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The canton of Aargau (German Kanton  Aargau (help·info); sometimes anglicized Argovia; see also other names) is one of the more northerly cantons of Switzerland. It is situated by the lower course of the Aare, which is why the canton is called Aar-gau (meaning Aare province). It is one of the most densely populated regions of Switzerland.[3]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early history 1.2 Medieval Aargau 1.3 Under the Swiss Confederation 1.4 Unteraargau
Unteraargau
or Berner Aargau 1.5 Freie Ämter 1.6 County of Baden 1.7 Forming the canton of Aargau 1.8 Chief magistracy 1.9 The Jewish
Jewish
history in Aargau

2 Geography 3 Political subdivisions

3.1 Districts 3.2 Municipalities

4 Coat of arms 5 Demographics 6 Historic population 7 Politics 8 Politics

8.1 Federal election results

9 Religion 10 Education 11 Economy 12 See also 13 Notes 14 Footnotes 15 References 16 External links

History[edit] Early history[edit] The area of Aargau and the surrounding areas were controlled by the Helvetians, a member of the Celts, as far back as 200 BC,[4] eventually being occupied by the Romans and then by the 6th century, the Franks.[5] The Romans built a major settlement called Vindonissa, near the present location of Brugg.[4] Medieval Aargau[edit] See also: List of castles and fortresses in Switzerland
Switzerland
§ Aargau

Aarau

In early medieval times, the Aargau was a disputed border region between the duchies of Alamannia
Alamannia
and Burgundy. A line of the von Wetterau
Wetterau
(Conradines) intermittently held the countship of Aargau from 750 until about 1030, when they lost it (having in the meantime taken the name von Tegerfelden). From the extinction in 1254 of the Hohenstaufen dynasty until 1415, the area was ruled by the Habsburgs,[nb 1] and many castles from that time still stand (examples include Habsburg, Lenzburg, Tegerfelden, Bobikon, Stin and Wildegg).[7] The Habsburgs
Habsburgs
founded a number of monasteries (with some structures enduring, e.g., in Wettingen
Wettingen
and Muri), the closing of which by the government in 1841 was a contributing factor to the outbreak of the Swiss civil war – the "Sonderbund War" – in 1847. Under the Swiss Confederation[edit]

Switzerland
Switzerland
in 1416, showing the part of the Aargau under Bernese control, the county of Baden and the Freie Ämter.

When Frederick IV of Habsburg
Habsburg
sided with Antipope John XXIII
Antipope John XXIII
at the Council of Constance, Emperor Sigismund placed him under the Imperial ban.[nb 2] In July 1414, the Pope visited Bern
Bern
and received assurances from them, that they would move against the Habsburgs.[8] A few months later the Swiss Confederation
Swiss Confederation
denounced the Treaty of 1412. Shortly thereafter in 1415, Bern
Bern
and the rest of the Swiss Confederation
Swiss Confederation
used the ban as a pretext to invade the Aargau. The Confederation was able to quickly conquer the towns of Aarau, Lenzburg, Brugg
Brugg
and Zofingen along with most of the Habsburg
Habsburg
castles. Bern
Bern
kept the southwest portion (Zofingen, Aarburg, Aarau, Lenzburg, and Brugg), northward to the confluence of the Aare
Aare
and Reuss.[8] The important city of Baden was taken by a united Swiss army and governed by all 8 members of the Confederation.[8] Some districts, named the Freie Ämter
Freie Ämter
(free bailiwicks) – Mellingen, Muri, Villmergen, and Bremgarten, with the countship of Baden – were governed as "subject lands" by all or some of the Confederates. Shortly after the conquest of the Aargau by the Swiss, Frederick humbled himself to the Pope. The Pope reconciled with him and ordered all of the taken lands to be returned. The Swiss refused and years later after no serious attempts at re-acquisition, the Duke officially relinquished rights to the Swiss.[9] Unteraargau
Unteraargau
or Berner Aargau[edit]

