The canton of Aargau (German Kanton Aargau (help·info);
sometimes anglicized Argovia; see also other names) is one of the more
northerly cantons of Switzerland. It is situated by the lower course
of the Aare, which is why the canton is called Aar-gau (meaning Aare
province). It is one of the most densely populated regions of
1.1 Early history
1.2 Medieval Aargau
1.3 Under the Swiss Confederation
Unteraargau or Berner Aargau
1.5 Freie Ämter
1.6 County of Baden
1.7 Forming the canton of Aargau
1.8 Chief magistracy
Jewish history in Aargau
3 Political subdivisions
4 Coat of arms
6 Historic population
8.1 Federal election results
12 See also
16 External links
The area of Aargau and the surrounding areas were controlled by the
Helvetians, a member of the Celts, as far back as 200 BC,
eventually being occupied by the Romans and then by the 6th century,
the Franks. The Romans built a major settlement called Vindonissa,
near the present location of Brugg.
See also: List of castles and fortresses in
Switzerland § Aargau
In early medieval times, the Aargau was a disputed border region
between the duchies of
Alamannia and Burgundy. A line of the von
Wetterau (Conradines) intermittently held the countship of Aargau from
750 until about 1030, when they lost it (having in the meantime taken
the name von Tegerfelden). From the extinction in 1254 of the
Hohenstaufen dynasty until 1415, the area was ruled by the
Habsburgs,[nb 1] and many castles from that time still stand (examples
include Habsburg, Lenzburg, Tegerfelden, Bobikon, Stin and
Habsburgs founded a number of monasteries (with some
structures enduring, e.g., in
Wettingen and Muri), the closing of
which by the government in 1841 was a contributing factor to the
outbreak of the Swiss civil war – the "Sonderbund War" – in 1847.
Under the Swiss Confederation
Switzerland in 1416, showing the part of the Aargau under Bernese
control, the county of Baden and the Freie Ämter.
When Frederick IV of
Habsburg sided with
Antipope John XXIII
Antipope John XXIII at the
Council of Constance, Emperor Sigismund placed him under the Imperial
ban.[nb 2] In July 1414, the Pope visited
Bern and received assurances
from them, that they would move against the Habsburgs. A few months
Swiss Confederation denounced the Treaty of 1412. Shortly
thereafter in 1415,
Bern and the rest of the
Swiss Confederation used
the ban as a pretext to invade the Aargau. The Confederation was able
to quickly conquer the towns of Aarau, Lenzburg,
Brugg and Zofingen
along with most of the
Bern kept the southwest
portion (Zofingen, Aarburg, Aarau, Lenzburg, and Brugg), northward to
the confluence of the
Aare and Reuss. The important city of Baden
was taken by a united Swiss army and governed by all 8 members of the
Confederation. Some districts, named the
Freie Ämter (free
bailiwicks) – Mellingen, Muri, Villmergen, and Bremgarten, with the
countship of Baden – were governed as "subject lands" by all or some
of the Confederates. Shortly after the conquest of the Aargau by the
Swiss, Frederick humbled himself to the Pope. The Pope reconciled with
him and ordered all of the taken lands to be returned. The Swiss
refused and years later after no serious attempts at re-acquisition,
the Duke officially relinquished rights to the Swiss.
Unteraargau or Berner Aargau
Districts in Bernese controlled Unteraargau
Bern's portion of the Aargau came to be known as the Unteraargau,
though can also be called the Berner or Bernese Aargau. In 1514 Bern
expanded north into the Jura and so came into possession of several
strategically important mountain passes into the Austrian Fricktal.
This land was added to the
Unteraargau and was directly ruled from
Bern. It was divided into seven rural bailiwicks and four
administrative cities, Aarau, Zofingen,
Lenzburg and Brugg. While the
Habsburgs were driven out, many of their minor nobles were allowed to
keep their lands and offices, though over time they lost power to the
Bernese government. The bailiwick administration was based on a very
small staff of officials, mostly made up of Bernese citizens, but with
a few locals.
