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The 9th century
9th century
is the period from 801
801
to 900
900
in accordance with the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
in the Common Era.

Contents

1 West Africa

1.1 Southeastern Nigeria 1.2 Ghana Empire

2 Western Europe

2.1 Britain and Ireland 2.2 Art of the 9th century

3 Events 4 Significant people 5 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 6 See also 7 References

West Africa[edit]

A bronze ceremonial vessel made around the 9th century, one of the bronzes found at Igbo-Ukwu.[1]

Southeastern Nigeria[edit] Further information: Archaeology of Igbo-Ukwu Around the 9th century
9th century
the edo people of what is now southeastern Nigeria
Nigeria
developed bronze casts of humans, animals, and mythical creatures. These bronzes, which were used as vessels, amulets, pendants, and sacrificial tools, are among the earliest made bronzes ever found in Nigeria. Most items were part of a burial of a nobleman culture in the northern part of benin empire. Evidence of long distance trade between benin empire and poutugist was also discovered through the thousands of glass beads found at Old Cairo at the workshops of Fustat. The development of the benin Kingdom can be attributed to the proficiency at advanced metallurgy seen in the bronze jewelry crafted by local artisans. Ghana Empire[edit] Further information: Ghana Empire The Ghana (Wagadu) Empire
Ghana (Wagadu) Empire
(before c. 830
830
until c. 1235) was located in what is now southeastern Mauritania
Mauritania
and western Mali. It is considered the first of the Sahelian Kingdoms, which would exist in some form until the early 20th century. Western Europe[edit] Britain and Ireland[edit] Britain experienced a great influx of Viking
Viking
peoples in the 9th century as the Viking
Viking
Age continued from the previous century. The kingdoms of the Heptarchy
Heptarchy
were gradually conquered by the Danes, who set up Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
puppet rulers in each kingdom. This invasion was achieved by a huge military force known as the Great Heathen Army, which was supposedly led by Ivar the Boneless, Halfdan Ragnarsson, and Guthrum. This Danish army first arrived in Britain in 865
865
in East Anglia. After conquering that kingdom, the army proceeded to capture the city of York
York
(Jorvik) and establish the kingdom of Jorvik. The Danes went on to subjugate the kingdom of Northumbria
Northumbria
and to take all but the western portion of Mercia. The remaining kingdom of Wessex
Wessex
was the only kingdom of the Heptarchy
Heptarchy
left. Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great
managed to maintain his kingdom of Wessex
Wessex
and push back the Viking
Viking
incursions, relieving the neighbouring kingdoms from the threat of the Danes following his famous victory over them at the Battle of Ethandun
Battle of Ethandun
in 878. Alfred re-established Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
rule over the western half of Mercia, and the Danelaw
Danelaw
was established which separated Mercia
Mercia
into halves, the eastern half remaining under the control of the Danes. Ireland
Ireland
was also affected by the Viking
Viking
expansion across the North Sea. Extensive raids were carried out all along the coast and eventually permanent settlements were established, such as that of Dublin
Dublin
in 841. Particular targets for these raids were the monasteries on the western coast of Ireland, as they provided a rich source for loot. On such raids the Vikings
Vikings
set up impermanent camps, which were called longphorts by the Irish—this period of Viking
Viking
raids on the coasts of Ireland
Ireland
has been named the longphort phase after these types of settlements. Ireland
Ireland
in the 9th century
9th century
was organised into an amalgam of small kingdoms, called tuatha. These kingdoms were sometimes grouped together and ruled by a single, provincial ruler. If such a ruler could establish and maintain authority over a portion of these tuatha, he was sometimes granted the title of High King. Scotland
Scotland
also experienced significant Viking
Viking
incursions during the 9th century. The Vikings
Vikings
established themselves in coastal regions, usually in northern Scotland, and in the northern islands such as Orkney
Orkney
and Shetland. The Viking
Viking
invasion and settlement in Scotland provided a contributing factor in the collapse of the kingdoms of the Picts, who inhabited most of Scotland
Scotland
at the time. Not only were the Pictish realms either destroyed or severely weakened, the Viking invasion and settlement may have been the reason for the movement of Kenneth MacAlpin, the king of Dál Riata
Dál Riata
at that time. The kingdom of Dál Riata
Dál Riata
was located on the western coast of Scotland, and Viking incursions destroyed it after the death of its previous king, Áed mac Boanta in 839, according to the Annals of Ulster. This may have caused the new king, MacAlpin, to move to the east, and conquer the remnants of the Pictish realms. MacAlpin became king of the Picts
Picts
in 843
843
and later kings would be titled as the King of Alba
King of Alba
or King of Scots. Art of the 9th century[edit]