Districts in Bernese controlled Unteraargau

Bern's portion of the Aargau came to be known as the Unteraargau, though can also be called the Berner or Bernese Aargau. In 1514 Bern expanded north into the Jura and so came into possession of several strategically important mountain passes into the Austrian Fricktal. This land was added to the Unteraargau
Unteraargau
and was directly ruled from Bern. It was divided into seven rural bailiwicks and four administrative cities, Aarau, Zofingen, Lenzburg
Lenzburg
and Brugg. While the Habsburgs
Habsburgs
were driven out, many of their minor nobles were allowed to keep their lands and offices, though over time they lost power to the Bernese government. The bailiwick administration was based on a very small staff of officials, mostly made up of Bernese citizens, but with a few locals.[10] When Bern
Bern
converted during the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
in 1528, the Unteraargau
Unteraargau
also converted. At the beginning of the 16th century a number of anabaptists migrated into the upper Wynen and Rueder valleys from Zürich. Despite pressure from the Bernese authorities in the 16th and 17th centuries anabaptism never entirely disappeared from the Unteraargau.[10] Bern
Bern
used the Aargau bailiwicks mostly as a source of grain for the rest of the city-state. The administrative cities remained economically only of regional importance. However, in the 17th and 18th centuries Bern
Bern
encouraged industrial development in Unteraargau and by the late 18th century it was the most industrialized region in the city-state. The high industrialization led to high population growth in the 18th century, for example between 1764 and 1798, the population grew by 35%, far more than in other parts of the canton. In 1870 the proportion of farmers in Aarau, Lenzburg, Kulm, and Zofingen districts was 34–40%, while in the other districts it was 46–57%.[10] Freie Ämter[edit]

Map of the Freie Ämter, including the 1712 line dividing the Upper and Lower Freie Ämter

The rest of the Freie Ämter
Freie Ämter
were collectively administered as subject territories by the rest of the Confederation. Muri
Muri
Amt was assigned to Zürich, Lucerne, Schwyz, Unterwalden, Zug and Glarus, while the Ämter of Meienberg, Richensee and Villmergen
Villmergen
were first given to Lucerne alone. The final boundary was set in 1425 by an arbitration tribunal and Lucerne had to give the three Ämter to be collectively ruled.[11] The four Ämter were then consolidated under a single Confederation bailiff into what was known in the 15th century as the Waggental Bailiwick (German: Vogtei im Waggental). In the 16th century, it came to be known as the Vogtei der Freien Ämter. While the Freien Ämter often had independent lower courts, they were forced to accept the Confederation's sovereignty. Finally, in 1532, the canton of Uri became part of the collective administration of the Freien Ämter.[12] At the time of Reformation, the majority of the Ämter converted to the new faith. In 1529, a wave of iconoclasm swept through the area and wiped away much of the old religion. After the defeat of Zürich in the second Battle of Kappel
Battle of Kappel
in 1531, the victorious five Catholic cantons marched their troops into the Freie Ämter
Freie Ämter
and reconverted them to Catholicism.[11] In the First War of Villmergen, in 1656, and the Toggenburg War
Toggenburg War
(or Second War of Villmergen), in 1712, the Freie Ämter
Freie Ämter
became the staging ground for the warring Reformed and Catholic armies. While the peace after the 1656 war did not change the status quo, the fourth Peace of Aarau
Aarau
in 1712 brought about a reorganization of power relations. The victory gave Zürich
Zürich
the opportunity to force the Catholic cantons out of the government in the county of Baden and the adjacent area of the Freie Ämter. The Freie Ämter
Freie Ämter
were then divided in two by a line drawn from the gallows in Fahrwangen
Fahrwangen
to the Oberlunkhofen
Oberlunkhofen
church steeple. The northern part, the so-called Unteren Freie Ämter
Freie Ämter
(lower Freie Ämter), which included the districts of Boswil (in part) and Hermetschwil and the Niederamt, were ruled by Zürich, Bern
Bern
and Glarus. The southern part, the Oberen Freie Ämter (upper Freie Ämter), were ruled by the previous seven cantons but Bern
Bern
was added to make an eighth.[11] During the Helvetic Republic
Helvetic Republic
(1798–1803), the county of Baden, the Freie Ämter
Freie Ämter
and the area known as the Kelleramt were combined into the canton of Baden. County of Baden[edit]

