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The Info List - Abdullah Ibn Zubayr


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`Abd Allah al-Zubayr or ibn Zubayr (Arabic: عبد الله بن الزبير‎ ‘Abdallāh ibn az-Zubayr; 624–692)[1] was an Arab sahabi whose father was Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, and whose mother was Asma bint Abi Bakr, daughter of the first Caliph
Caliph
Abu Bakr. He was the nephew of Aisha, third wife of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. Abd-Allah ibn al-Zubayr[2] was the first Muslim to be born in Medina after the hijrah.[1] He is regarded as the sixth righteous Caliph
Caliph
of Islam
Islam
who ruled the region from 683 till his death in 692.[citation needed] His caliphate was, however, challenged by Abdul Malik ibn Marwan after the death of his father. ibn Zubayr led a rebellion against the Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate but was defeated and killed in Mecca
Mecca
in 692 AD after a six-month siege by general Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf.[3]

Contents

1 Biography 2 Yazid reign 3 Ibn al-Zubayr's caliphate 4 Death by Abd al-Malik 5 Family tree 6 Timeline of the two caliphates 7 See also 8 References

Biography[edit] Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr was a member of the Bani Hashim
Bani Hashim
tribe and was born one year and 8 months after the hijra of Muhammad
Muhammad
to Medina. As such, he was the first Muslim child born in Medina.[4] He was the cousin of Qasim ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
who, in turn, was the grandfather of Jafar al-Sadiq.[5] He was born of mutah.[6][7][8] According to leading scholars such as al-Raghib al-Isphahani,[7] Abu Dawood al-Tayalisi,[who?] and Qadhi Sanaullah Panipati,[who?] he is perhaps the most important and famous personality born to a temporary marriage (Nikah mut'ah) between Zubayr al-Awaam and Asma bint Abi Bakr.[citation needed] Ibn 'Abbas said about him: "his (maternal) grandfather, Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
was (the Prophet's) companion in the cave, his mother, Asma' was 'Dhatun-Nitaq', his aunt, ' Aisha
Aisha
was the mother of the Believers, his paternal aunt, Khadija was the wife of the Prophet , and the paternal aunt of the Prophet was his grandmother. He himself is pious and chaste in Islam, well versed in the Knowledge of the Quran".[9] As a young man, Abd Allah was an active participant in numerous Muslim campaigns against both the Byzantine and Sassanid
Sassanid
empires. He marched to Sbeitla, Tunisia, the capital of self-proclaimed local emperor Gregory the Patrician. Gregory was defeated and killed in the Battle of Sufetula in 647 CE. After the death of Uthman ibn Affan, he stayed politically inactive during the civil wars that followed; however when the Umayyad
Umayyad
Dynasty came to power and Yazid I
Yazid I
became the heir apparent he refused to swear allegiance.[1] Yazid reign[edit] After Muawiyah I died, in 680, his son Yazid I
Yazid I
took over. Husayn bin Ali
Ali
Muhammad's grandson felt that he had to confront him. Both Abu Bakr's family and Ali's family felt Yazid I
Yazid I
was unjust and stood up to him. Robert Payne quotes Muawiyah in History of Islam
Islam
as telling his son Yazid to defeat Hussein, who was surely preparing an army against him, but to deal with him gently thereafter as Hussein was a descendent of Muhammad; but to deal with Abdullah al-Zubair switfly, as Muawiyah feared him the most.[10] Ibn al-Zubayr's caliphate[edit] Main article: Ibn al-Zubair's revolt Upon the accession of Yazid I, al-Zubayr refused to swear allegiance to the new caliph, and went to Mecca.[1] He advised Husayn bin Ali
Husayn bin Ali
to make Mecca
Mecca
his base and fight against Yazid.[11] When Hussain was martyred in Karbala, Ibn al-Zubair collected the people of Mecca
Mecca
and made the following speech:

"O people! No other people are worse than Iraqis and among the Iraqis, the people of Kufa
Kufa
are the worst. They repeatedly wrote letters and called Imam Husayn to them and took bay'at (allegiance) for his caliphate. But when Ibn Zeyad arrived in Kufa, they rallied around him and martyr Imam Husayn who was pious, observed the fast, read the Quran and deserved the caliphate in all respects[4]

After his speech, the people of Mecca
Mecca
declared that no one deserved the caliphate more than Ibn al-Zubair and requested to take an oath of allegiance to his caliphate. When he heard about this, Yazid had a silver chain made and sent to Mecca
Mecca
with the intention of having Walid ibn Utbah arrest Ibn al-Zubair with it.[4] In Mecca
Mecca
and Medina
Medina
Husayn's family had a strong support base and the people were willing to stand up for them. Husayn's remaining family moved back to Medina. Eventually he consolidated his power by sending a governor to Kufa. Soon, Ibn Zubayr established his power in Iraq, southern Arabia
Arabia
and in the greater part of Syria, and parts of Egypt. Ibn Zubayr benefited greatly from widespread dissatisfaction among the populace with Umayyad
Umayyad
rule. Yazid tried to end Ibn Zubayr's rebellion by invading the Hejaz, and took Medina
Medina
after the bloody Battle of al-Harrah. He then invaded the Tihamah
Tihamah
and lay siege to Mecca
Mecca
but his sudden death, in 683,[1] ended the campaign and threw the Umayyads into disarray with civil war eventually breaking out. Death by Abd al-Malik[edit] The Umayyad
Umayyad
caliph Abd al-Malik then sent against ibn al-Zubayr the general al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf. When Hajjaj approached Mecca, he sent a letter to Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr telling him he had three choices; to be taken and chained to Abd al-Malik who was then the caliph of Damascus; to leave by himself wherever he wished, renouncing claim on all the lands he had under his control; or to continue fighting to the death. He then went to his mother (Asma bint Abu Bakr) for advice, and she was over a hundred years old. So Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr said to his mother:

In death I will find peace and tranquility. My people have deserted me, even my children and my family, and I am left with a handful of men around me. And the people (al-Hajjaj) are willing to give me whatever I want from this world (i.e. they would let him leave freely without hindrance). So what is your counsel?

Thereupon Asma replied to her son:

You know better than me your circumstances. But I say to you this: if you know you are upon the truth, go forth and die like your companions; and if you are after this world, then you are the most wretched of men, for you have wasted yourself and those who are with you. And for how long shall you live in this world? And if you are upon the truth, but now that your companions have left you, you have become weak... this is not the action of a free man and a man of the deen.

Then he said, "I am afraid I will be mutilated by the people of al-Sham", to which she replied "My son, a slaughtered goat does not feel the pain when it is skinned". He kissed her upon the forehead and said: 

I swear by Allah, this is my opinion. I have no desire to live in this world, for my aspiration is the life of the hereafter, and all my life I have stood up for truth. But I wanted to know your opinion so that your opinion strengthens my opinion!

And then his mother said, “Come closer my son!” When he came closer to her, she embraced him and when she did so, she felt that he had some metal armour on. And she said, “O’ my son! What is this? For people who want Shahaadah don’t wear this!” He said, “O’ my mother! I only did this to comfort you!” She said:

My son, take it off. Tie your belt so when you fall, your ‘awrah is not exposed! Fight with bravery for you are the son of Zubayr and the grandson of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and your grandmother was Safiyyah.

That day he fought bravely and would repel huge numbers of men until finally, they threw a rock upon him and he was on the floor and was still fighting. Then they cut off his leg and finally, they martyred him. And when they martyred him, al-Hajjaj came to the mother of Abdullah and wanted to break her resolve, and he said, “How has Allah dealt with His enemy?” but she answered, “You have ruined his life, but he has ruined for you the hereafter!" They beheaded Abdullah ibn Zubayr and stuck his body up on a cross. The men of al Hajjaj were saying, “Allahu Akbar, Takbir!” and Abdullah ibn ‘Umar went by and he heard them saying that, and he turned towards his body and said,

I was there the day Abdullah was born and I am here the day he has died, and I heard those who said Takbir the day he was born and I heard those who have said Takbir the day he has died, and I swear by Allah those who said Takbir the day when he was born were far greater than those who have said Takbir today!

