was born were far greater
than those who have said Takbir today!
The soldiers went to al Hajjaj and said, "Take his body down, it has
been up for days.” to which he responded, “I swear by Allah I will
not take it down until Asma’ begs me.”
And when they told Asma’ that, she said, “Take me to where the
body of my son is.” She made du’a for her son and said, “Isn’t
it time that knight of Allah was allowed to come off his horse?” And
when they told this to al-Hajjaj, he felt so little and mean that he
brought the body down. 
`Abd Manaf ibn Qusai
Hashim ibn 'Abd Manaf
Safiyyah bint ‘Abd al-Muttalib
`Abd Allah ibn `Abbas
Zubayr ibn al-Awam
Uthman ibn Affan
Hasan ibn Ali
Hussein ibn Ali
Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr
also Abu Bakr's grandson
Timeline of the two caliphates
Umayyad caliphs reigned during the twelve years of Ibn
Al-Zubayr's caliphate between 680 and 692. The shorts terms indicated
in the upper plot in light blue and yellow correspond to the tenures
Muawiya II and Marwan I, respectively. (Note that a caliph's
succession does not necessarily occur on the first day of the new
Sunni view of the Sahaba
^ a b c d e f g h i "'Abd Allah ibn az-Zubayr". Encyclopædia
Britannica. I: A-Ak - Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, Illinois:
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2010. p. 17.
^ "Family Tree Abu bakr". Quran search online. Retrieved 28 September
^ Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: F-O edited by Tony Jacques
^ a b c Najeebabadi, Akbar Shah (2001). The History of
Riyadh: Darussalam. p. 110. ISBN 9960892883.
^ Al-Kâfî, Ar-Rawdah, 8:101
^ Sharh Ibn Abi al-Hadid. 4. pp. 489–490.
^ a b Al-Raghib al-Isfahani. al-Muhadhiraat. 2. p. 96.
^ al-Ghiṭā, Muḥammad al-Ḥusayn Āl Kāshif (1982). The Shia
Origin and Faith. Islamic Seminary. pp. 210–211. Retrieved 3
^ Sahih Al Bukhari Volume 6, Book 60, Number 187 Narrated by Ibn Abi
^ John Dunn, The Spread of Islam, pg. 51. Worl History Series. San
Diego: Lucent Books, 1996. ISBN 1560062851
^ Balyuzi, H. M.:
Muhammad and the course of Islam. George Ronald,
Oxford (U.K.), 1976, p.193
^ "Martyrdom of Abdullah ibn Zubayr رضي الله عنه".
^ Muawiya Restorer of the Muslim Faith By
Aisha Bewley Page 81
Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr
Born: January, 624 Died: November 692
680 – November 692
Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan
ISNI: 0000 0000 6690 2892