County of Baden

The County of Baden
County of Baden
was a shared condominium of the entire Old Swiss Confederacy. After the Confederacy conquest in 1415, they retained much of the Habsburg
Habsburg
legal structure, which caused a number of problems. The local nobility had the right to hold the low court in only about one fifth of the territory. There were over 30 different nobles who had the right to hold courts scattered around the surrounding lands. All these overlapping jurisdictions caused numerous conflicts, but gradually the Confederation was able to acquire these rights in the County. The cities of Baden, Bremgarten and Mellingen became the administrative centers and held the high courts. Together with the courts, the three administrative centers had considerable local autonomy, but were ruled by a governor who was appointed by the Acht Orte every two years. After the Protestant victory at the Second Battle of Villmergen, the administration of the County changed slightly. Instead of the Acht Orte appointing a bailiff together, Zürich
Zürich
and Bern
Bern
each appointed the governor for 7 out of 16 years while Glarus appointed him for the remaining 2 years.[13] The chaotic legal structure and fragmented land ownership combined with a tradition of dividing the land among all the heirs in an inheritance prevented any large scale reforms. The governor tried in the 18th century to reform and standardize laws and ownership across the County, but with limited success. With an ever-changing administration, the County lacked a coherent long-term economic policy or support for reforms. By the end of the 18th century there were no factories or mills and only a few small cottage industries along the border with Zürich. Road construction first became a priority after 1750, when Zürich
Zürich
and Bern
Bern
began appointing a governor for seven years.[13] During the Protestant Reformation, some of the municipalities converted to the new faith. However, starting in 1531, some of the old parishes were converted back to the old faith. The governors were appointed from both Catholic and Protestant cantons and since they changed every two years, neither faith gained a majority in the County.[13] The County was the only federal condominium in the 17th century where Jews were tolerated. In 1774, they were restricted to just two towns, Endingen and Lengnau. While the rural upper class tried several times to finally expel the Jews, the financial interests of the authorities prevented this. The Jews were directly subordinate to the governor starting in 1696 when they were forced to buy a protecting and shielding letter every 16 years from the governor.[13] After the French invasion, on 19 March 1798, the governments of Zürich
Zürich
and Bern
Bern
agreed to the creation of the short lived canton of Baden in the Helvetic Republic. With the Act of Mediation
Act of Mediation
in 1803, the canton of Baden was dissolved. Portions of the lands of the former County of Baden
County of Baden
now became the District of Baden in the newly created canton of Aargau. After World War II, this formerly agrarian region saw striking growth and became the district with the largest and densest population in the canton (110,000 in 1990, 715 persons per km2).[13] Forming the canton of Aargau[edit]

Helvetic Republic
Helvetic Republic
c. 1798/99, with the newly created cantons of Aargau and Baden

Swiss Confederation
Swiss Confederation
following the 1803 Act of Mediation, with the modern canton of Aargau formed

The contemporary canton of Aargau was formed in 1803, a canton of the Swiss Confederation
Swiss Confederation
as a result of the Act of Mediation. It was a combination of three short-lived cantons of the Helvetic Republic: Aargau (1798–1803), Baden (1798–1803) and Fricktal
Fricktal
(1802–1803). Its creation is therefore rooted in the Napoleonic era. In the year 2003, the canton of Aargau celebrated its 200th anniversary. French forces occupied the Aargau from 10 March to 18 April 1798; thereafter the Bernese portion became the canton of Aargau and the remainder formed the canton of Baden. Aborted plans to merge the two halves came in 1801 and 1802, and they were eventually united under the name Aargau,[3][14] which was then admitted as a full member of the reconstituted Confederation following the Act of Mediation. Some parts of the canton of Baden at this point were transferred to other cantons: the Amt of Hitzkirch
Hitzkirch
to Lucerne, whilst Hüttikon, Oetwil an der Limmat, Dietikon
Dietikon
and Schlieren went to Zürich. In return, Lucerne's Amt of Merenschwand
Merenschwand
was transferred to Aargau (district of Muri). The Fricktal, ceded in 1802 by Austria
Austria
via Napoleonic France to the Helvetic Republic, was briefly a separate canton of the Helvetic Republic (the canton of Fricktal) under a Statthalter
Statthalter
('Lieutenant'), but on 19 March 1803 (following the Act of Mediation) was incorporated into the canton of Aargau. The former cantons of Baden and Fricktal
Fricktal
can still be identified with the contemporary districts – the canton of Baden is covered by the districts of Zurzach, Baden, Bremgarten, and Muri
Muri
(albeit with the gains and losses of 1803 detailed above); the canton of Fricktal
Fricktal
by the districts of Rheinfelden
Rheinfelden
and Laufenburg (except for Hottwil
Hottwil
which was transferred to that district in 2010). Chief magistracy[edit] The chief magistracy of Aargau changed its style repeatedly:

first two consecutive Regierungsstatthalter :