The soldiers went to al Hajjaj and said, "Take his body down, it has been up for days.” to which he responded, “I swear by Allah I will not take it down until Asma’ begs me.” And when they told Asma’ that, she said, “Take me to where the body of my son is.” She made du’a for her son and said, “Isn’t it time that knight of Allah was allowed to come off his horse?” And when they told this to al-Hajjaj, he felt so little and mean that he brought the body down. [12] Family tree[edit]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

`Abd Manaf ibn Qusai

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abd Shams

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hashim ibn 'Abd Manaf

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Umayya

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abdul Mutallib

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abu'l-As

 

 

 

 

Harb

 

`Abd Allah

 

Abu Talib

 

`Abbas (Abbasids)

 

Safiyyah bint ‘Abd al-Muttalib

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Affan

 

Hakam

 

Abu Sufyan

 

Muhammad

 

Ali

 

`Abd Allah ibn `Abbas

 

Zubayr ibn al-Awam

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Uthman ibn Affan

 

Marwan I

 

Muawiyah I

 

 

 

Hasan ibn Ali

 

Hussein ibn Ali

 

 

 

Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr also Abu Bakr's grandson

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yazid I

 

 

[13] Timeline of the two caliphates[edit] Four Umayyad
Umayyad
caliphs reigned during the twelve years of Ibn Al-Zubayr's caliphate between 680 and 692. The shorts terms indicated in the upper plot in light blue and yellow correspond to the tenures of Muawiya II and Marwan I, respectively. (Note that a caliph's succession does not necessarily occur on the first day of the new year.)

See also[edit]

islam portal

Islam Sahaba Sunni view of the Sahaba

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h i "'Abd Allah ibn az-Zubayr". Encyclopædia Britannica. I: A-Ak - Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, Illinois: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2010. p. 17. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.  ^ "Family Tree Abu bakr". Quran search online. Retrieved 28 September 2012.  ^ Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: F-O edited by Tony Jacques ^ a b c Najeebabadi, Akbar Shah (2001). The History of Islam
Islam
V.2. Riyadh: Darussalam. p. 110. ISBN 9960892883.  ^ Al-Kâfî, Ar-Rawdah, 8:101 ^ Sharh Ibn Abi al-Hadid. 4. pp. 489–490.  ^ a b Al-Raghib al-Isfahani. al-Muhadhiraat. 2. p. 96.  ^ al-Ghiṭā, Muḥammad al-Ḥusayn Āl Kāshif (1982). The Shia Origin and Faith. Islamic Seminary. pp. 210–211. Retrieved 3 August 2017.  ^ Sahih Al Bukhari Volume 6, Book 60, Number 187 Narrated by Ibn Abi Mulaika ^ John Dunn, The Spread of Islam, pg. 51. Worl History Series. San Diego: Lucent Books, 1996. ISBN 1560062851 ^ Balyuzi, H. M.: Muhammad
Muhammad
and the course of Islam. George Ronald, Oxford (U.K.), 1976, p.193 ^ "Martyrdom of Abdullah ibn Zubayr رضي الله عنه".  ^ Muawiya Restorer of the Muslim Faith By Aisha
Aisha
Bewley Page 81

Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr Banu Asad Born: January, 624 Died: November 692

Sunni Islam
Islam
titles

Preceded by Muawiyah I Caliph 680 – November 692 Succeeded by Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 90038930 LCCN: nr89011344 ISNI: 0000 0000 6690 2892 GND: 104051159 SELIBR: 250639 SUDOC: 113657609 BNF: cb1553

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