Bern converted during the
Protestant Reformation in 1528, the
Unteraargau also converted. At the beginning of the 16th century a
number of anabaptists migrated into the upper Wynen and Rueder valleys
from Zürich. Despite pressure from the Bernese authorities in the
16th and 17th centuries anabaptism never entirely disappeared from the
Bern used the Aargau bailiwicks mostly as a source of grain for the
rest of the city-state. The administrative cities remained
economically only of regional importance. However, in the 17th and
Bern encouraged industrial development in Unteraargau
and by the late 18th century it was the most industrialized region in
the city-state. The high industrialization led to high population
growth in the 18th century, for example between 1764 and 1798, the
population grew by 35%, far more than in other parts of the canton. In
1870 the proportion of farmers in Aarau, Lenzburg, Kulm, and Zofingen
districts was 34–40%, while in the other districts it was
Map of the Freie Ämter, including the 1712 line dividing the Upper
and Lower Freie Ämter
The rest of the
Freie Ämter were collectively administered as subject
territories by the rest of the Confederation.
Muri Amt was assigned to
Zürich, Lucerne, Schwyz, Unterwalden, Zug and Glarus, while the
Ämter of Meienberg, Richensee and
Villmergen were first given to
Lucerne alone. The final boundary was set in 1425 by an arbitration
tribunal and Lucerne had to give the three Ämter to be collectively
ruled. The four Ämter were then consolidated under a single
Confederation bailiff into what was known in the 15th century as the
Bailiwick (German: Vogtei im Waggental). In the 16th
century, it came to be known as the Vogtei der Freien Ämter. While
the Freien Ämter often had independent lower courts, they were forced
to accept the Confederation's sovereignty. Finally, in 1532, the
canton of Uri became part of the collective administration of the
At the time of Reformation, the majority of the Ämter converted to
the new faith. In 1529, a wave of iconoclasm swept through the area
and wiped away much of the old religion. After the defeat of Zürich
in the second
Battle of Kappel
Battle of Kappel in 1531, the victorious five Catholic
cantons marched their troops into the
Freie Ämter and reconverted
them to Catholicism.
In the First War of Villmergen, in 1656, and the
Toggenburg War (or
Second War of Villmergen), in 1712, the
Freie Ämter became the
staging ground for the warring Reformed and Catholic armies. While the
peace after the 1656 war did not change the status quo, the fourth
Aarau in 1712 brought about a reorganization of power
relations. The victory gave
Zürich the opportunity to force the
Catholic cantons out of the government in the county of Baden and the
adjacent area of the Freie Ämter. The
Freie Ämter were then divided
in two by a line drawn from the gallows in
Fahrwangen to the
Oberlunkhofen church steeple. The northern part, the so-called Unteren
Freie Ämter (lower Freie Ämter), which included the districts of
Boswil (in part) and Hermetschwil and the Niederamt, were ruled by
Bern and Glarus. The southern part, the Oberen Freie Ämter
(upper Freie Ämter), were ruled by the previous seven cantons but
Bern was added to make an eighth.
Helvetic Republic (1798–1803), the county of Baden, the
Freie Ämter and the area known as the Kelleramt were combined into
the canton of Baden.
County of Baden
County of Baden
County of Baden
County of Baden was a shared condominium of the entire Old Swiss
Confederacy. After the Confederacy conquest in 1415, they retained
much of the
Habsburg legal structure, which caused a number of
problems. The local nobility had the right to hold the low court in
only about one fifth of the territory. There were over 30 different
nobles who had the right to hold courts scattered around the
surrounding lands. All these overlapping jurisdictions caused numerous
conflicts, but gradually the Confederation was able to acquire these
rights in the County. The cities of Baden, Bremgarten and Mellingen
became the administrative centers and held the high courts. Together
with the courts, the three administrative centers had considerable
local autonomy, but were ruled by a governor who was appointed by the
Acht Orte every two years. After the Protestant victory at the Second
Battle of Villmergen, the administration of the County changed
slightly. Instead of the Acht Orte appointing a bailiff together,
Bern each appointed the governor for 7 out of 16 years
while Glarus appointed him for the remaining 2 years.