April 1798 – November 1801 Jakob Emmanuel Feer (1754–1833) 1802–1803 Johann Heinrich Rothpletz (1766–1833)

Presidents of the Government Commission

10 March 1803 – 26 April 1803 Johann Rudolf Dolder (1753–1807) 26 April 1803 – 1815 a 'Small Council' (president rotating monthly)

annual Amtsbürgermeister
Amtsbürgermeister
1815–1831 annual Landammänner since 1815

The Jewish
Jewish
history in Aargau[edit]

Two separate doors (one for Jews and one for Christians) on a house in Lengnau

In the 17th century, Jews were banished from Switzerland. However, a few families were permitted to live in two villages, Endingen and Lengnau, in Aargau which became the Jewish
Jewish
ghetto in Switzerland. During this period, Jews and Christians were not allowed to live under the same roof, neither were Jews allowed to own land or houses. They were taxed at a much higher rate than others and, in 1712, the Lengnau community was "pillaged."[15] In 1760, they were further restricted regarding marriages and multiplying. This remained the case until the 19th century. In 1799, all special tolls were abolished, and, in 1802, the poll tax was removed.[15] On 5 May 1809, they were declared citizens and given broad rights regarding trade and farming. They were still restricted to Endingen and Lengnau until 7 May 1846, when their right to move and reside freely within the canton of Aargau was granted. On 24 September 1856, the Swiss Federal Council
Swiss Federal Council
granted them full political rights within Aargau, as well as broad business rights; however the majority Christian population did not abide by these new liberal laws fully. The time of 1860 saw the canton government voting to grant suffrage in all local rights and to give their communities autonomy. Before the law was enacted, it was repealed due to vocal opposition led by the Ultramonte Party.[15] Finally, the federal authorities in July 1863, granted all Jews full rights of citizens. However, they did not receive all of the rights in Endingen and Lengn until a resolution of the Grand Council, on 15 May 1877, granted citizens' rights to the members of the Jewish
Jewish
communities of those places, giving them charters under the names of New Endingen and New Lengnau.[15] The Swiss Jewish
Jewish
Kulturverein was instrumental in this fight from its founding in 1862 until it was dissolved 20 years later.[15] During this period of diminished rights, they were not even allowed to bury their dead in Swiss soil and had to bury their dead on an island called Judenäule
Judenäule
(Jews' Isle) on the Rhine
Rhine
near Waldshut.[15] Beginning in 1603, the deceased Jews of the Surbtal communities were buried on the river island which was leased by the Jewish
Jewish
community. As the island was repeatedly flooded and devastated, in 1750 the Surbtal
Surbtal
Jews asked the Tagsatzung
Tagsatzung
to establish the Endingen cemetery in the vicinity of their communities.[16][17] Geography[edit]

View of the Lägern
Lägern
from Bözberg

The capital of the canton is Aarau, which is located on its western border, on the Aare. The canton borders Germany
Germany
(Baden-Württemberg) to the north, the Rhine
Rhine
forming the border. To the west lie the Swiss cantons of Basel-Landschaft, Solothurn and Bern; the canton of Lucerne lies south, and Zürich
Zürich
and Zug to the east. Its total area is 1,404 square kilometers (542 sq mi). It contains both large rivers, the Aare
Aare
and the Reuss.[5] The canton of Aargau is one of the least mountainous Swiss cantons, forming part of a great table-land, to the north of the Alps and the east of the Jura, above which rise low hills. The surface of the country is beautifully diversified, undulating tracts and well-wooded hills[18] alternating with fertile valleys watered mainly by the Aare and its tributaries. The valleys alternate with pleasant hills, most of which are full of woods. Slightly over one-third of the canton is wooded (518 square kilometers (200 sq mi)), while nearly half is used from farming (635.7 square kilometers (245.4 sq mi)). 33.5 square kilometers (12.9 sq mi) or about 2.4% of the canton is considered unproductive, mostly lakes (notably Lake Hallwil) and streams. With a population density of 450/km2 (1,200/sq mi), the canton has a relatively high amount of land used for human development, with 216.7 square kilometers (83.7 sq mi) or about 15% of the canton developed for housing or transportation.[19] It contains the famous hot sulphur springs of Baden and Schinznach-Bad, while at Rheinfelden
Rheinfelden
there are very extensive saline springs. Just below Brugg
Brugg
the Reuss and the Limmat
Limmat
join the Aar, while around Brugg
Brugg
are the ruined castle of Habsburg, the old convent of Königsfelden (with fine painted medieval glass) and the remains of the Roman settlement of Vindonissa
Vindonissa
(Windisch). Fahr Monastery
Fahr Monastery
forms a small exclave of the canton, otherwise surrounded by the canton of Zürich, and since 2008 is part of the Aargau municipality of Würenlos. Political subdivisions[edit] Districts[edit] See also: Districts of Switzerland