Art in the 9th century
9th century
was primarily dedicated to the Gospel and employed as basic tools of liturgy of the Roman Orthodox Church. Thousands of golden art objects were made: Sacred cups, vessels, reliquaries, crucifixes, rosaries, altar pieces, and statues of the Virgin and Child or Saints all kept the flame of western art from dying out. Architecture began to revive to some extent by the 9th century, taking the form of Church facilities of all kinds, and the first castle fortifications since Roman times began to take form in simple "moat and baily" castles, or simple "strong point" tower structures, with little refinement. 9th - 13th century
13th century
- El Castillo, Chichen Itza, Yucatan, Mexico, is built. Itza (northern Maya) culture.

Events[edit]

Eastern Hemisphere at the beginning of the 9th century.

Eastern Hemisphere at the end of the 9th century.

An unknown event causes the decline of the Maya Classical Era. Beowulf
Beowulf
might have been written down in this century; alternatively, it could also have been in the 8th century. Reign of Charlemagne, and concurrent (and controversially labeled) Carolingian Renaissance
Carolingian Renaissance
in Western Europe. Large-scale Viking
Viking
attacks on Europe begin, devastating countless numbers of people. Oseberg
Oseberg
ship burial. The Magyars
Magyars
begin their conquest of Pannonia
Pannonia
(roughly modern day Hungary), a process that will take several decades to be completed. The Tukolor
Tukolor
settle in the Senegal river valley. Muslim
Muslim
traders settle in the northwest and southeast of Madagascar. 800: Charlemagne
Charlemagne
is crowned emperor of Rome
Rome
by Pope Leo III. 800: Charlemagne
Charlemagne
expands the Frankish state and founds the Carolingian Empire. He rules over the empire for 14 years. 800: An Arab fleet sails up the Tiber. 800
800
– 909: Rule of Aghlabids
Aghlabids
as an independent Muslim
Muslim
dynasty in North Africa, with their capital at Tunis. 802: Jayavarman II of the Khmer people
Khmer people
in Cambodia
Cambodia
founds the Khmer empire and establishes the Angkorian dynasty. 803: Construction on the Leshan Giant Buddha
Leshan Giant Buddha
in Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
China
China
is complete, after 90 years of rock-carving on a massive cliff-side. 805
805
- 820: Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
was under the rule of Emperor Xianzong of Tang. 809
809
– 815: War between the Byzantine empire
Byzantine empire
and Bulgaria. 811: Battle of Pliska
Battle of Pliska
fought between a Byzantine force led by emperor Nicephorus I
Nicephorus I
and a Bulgarian army commanded by Khan Krum. Byzantines are defeated in a series of engagements, culminating with the death of Nicephorus I. 813: Byzantines are heavily defeated by the Bulgars at Versinikia. 813: China
China
is reunited.[clarification needed] c. 813
813
– c. 915: Period of serious Arab naval raids on shores of Tyrrhenian and Adriatic seas. 814: Charlemagne
Charlemagne
dies in the city of Aachen. 815: A 30-year peace agreement is signed between Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and the Byzantine Empire. 824: Han Yu
Han Yu
dies. 825: Battle of Ellandun: King Egbert of Wessex
Wessex
defeats Mercia
Mercia
and establishes the kingdom of Wessex
Wessex
as the supreme Kingdom in England. 825: Borobudur
Borobudur
is completed during the reign of Samaratungga.[2][3]

Borobudur
Borobudur
was likely founded around 800.[4] This corresponds to the period between 760 and 830, the peak of the Sailendra
Sailendra
dynasty in central Java,[5] when it was under the influence of the Srivijayan Empire. The construction has been estimated to have taken 75 years and been completed during the reign of Samaratungga
Samaratungga
in 825.[2][3]