The chaotic legal structure and fragmented land ownership combined
with a tradition of dividing the land among all the heirs in an
inheritance prevented any large scale reforms. The governor tried in
the 18th century to reform and standardize laws and ownership across
the County, but with limited success. With an ever-changing
administration, the County lacked a coherent long-term economic policy
or support for reforms. By the end of the 18th century there were no
factories or mills and only a few small cottage industries along the
border with Zürich. Road construction first became a priority after
Bern began appointing a governor for seven
During the Protestant Reformation, some of the municipalities
converted to the new faith. However, starting in 1531, some of the old
parishes were converted back to the old faith. The governors were
appointed from both Catholic and Protestant cantons and since they
changed every two years, neither faith gained a majority in the
The County was the only federal condominium in the 17th century where
Jews were tolerated. In 1774, they were restricted to just two towns,
Endingen and Lengnau. While the rural upper class tried several times
to finally expel the Jews, the financial interests of the authorities
prevented this. The Jews were directly subordinate to the governor
starting in 1696 when they were forced to buy a protecting and
shielding letter every 16 years from the governor.
After the French invasion, on 19 March 1798, the governments of
Bern agreed to the creation of the short lived canton of
Baden in the Helvetic Republic. With the
Act of Mediation
Act of Mediation in 1803, the
canton of Baden was dissolved. Portions of the lands of the former
County of Baden
County of Baden now became the District of Baden in the newly created
canton of Aargau. After World War II, this formerly agrarian region
saw striking growth and became the district with the largest and
densest population in the canton (110,000 in 1990, 715 persons per
Forming the canton of Aargau
Helvetic Republic c. 1798/99, with the newly created cantons of Aargau
Swiss Confederation following the 1803 Act of Mediation, with the
modern canton of Aargau formed
The contemporary canton of Aargau was formed in 1803, a canton of the
Swiss Confederation as a result of the Act of Mediation. It was a
combination of three short-lived cantons of the Helvetic Republic:
Aargau (1798–1803), Baden (1798–1803) and
Its creation is therefore rooted in the Napoleonic era. In the year
2003, the canton of Aargau celebrated its 200th anniversary.
French forces occupied the Aargau from 10 March to 18 April 1798;
thereafter the Bernese portion became the canton of Aargau and the
remainder formed the canton of Baden. Aborted plans to merge the two
halves came in 1801 and 1802, and they were eventually united under
the name Aargau, which was then admitted as a full member of
the reconstituted Confederation following the Act of Mediation. Some
parts of the canton of Baden at this point were transferred to other
cantons: the Amt of
Hitzkirch to Lucerne, whilst Hüttikon, Oetwil an
Dietikon and Schlieren went to Zürich. In return,
Lucerne's Amt of
Merenschwand was transferred to Aargau (district of
The Fricktal, ceded in 1802 by
Austria via Napoleonic France to the
Helvetic Republic, was briefly a separate canton of the Helvetic
Republic (the canton of Fricktal) under a
but on 19 March 1803 (following the Act of Mediation) was incorporated
into the canton of Aargau.
The former cantons of Baden and
Fricktal can still be identified with
the contemporary districts – the canton of Baden is covered by the
districts of Zurzach, Baden, Bremgarten, and
Muri (albeit with the
gains and losses of 1803 detailed above); the canton of
the districts of
Rheinfelden and Laufenburg (except for
was transferred to that district in 2010).
The chief magistracy of Aargau changed its style repeatedly:
first two consecutive Regierungsstatthalter :
April 1798 – November 1801 Jakob Emmanuel Feer (1754–1833)
1802–1803 Johann Heinrich Rothpletz (1766–1833)
Presidents of the Government Commission
10 March 1803 – 26 April 1803 Johann Rudolf Dolder (1753–1807)
26 April 1803 – 1815 a 'Small Council' (president rotating monthly)
Landammänner since 1815
Jewish history in Aargau
Two separate doors (one for Jews and one for Christians) on a house in
In the 17th century, Jews were banished from Switzerland. However, a
few families were permitted to live in two villages, Endingen and
Lengnau, in Aargau which became the
Jewish ghetto in Switzerland.
During this period, Jews and Christians were not allowed to live under
the same roof, neither were Jews allowed to own land or houses. They
were taxed at a much higher rate than others and, in 1712, the Lengnau
community was "pillaged." In 1760, they were further restricted
regarding marriages and multiplying. This remained the case until the
19th century. In 1799, all special tolls were abolished, and, in 1802,
the poll tax was removed. On 5 May 1809, they were declared
citizens and given broad rights regarding trade and farming. They were
still restricted to Endingen and Lengnau until 7 May 1846, when their
right to move and reside freely within the canton of Aargau was
granted. On 24 September 1856, the
Swiss Federal Council
Swiss Federal Council granted them
full political rights within Aargau, as well as broad business rights;
however the majority Christian population did not abide by these new
liberal laws fully. The time of 1860 saw the canton government voting
to grant suffrage in all local rights and to give their communities
autonomy. Before the law was enacted, it was repealed due to vocal
opposition led by the Ultramonte Party. Finally, the federal
authorities in July 1863, granted all Jews full rights of citizens.