Districts in Aargau

Aargau is divided into 11 districts:

Aarau
Aarau
with capital Aarau Baden with capital Baden Bremgarten with capital Bremgarten Brugg
Brugg
with capital Brugg Kulm with capital Unterkulm Laufenburg with capital Laufenburg Lenzburg
Lenzburg
with capital Lenzburg Muri
Muri
with capital Muri Rheinfelden
Rheinfelden
with capital Rheinfelden Zofingen
Zofingen
with capital Zofingen Zurzach
Zurzach
with capital Zurzach

The most recent change in district boundaries occurred in 2010 when Hottwil
Hottwil
transferred from Brugg
Brugg
to Laufenburg, following its merger with other municipalities, all of which were in Laufenburg. Municipalities[edit] Main articles: municipalities of the canton of Aargau and municipalities of Switzerland There are (as of 2014) 213 municipalities in the canton of Aargau. As with most Swiss cantons there has been a trend since the early 2000s for municipalities to merge, though mergers in Aargau have so far been less radical than in other cantons. Coat of arms[edit] The blazon of the coat of arms is Per pale, dexter: sable, a fess wavy argent, charged with two cotises wavy azure; sinister: sky blue, three mullets of five argent.[20] The flag and arms of Aargau date to 1803 and are an original design by Samuel Ringier-Seelmatter; the current official design, specifying the stars as five-pointed, dates to 1930. Demographics[edit] Aargau has a population (as of December 2016[update]) of 663,462.[2] As of 2010[update], 21.5% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years (2000–2010) the population has changed at a rate of 11%. Migration accounted for 8.7%, while births and deaths accounted for 2.8%.[21] Most of the population (as of 2000[update]) speaks German (477,093 or 87.1%) as their first language, Italian is the second most common (17,847 or 3.3%) and Serbo-Croatian
Serbo-Croatian
is the third (10,645 or 1.9%). There are 4,151 people who speak French and 618 people who speak Romansh.[22] Of the population in the canton, 146,421 or about 26.7% were born in Aargau and lived there in 2000. There were 140,768 or 25.7% who were born in the same canton, while 136,865 or 25.0% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, and 107,396 or 19.6% were born outside of Switzerland.[22] As of 2000[update], children and teenagers (0–19 years old) make up 24.3% of the population, while adults (20–64 years old) make up 62.3% and seniors (over 64 years old) make up 13.4%.[21] As of 2000[update], there were 227,656 people who were single and never married in the canton. There were 264,939 married individuals, 27,603 widows or widowers and 27,295 individuals who are divorced.[22] As of 2000[update], there were 224,128 private households in the canton, and an average of 2.4 persons per household.[21] There were 69,062 households that consist of only one person and 16,254 households with five or more people. As of 2009[update], the construction rate of new housing units was 6.5 new units per 1000 residents.[21] The vacancy rate for the canton, in 2010[update], was 1.54%.[21] The majority of the population is centered on one of three areas: the Aare
Aare
Valley, the side branches of the Aare
Aare
Valley, or along the Rhine.[3] Historic population[edit] The historical population is given in the following chart:[23][24][25]

Historic Population Data[23]

Year Total Population German Speaking Italian Speaking Protestant Catholic Christian Catholic Jewish Other No religion given Swiss Non-Swiss

1850 199,852

107,194 91,096

1,562 79

196,890 2,962

1900 206,498 203,071 2,415 114,176 91,039

990 293

196,455 10,043

1950 300,782 291,101 5,335 171,296 122,172 5,096 496 1,722

290,049 10,733

1990 507,508 435,103 24,758 218,379 224,836 3,676 405 29,736 30,476 420,616 86,892