827
827
– 902: Aghlabid
Aghlabid
dynasty colonises emirates in Sicily
Sicily
and subsequently raids Southern Italy. 830: The Ghana (Wagadu) Empire
Ghana (Wagadu) Empire
is established. 830: The House of Wisdom, a library and translation institute established in Baghdad
Baghdad
by al-Ma'mun, Abbasid
Abbasid
caliph, to transfer the knowledge of Greeks, Persians, Indians, etc. to Muslim
Muslim
world. The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing, a book of algebra, is also written there by Al-Khwarizmi. 835: Sweet Dew Incident
Sweet Dew Incident
occurs. Emperor Wenzong of the Tang Dynasty conspires to kill the powerful eunuchs of the Tang court, but the plot is foiled. 839-842: Vlastimir defeats Presian. 840: Death of Louis the Pious. 841: Dublin
Dublin
is founded on the east coast of Ireland
Ireland
by the Vikings. 843: The Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
is at its height in territory and area.[6] The three sons of Louis the Pious
Louis the Pious
reach an agreement known as the Treaty of Verdun
Treaty of Verdun
and split the Carolingian empire
Carolingian empire
into three divisions; East Francia
East Francia
was given to Louis the German, West Francia
West Francia
to Charles the Bald
Charles the Bald
and Middle Francia
Middle Francia
to Lothair I. 845: Buddhism
Buddhism
is persecuted and banned in China. 846
846
- 859: Emperor Xuānzong of Tang
Emperor Xuānzong of Tang
reigned. He was considered[by whom?] the last capable emperor of the Tang dynasty. 846
846
- 11,000 Saracen
Saracen
Arab squadrons from Africa, with 500 horses, desecrate Christian
Christian
shrines in Rome, including the tombs and basilicas of Sts. Peter and Paul. 848
848
– 852: The west bank of the Tiber
Tiber
is annexed into the city of Rome. A defensive wall, commissioned by Pope Leo IV, is built around what came to be called the Leonine City
Leonine City
as a defensive response to the Saracen
Saracen
desecration of Rome
Rome
in 846. 850
850
– 875: The first Norse settlers arrive on Iceland. 851: The Arab merchant Sulaiman al-Tajir visits the Chinese seaport at Guangzhou
Guangzhou
in southern China, and observes the manufacturing of porcelain, the Islamic mosque built at Guangzhou, the granary system of the city, and how its municipal administration functioned. 856: Prambanan
Prambanan
is completed.[7] According to the Shivagrha inscription, Rakai Pikatan — the husband of Pramodhawardhani — defeated Balaputra. 859: Muslims establish the University of Al Karaouine
University of Al Karaouine
as a madrasa in Fez, Morocco. 860: Balaputra, the maharaja of Suvarnadvipa and the ruler of Srivijaya, constructs the Buddhist temple and monastery in Nalanda India, on the land given by King Devapaladeva. of Pala in Benggala, according to the Nalanda
Nalanda
inscription.[8] 862: The beginning of the Rurik Dynasty
Rurik Dynasty
in Rus'. 863: The Chinese author Duan Chengshi describes the slave trade, ivory trade, and ambergris trade of Somalia
Somalia
in East Africa. 862: The Bagratuni Dynasty
Bagratuni Dynasty
of Medieval Armenia begins with Ashot I. 863
863
– 879: Period of schism between Eastern and Western churches. 864: Christianization of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
under Boris I 867: Onward revival of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
under the Macedonian dynasty. 868: Ahmad ibn Tulun
Ahmad ibn Tulun
breaks away from the Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliphate and establishes the independent Tulunid
Tulunid
dynasty. 869: An earthquake and tsunami struck Japan's Sanriku coast, killing 1,000 people. 870: Christianization of the Serbs. 870: Prague Castle
Prague Castle
founded. 871
871
– 899: Reign of Alfred the Great, first king of the English. 875
875
– 884: Huang Chao
Huang Chao
leads an unsuccessful rebellion against the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
in China. 878: Battle of Ethandun
Battle of Ethandun
results in the victory of Alfred the Great over the Danish warlord Guthrum. 885: Arrival of the disciples of Saints Cyril and Methodius, Clement of Ohrid and Naum of Preslav
Naum of Preslav
in Bulgaria. Development of the Cyrillic Alphabet. 888: The Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
declines and falls after the death of Charles III. 893: Council of Preslav - Vladimir-Rasate is dethroned and succeeded as Prince of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
by Simeon I; the capital is moved from Pliska
Pliska
to Preslav; the Byzantine clergy is expelled and replaced by Bulgarian; Old Bulgarian becomes the official language of the country. 895/896: The year of the Magyars
Magyars
arrival in Pannonia. This year is widely accepted as the beginning of the Hungarian "Landtaking"* Late 9th century: Bulgaria
Bulgaria
stretches from the mouth of the Danube
Danube
to Epirus and Bosnia. In Italy, some cities became free republics: for instance Forlì, in 889. The Christian
Christian
Nubian kingdom reaches its peak of prosperity and military power. (Early history of Sudan). Harald Fairhair was victorious at the battle of Hafrsfjord, and Norway was unified into one kingdom. Chess
Chess
reaches Japan. The Medieval Warm Period
Medieval Warm Period
begins. The Coptic period, at its most broad definition, ends. Page from Koran
Koran
(Surah II:286 and title Surah III) in kufic script, from Syria, is made. It is now kept at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 899: King Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great
of Wessex, First King of The English, dies. Late 9th century
9th century
Pallava dynasty
Pallava dynasty
ends in Southern India. Late 9th century
9th century
- Womb World mandala, To-ji, Kyoto, is made. Heian period. 9th – 10th century
10th century
– Bowl with kufic border, from Samarkand, Uzbekistan, is made. It is now kept at Musée du Louvre, Paris. Laguna Copperplate Inscription, Kavi script, inscribed in Luzon, Philippines, dated Saka year 822
822
(900)