However, they did not receive all of the rights in Endingen and Lengn
until a resolution of the Grand Council, on 15 May 1877, granted
citizens' rights to the members of the
Jewish communities of those
places, giving them charters under the names of New Endingen and New
Lengnau. The Swiss
Jewish Kulturverein was instrumental in this
fight from its founding in 1862 until it was dissolved 20 years
later. During this period of diminished rights, they were not even
allowed to bury their dead in Swiss soil and had to bury their dead on
an island called
Judenäule (Jews' Isle) on the
Waldshut. Beginning in 1603, the deceased Jews of the Surbtal
communities were buried on the river island which was leased by the
Jewish community. As the island was repeatedly flooded and devastated,
in 1750 the
Surbtal Jews asked the
Tagsatzung to establish the
Endingen cemetery in the vicinity of their communities.
View of the
Lägern from Bözberg
The capital of the canton is Aarau, which is located on its western
border, on the Aare. The canton borders
to the north, the
Rhine forming the border. To the west lie the Swiss
cantons of Basel-Landschaft, Solothurn and Bern; the canton of Lucerne
lies south, and
Zürich and Zug to the east. Its total area is 1,404
square kilometers (542 sq mi). It contains both large
Aare and the Reuss.
The canton of Aargau is one of the least mountainous Swiss cantons,
forming part of a great table-land, to the north of the Alps and the
east of the Jura, above which rise low hills. The surface of the
country is beautifully diversified, undulating tracts and well-wooded
hills alternating with fertile valleys watered mainly by the Aare
and its tributaries. The valleys alternate with pleasant hills, most
of which are full of woods. Slightly over one-third of the canton is
wooded (518 square kilometers (200 sq mi)), while nearly
half is used from farming (635.7 square kilometers
(245.4 sq mi)). 33.5 square kilometers
(12.9 sq mi) or about 2.4% of the canton is considered
unproductive, mostly lakes (notably Lake Hallwil) and streams. With a
population density of 450/km2 (1,200/sq mi), the canton has a
relatively high amount of land used for human development, with 216.7
square kilometers (83.7 sq mi) or about 15% of the canton
developed for housing or transportation.
It contains the famous hot sulphur springs of Baden and
Schinznach-Bad, while at
Rheinfelden there are very extensive saline
springs. Just below
Brugg the Reuss and the
Limmat join the Aar, while
Brugg are the ruined castle of Habsburg, the old convent of
Königsfelden (with fine painted medieval glass) and the remains of
the Roman settlement of
Fahr Monastery forms a small exclave of the canton, otherwise
surrounded by the canton of Zürich, and since 2008 is part of the
Aargau municipality of Würenlos.
See also: Districts of Switzerland
Districts in Aargau
Aargau is divided into 11 districts:
Aarau with capital Aarau
Baden with capital Baden
Bremgarten with capital Bremgarten
Brugg with capital Brugg
Kulm with capital Unterkulm
Laufenburg with capital Laufenburg
Lenzburg with capital Lenzburg
Muri with capital Muri
Rheinfelden with capital Rheinfelden
Zofingen with capital Zofingen
Zurzach with capital Zurzach
The most recent change in district boundaries occurred in 2010 when
Hottwil transferred from
Brugg to Laufenburg, following its merger
with other municipalities, all of which were in Laufenburg.
Main articles: municipalities of the canton of Aargau and
municipalities of Switzerland
There are (as of 2014) 213 municipalities in the canton of Aargau. As
with most Swiss cantons there has been a trend since the early 2000s
for municipalities to merge, though mergers in Aargau have so far been
less radical than in other cantons.
Coat of arms
The blazon of the coat of arms is Per pale, dexter: sable, a fess wavy
argent, charged with two cotises wavy azure; sinister: sky blue, three
mullets of five argent.