1993[5] 512,000

2000 547,493 477,093 17,847 203,949 219,800 3,418 342 20,816 57,573

Politics[edit] In the 2011 federal election, the most popular party was the SVP which received 34.7% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the SP/PS (18.0%), the FDP (11.5%) and the CVP (10.6%).[26] The SVP received about the same percentage of the vote as they did in the 2007 Federal election (36.2% in 2007 vs 34.7% in 2011). The SPS retained about the same popularity (17.9% in 2007), the FDP retained about the same popularity (13.6% in 2007) and the CVP retained about the same popularity (13.5% in 2007).[27] Politics[edit] Federal election results[edit]

Percentage of the total vote per party in the canton in the National Council Elections 1971-2015[28]

Party Ideology 1971 1975 1979 1983 1987 1991 1995 1999 2003 2007 2011 2015

FDP.The Liberalsa

Classical liberalism 15.9 17.7 20.5 20.2 20.3 16.4 15.8 17.2 15.3 13.6 11.5 15.1

CVP/PDC/PPD/PCD

Christian democracy 20.0 20.6 22.5 21.5 18.9 14.5 14.2 16.3 15.6 13.5 10.6 8.6

SP/PS

Social democracy 23.9 24.2 27.6 27.5 18.5 17.4 19.4 18.7 21.2 17.9 18.0 16.1

SVP/UDC

Swiss nationalism 12.5 12.8 13.9 14.1 15.7 17.9 19.8 31.8 34.6 36.2 34.7 38.0

Ring of Independents

Social liberalism 9.4 6.6 5.5 5.9 4.7 4.3 3.3 2.0 * b * * *

EVP/PEV

Christian democracy 3.8 4.6 5.0 5.0 3.4 3.3 3.0 3.8 5.2 4.2 3.2 3.3

GLP/PVL

Green liberalism * * * * * * * * * * 5.7 5.2

BDP/PBD

Conservatism * * * * * * * * * * 6.1 5.1

POCH

Progressivism * 0.6 * * * * * * * * * *

GPS/PES

Green politics * * * * * 6.8 5.3 4.4 5.1 8.1 7.3 5.5

FGA

Feminist * * * * 6.9 c 1.0 * 0.8 * * *

SD/DS

National conservatism 3.4 3.5 1.6 4.0 4.5 4.5 4.5 2.7 1.4 0.7 0.4 *

Rep.

Right-wing populism 5.8 6.5 2.1 * * * * * * * * *

EDU/UDF

Christian right * * * * 1.0 1.4 1.3 1.4 * 1.2 1.2 1.1

FPS/PSL

Right-wing populism * * * * 5.3 13.2 11.3 1.4 0.2 * * *

Other

5.2 2.9 1.1 1.8 0.9 0.4 1.1 0.1 0.4 4.7 1.3 2.0

Voter participation %

62.5 50.7 45.6 44.9 43.1 42.3 42.1 42.0 42.3 47.9 48.5 48.3

^a FDP before 2009, FDP.The Liberals
FDP.The Liberals
after 2009 ^b "*" indicates that the party was not on the ballot in this canton. ^c Part of the GPS

Religion[edit]

Catholic City Church in Baden, Aargau

From the 2000 census[update], 219,800 or 40.1% were Roman Catholic, while 189,606 or 34.6% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church. Of the rest of the population, there were 11,523 members of an Orthodox church (or about 2.10% of the population), there were 3,418 individuals (or about 0.62% of the population) who belonged to the Christian Catholic Church, and there were 29,580 individuals (or about 5.40% of the population) who belonged to another Christian church. There were 342 individuals (or about 0.06% of the population) who were Jewish, and 30,072 (or about 5.49% of the population) who were Islamic. There were 1,463 individuals who were Buddhist, 2,089 individuals who were Hindu and 495 individuals who belonged to another church. 57,573 (or about 10.52% of the population) belonged to no church, are agnostic or atheist, and 15,875 individuals (or about 2.90% of the population) did not answer the question.[22] Education[edit] In Aargau about 212,069 or (38.7%) of the population have completed non-mandatory upper secondary education, and 70,896 or (12.9%) have completed additional higher education (either university or a Fachhochschule). Of the 70,896 who completed tertiary schooling, 63.6% were Swiss men, 20.9% were Swiss women, 10.4% were non-Swiss men and 5.2% were non-Swiss women.[22] Economy[edit]