Significant people[edit] Further information: Category:9th-century people

Charlemagne
Charlemagne
(left) and Pippin the Hunchback. 10th-century copy of a lost original from about 830.

Saint Clement of Ohrid

Alfonso III of Asturias, king of Asturias, Galicia and León. Al-Jahiz Alfred the Great Arnulf of Carinthia Árpád, Grand Prince of the Magyars Basil I the Macedonian
Basil I the Macedonian
(Βασίλειος Α') (811–886), ruled (867)–(886) Boris I of Bulgaria Empress Irene of Athens Charlemagne Clement of Ohrid Han Yu Harald I of Norway Huang Chao Harun al-Rashid Ivar the Boneless Jayarasi Bhatta, philosophical skeptic Krum, Khan of Bulgaria Kenneth I of Scotland Li Deyu Louis the Pious Naum of Preslav Niu Sengru Ordoño I of Asturias, King of Asturias Rurik Simeon I of Bulgaria Saints Cyril and Methodius emperor Theophilus of Amorium Zhu Wen Wang Kon Wang Xianzhi Emperor Xianzong of Tang Emperor Xuānzong of Tang

Inventions, discoveries, introductions[edit] See also: Timeline of historic inventions § 9th century

First image of a rotary grindstone in a European source—illustration shows crank, first known use of a crank in the West (Utrecht Psalter, 843) First known printed book, the Diamond Sutra, printed in China
China
using woodblock printing in 868. Invention of gunpowder by Chinese Taoist
Taoist
Alchemists. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
begins to develop into various Romance languages. Two syllabaries or kana are developed from simplified Chinese characters in Japan.

See also[edit]

Timeline of 9th-century Muslim
Muslim
history

References[edit]

^ Apley, Alice. " Igbo-Ukwu
Igbo-Ukwu
(ca. 9th century)". Metropolitan Museum of Art. Archived from the original on 4 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-23.  ^ a b Dumarçay (1991). ^ a b Paul Michel Munoz (2007). Early Kingdoms of the Indonesian Archipelago and the Malay Peninsula. Singapore: Didier Millet. p. 143. ISBN 981-4155-67-5.  ^ Soekmono (1976), page 9. ^ Miksic (1990) ^ "Succession of the Carolingian Empire, 843
843
CE". Cmunce.org. Columbia Model United Nations Conference and Exposition. Retrieved 24 December 2014. The year is 843
843
C.E., and the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
has reached the peak of its expansion, covering more territory in Western Europe than any one dynasty since the Roman Empire.  ^ Miksic (1997) ^ Soekmono, R, Drs., Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2, 2nd ed. Penerbit Kanisius, Yogyakarta, 1973, 5th reprint edition in 1988 p.46

Millennia Centuries Decades Years

v t e

Decades and years

9th century 7th century ← 8th century ← ↔ → 10th century → 11th century

790s 790 791 792 793 794 795 796 797 798 799

800s 800 801 802 803 804 805 806 807 808 809

810s 810 811 812 813 814 815 816 817 818 819

820s 820 821 822 823 824 825 826 827 828 829

830s 830 831 832 833 834 835 836 837 838 839

840s 840 841 842 843 844 845 846 847 848 849

850s 850 851 852 853 854 855 856 857 858 859

860s 860 861 862 863 864 865 866 867 868 869

870s 870 871 872 873 874 875 876 877 878 879

880s 880 881 882 883 884 885 886 887 888 889

890s 890 891 892 893 894 895 896 897 898 899

900s 900 901 902 903 904 905 906 907 908 909

v t e

Centuries and millennia

Millennium Century

BC (BCE)

4th 40th 39th 38th 37th 36th 35th 34th 33rd 32nd 31st

3rd 30th 29th 28th 27th 26th 25th 24th 23rd 22nd 21st

2nd 20th 19th 18th 17th 16th 15th 14th 13th 12th 11th

1st 10th 9th 8th 7th 6th 5th 4th 3rd 2nd 1st

AD (CE)

1st 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th

2nd 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th

3rd 21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th 26th 2

.