The flag and arms of Aargau date to 1803 and are an original design by
Samuel Ringier-Seelmatter; the current official design, specifying the
stars as five-pointed, dates to 1930.
Aargau has a population (as of December 2016[update]) of 663,462.
As of 2010[update], 21.5% of the population are resident foreign
nationals. Over the last 10 years (2000–2010) the population has
changed at a rate of 11%. Migration accounted for 8.7%, while births
and deaths accounted for 2.8%. Most of the population (as of
2000[update]) speaks German (477,093 or 87.1%) as their first
language, Italian is the second most common (17,847 or 3.3%) and
Serbo-Croatian is the third (10,645 or 1.9%). There are 4,151 people
who speak French and 618 people who speak Romansh.
Of the population in the canton, 146,421 or about 26.7% were born in
Aargau and lived there in 2000. There were 140,768 or 25.7% who were
born in the same canton, while 136,865 or 25.0% were born somewhere
else in Switzerland, and 107,396 or 19.6% were born outside of
As of 2000[update], children and teenagers (0–19 years old) make up
24.3% of the population, while adults (20–64 years old) make up
62.3% and seniors (over 64 years old) make up 13.4%.
As of 2000[update], there were 227,656 people who were single and
never married in the canton. There were 264,939 married individuals,
27,603 widows or widowers and 27,295 individuals who are divorced.
As of 2000[update], there were 224,128 private households in the
canton, and an average of 2.4 persons per household. There were
69,062 households that consist of only one person and 16,254
households with five or more people. As of 2009[update], the
construction rate of new housing units was 6.5 new units per 1000
residents. The vacancy rate for the canton, in 2010[update], was
The majority of the population is centered on one of three areas: the
Aare Valley, the side branches of the
Aare Valley, or along the
The historical population is given in the following chart:
Historic Population Data
No religion given
In the 2011 federal election, the most popular party was the SVP which
received 34.7% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were
the SP/PS (18.0%), the FDP (11.5%) and the CVP (10.6%).
The SVP received about the same percentage of the vote as they did in
the 2007 Federal election (36.2% in 2007 vs 34.7% in 2011). The SPS
retained about the same popularity (17.9% in 2007), the FDP retained
about the same popularity (13.6% in 2007) and the CVP retained about
the same popularity (13.5% in 2007).
Federal election results
Percentage of the total vote per party in the canton in the National
Council Elections 1971-2015
Ring of Independents
Voter participation %
^a FDP before 2009,
FDP.The Liberals after 2009
^b "*" indicates that the party was not on the ballot in this canton.
^c Part of the GPS
Catholic City Church in Baden, Aargau
From the 2000 census[update], 219,800 or 40.1% were Roman Catholic,
while 189,606 or 34.6% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church. Of the
rest of the population, there were 11,523 members of an Orthodox
church (or about 2.10% of the population), there were 3,418
individuals (or about 0.62% of the population) who belonged to the
Christian Catholic Church, and there were 29,580 individuals (or about
5.40% of the population) who belonged to another Christian church.
There were 342 individuals (or about 0.06% of the population) who were
Jewish, and 30,072 (or about 5.49% of the population) who were
Islamic. There were 1,463 individuals who were Buddhist, 2,089
individuals who were Hindu and 495 individuals who belonged to another
church. 57,573 (or about 10.52% of the population) belonged to no
church, are agnostic or atheist, and 15,875 individuals (or about
2.90% of the population) did not answer the question.
In Aargau about 212,069 or (38.7%) of the population have completed
non-mandatory upper secondary education, and 70,896 or (12.9%) have
completed additional higher education (either university or a
Fachhochschule). Of the 70,896 who completed tertiary schooling, 63.6%
were Swiss men, 20.9% were Swiss women, 10.4% were non-Swiss men and
5.2% were non-Swiss women.
Leibstadt Nuclear Power Plant
As of 2010[update], Aargau had an unemployment rate of 3.6%. As
of 2008[update], there were 11,436 people employed in the primary
economic sector and about 3,927 businesses involved in this sector.
95,844 people were employed in the secondary sector and there were
6,055 businesses in this sector. 177,782 people were employed in the
tertiary sector, with 21,530 businesses in this sector.