Leibstadt Nuclear Power Plant

As of  2010[update], Aargau had an unemployment rate of 3.6%. As of 2008[update], there were 11,436 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 3,927 businesses involved in this sector. 95,844 people were employed in the secondary sector and there were 6,055 businesses in this sector. 177,782 people were employed in the tertiary sector, with 21,530 businesses in this sector.[21] In 2008[update] the total number of full-time equivalent jobs was 238,225. The number of jobs in the primary sector was 7,167, of which 6,731 were in agriculture, 418 were in forestry or lumber production and 18 were in fishing or fisheries. The number of jobs in the secondary sector was 90,274 of which 64,089 or (71.0%) were in manufacturing, 366 or (0.4%) were in mining and 21,705 (24.0%) were in construction. The number of jobs in the tertiary sector was 140,784. In the tertiary sector; 38,793 or 27.6% were in the sale or repair of motor vehicles, 13,624 or 9.7% were in the movement and storage of goods, 8,150 or 5.8% were in a hotel or restaurant, 5,164 or 3.7% were in the information industry, 5,946 or 4.2% were the insurance or financial industry, 14,831 or 10.5% were technical professionals or scientists, 10,951 or 7.8% were in education and 21,952 or 15.6% were in health care.[29] Of the working population, 19.5% used public transportation to get to work, and 55.3% used a private car.[21] Public transportation – bus and train – is provided by Busbetrieb Aarau
Aarau
AG. The farmland of the canton of Aargau is some of the most fertile in Switzerland. Dairy farming, cereal and fruit farming are among the canton's main economic activities.[5] The canton is also industrially developed, particularly in the fields of electrical engineering, precision instruments, iron, steel, cement and textiles.[5] Three of Switzerland's five nuclear power plants are in the canton of Aargau (Beznau I + II and Leibstadt). Additionally, the many rivers supply enough water for numerous hydroelectric power plants throughout the canton. The canton of Aargau is often called "the energy canton". A significant number of people commute into the financial center of the city of Zürich, which is just across the cantonal border. As such the per capita cantonal income (in 2005) is 49,209 CHF.[30] Tourism is significant, particularly for the hot springs at Baden and Schinznach-Bad, the ancient castles, the landscape, and the many old museums in the canton.[18] Hillwalking is another tourist attraction but is of only limited significance. See also[edit]

Aargauer Zeitung FC Aarau Grand Prix of Aargau Canton, bicycle race

Notes[edit]

^ The Habsburgs
Habsburgs
were probably from the canton of Aargau originally.[6] ^ The Imperial Ban outlawed all possessions of that person or family, in this case th Habsburgs. Thereafter, the Habsburg
Habsburg
lands were open to the taking.[8]

Footnotes[edit]

^ Arealstatistik Land Cover - Kantone und Grossregionen nach 6 Hauptbereichen accessed 27 October 2017 ^ a b Swiss Federal Statistical Office - STAT-TAB, online database – Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Geburtsort und Staatsangehörigkeit (in German) accessed 30 August 2017 ^ a b c Van Valkenburg 1997, p. 3 ^ a b Ogrizek & Rufenacht 1949, p. 4 ^ a b c d e Cohen 1998, p. 1 ^ Farbkarte 2002, p. 283 ^ Ogrizek & Rufenacht 1949, p. 43 ^ a b c d Luck 1985, p. 98 ^ Luck 1985, p. 88 ^ a b c Sauerlände 2002 ^ a b c Wohle 2006 ^ Gasser & Keller 1932, p. 82 ^ a b c d e Steigmeier 2002 ^ Bridgwater & Aldrich 1968, p. 11 ^ a b c d e f Kayserling 1906, pp. 1–2 ^ Steigmeier, Andreas (2008-02-04). "Judenäule" (in German). HDS. Retrieved 2015-12-17.  ^ " Jüdischer Friedhof Endingen
Jüdischer Friedhof Endingen
/ Lengau (Kanton Aargau / CH)" (in German). alemannia-judaica.de. Retrieved 17 December 2015.  ^ a b Hoiberg 2010, p. 4 ^ Federal Department of Statistics 2006 ^ Heimer 2000 ^ a b c d e f g Swiss Federal Statistical Office 2013[full citation needed] ^ a b c d e Federal Department of Statistics 2000 ^ a b Steigmeier 2010 ^ Federal Department of Statistics 2011 ^ Federal Department of Statistics 2011a ^ Heer 2013 ^ Federal Department of Statistics 2013 ^ Nationalratswahlen: Stärke der Parteien nach Kantonen (Schweiz = 100%) (Report). Swiss Federal Statistical Office. 2015.  ^ Federal Department of Statistics 2013a ^ Federal Department of Statistics 2013b[full citation needed]