In 2008[update] the total number of full-time equivalent jobs was
238,225. The number of jobs in the primary sector was 7,167, of which
6,731 were in agriculture, 418 were in forestry or lumber production
and 18 were in fishing or fisheries. The number of jobs in the
secondary sector was 90,274 of which 64,089 or (71.0%) were in
manufacturing, 366 or (0.4%) were in mining and 21,705 (24.0%) were in
construction. The number of jobs in the tertiary sector was 140,784.
In the tertiary sector; 38,793 or 27.6% were in the sale or repair of
motor vehicles, 13,624 or 9.7% were in the movement and storage of
goods, 8,150 or 5.8% were in a hotel or restaurant, 5,164 or 3.7% were
in the information industry, 5,946 or 4.2% were the insurance or
financial industry, 14,831 or 10.5% were technical professionals or
scientists, 10,951 or 7.8% were in education and 21,952 or 15.6% were
in health care.
Of the working population, 19.5% used public transportation to get to
work, and 55.3% used a private car. Public transportation – bus
and train – is provided by Busbetrieb
The farmland of the canton of Aargau is some of the most fertile in
Switzerland. Dairy farming, cereal and fruit farming are among the
canton's main economic activities. The canton is also industrially
developed, particularly in the fields of electrical engineering,
precision instruments, iron, steel, cement and textiles.
Three of Switzerland's five nuclear power plants are in the canton of
Aargau (Beznau I + II and Leibstadt). Additionally, the many rivers
supply enough water for numerous hydroelectric power plants throughout
the canton. The canton of Aargau is often called "the energy canton".
A significant number of people commute into the financial center of
the city of Zürich, which is just across the cantonal border. As such
the per capita cantonal income (in 2005) is 49,209 CHF.
Tourism is significant, particularly for the hot springs at Baden and
Schinznach-Bad, the ancient castles, the landscape, and the many old
museums in the canton. Hillwalking is another tourist attraction
but is of only limited significance.
Grand Prix of Aargau Canton, bicycle race
Habsburgs were probably from the canton of Aargau originally.
^ The Imperial Ban outlawed all possessions of that person or family,
in this case th Habsburgs. Thereafter, the
Habsburg lands were open to
^ Arealstatistik Land Cover - Kantone und Grossregionen nach 6
Hauptbereichen accessed 27 October 2017
^ a b Swiss Federal Statistical Office - STAT-TAB, online database –
Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen
Gliederungen, Geburtsort und Staatsangehörigkeit (in German) accessed
30 August 2017
^ a b c Van Valkenburg 1997, p. 3
^ a b Ogrizek & Rufenacht 1949, p. 4
^ a b c d e Cohen 1998, p. 1
^ Farbkarte 2002, p. 283
^ Ogrizek & Rufenacht 1949, p. 43
^ a b c d Luck 1985, p. 98
^ Luck 1985, p. 88
^ a b c Sauerlände 2002
^ a b c Wohle 2006
^ Gasser & Keller 1932, p. 82
^ a b c d e Steigmeier 2002
^ Bridgwater & Aldrich 1968, p. 11
^ a b c d e f Kayserling 1906, pp. 1–2
^ Steigmeier, Andreas (2008-02-04). "Judenäule" (in German). HDS.
Jüdischer Friedhof Endingen
Jüdischer Friedhof Endingen / Lengau (Kanton Aargau / CH)" (in
German). alemannia-judaica.de. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
^ a b Hoiberg 2010, p. 4
^ Federal Department of Statistics 2006
^ Heimer 2000
^ a b c d e f g Swiss Federal Statistical Office 2013[full citation
^ a b c d e Federal Department of Statistics 2000
^ a b Steigmeier 2010
^ Federal Department of Statistics 2011
^ Federal Department of Statistics 2011a
^ Heer 2013
^ Federal Department of Statistics 2013
^ Nationalratswahlen: Stärke der Parteien nach Kantonen (Schweiz =
100%) (Report). Swiss Federal Statistical Office. 2015.
^ Federal Department of Statistics 2013a
^ Federal Department of Statistics 2013b[full citation needed]
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Official website (in German)
Canton of Aargau
Canton of Aargau in German, French and Italian in the online
Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
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"Aargau". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. 1907.
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Cantons of Switzerland
Coats of arms
AR Appenzell Outer-Rhodes
AI Appenzell Inner-Rhodes
SG St Gall
Historical cantons: Unterwalden
ISNI: 0000 0001 0789 1086