References[edit]

Bridgwater, W.; Aldrich, Beatrice, eds. (1968). "Aargau". The Columbia-Viking Desk Encyclopedia (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0670230709.  Cohen, Saul B., ed. (1998). "Aargau". The Columbia Gazetteer of the World. New York, NY: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-11040-5.  Farbkarte, S. (2002). Neuenschwander, Eva Meret; Schneider, Jürg, eds. Schweiz mit Liechtenstein [ Switzerland
Switzerland
with Liechtenstein] (in German). Bielefeld, Germany: Reise Know-how Verlag. ISBN 3-8317-1064-3.  Federal Department of Statistics (2013). "Nationalratswahlen 2007: Stärke der Parteien nach Kanton" [Election 2007: strength of the parties to Canton] (Excel). Retrieved 19 November 2013.  Federal Department of Statistics (2013a). "STAT-TAB: Die interaktive Statistikdatenbank: Datenwürfel für Thema 06.2 – Unternehmen" [STAT-TAB: The interactive statistical database: Data cube for about 06.2 – company]. Archived from the original on 25 December 2014. Retrieved 19 November 2013.  Federal Department of Statistics (2013b). "Federal Department of Statistics". [full citation needed] Federal Department of Statistics (2011). "Sprachen, Religionen – Daten, Indikatoren Religionen" [Languages, religions – Data, indicators religions]. Retrieved 19 November 2013.  Federal Department of Statistics (2011a). "Sprachen, Religionen – Daten, Indikatoren Sprachen" [Languages, religions – Data, indicators languages]. Retrieved 19 November 2013.  Federal Department of Statistics (2006). "Arealstatistik – Kantonsdaten nach 15 Nutzungsarten" [Land Use Statistics – Canton data after 15 uses]. Archived from the original (Excel) on 25 July 2009. Retrieved 15 January 2009.  Federal Department of Statistics (2000). "STAT-TAB: Die interaktive Statistikdatenbank" [STAT-TAB: The interactive statistical database]. Archived from the original on 9 April 2014. Retrieved 19 November 2013.  Gasser, Adolf; Keller, Ernst (1932). "Die territoriale Entwicklung der schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft 1291–1797" [The territorial development of the Swiss Confederation, 1291–1797] (in German). Aarau: Sauerländer.  Heer, Oliver (2013). "Eingereichte Listen bei den Nationalratswahlen 1971 – 2011, nach Parteien" [Submitted lists for the National Council elections 1971 – 2011, after parties] (Excel). Federal Office of Statistics. Retrieved 19 November 2013.  Heimer, Željko (2000). "Aargau canton (Switzerland)". Flags of the World.com. Retrieved 19 November 2013.  Hoiberg, Dale H., ed. (2010). "Aargau". Encyclopædia Britannica. I: A-ak Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, Illinois: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.  Kayserling, Moritz (1906). "Aargau". In Singer, Isidore. The Jewish Encyclopedia. New York, NY: KTAV Publishing House Inc.  Luck, James Murray (1985). A History of Switzerland: The First 100,000 years: Before the Beginnings to the days of the Present. Palo Alto, CA: Sposs Inc. ISBN 0-930664-06-X.  Ogrizek, Doré; Rufenacht, J. G., eds. (1949). Switzerland. World in Color Series. New York, NY: Whittlesey House. ASIN B0027ESLB2.  Sauerlände, Dominik (2002): Berner Aargau in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland. Steigmeier, Andreas (2010): Aargau in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland. Steigmeier, Andreas (2002): Baden (AG), County in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland. Swiss Federal Statistical Office (2013). "Swiss Statistics Web site". [full citation needed] Van Valkenburg, Samuel (1997). "Aargau". In Johnston, Bernard. Collier's Encyclopedia. I: A to Ameland (1st ed.). New York, NY: P.F. Collier.  Wohle, Anton (2006): Freie Ämter
Freie Ämter
in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Canton of Aargau.

Official website (in German) Canton of Aargau
Canton of Aargau
in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland. Official statistics Texts on Wikisource:

"Aargau". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.  "Aargau". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. 1907.  "Aargau". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921. 

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