9th century is the period from
900 in accordance with the
Julian calendar in the Common Era.
1 West Africa
1.1 Southeastern Nigeria
1.2 Ghana Empire
2 Western Europe
2.1 Britain and Ireland
2.2 Art of the 9th century
4 Significant people
5 Inventions, discoveries, introductions
6 See also
A bronze ceremonial vessel made around the 9th century, one of the
bronzes found at Igbo-Ukwu.
Further information: Archaeology of Igbo-Ukwu
9th century the edo people of what is now southeastern
Nigeria developed bronze casts of humans, animals, and mythical
creatures. These bronzes, which were used as vessels, amulets,
pendants, and sacrificial tools, are among the earliest made bronzes
ever found in Nigeria. Most items were part of a burial of a nobleman
culture in the northern part of benin empire. Evidence of long
distance trade between benin empire and poutugist was also discovered
through the thousands of glass beads found at Old Cairo at the
workshops of Fustat.
The development of the benin Kingdom can be attributed to the
proficiency at advanced metallurgy seen in the bronze jewelry crafted
by local artisans.
Further information: Ghana Empire
Ghana (Wagadu) Empire
Ghana (Wagadu) Empire (before c.
830 until c. 1235) was located in
what is now southeastern
Mauritania and western Mali. It is considered
the first of the Sahelian Kingdoms, which would exist in some form
until the early 20th century.
Britain and Ireland
Britain experienced a great influx of
Viking peoples in the 9th
century as the
Viking Age continued from the previous century. The
kingdoms of the
Heptarchy were gradually conquered by the Danes, who
Anglo-Saxon puppet rulers in each kingdom. This invasion was
achieved by a huge military force known as the Great Heathen Army,
which was supposedly led by Ivar the Boneless, Halfdan Ragnarsson, and
Guthrum. This Danish army first arrived in Britain in
865 in East
Anglia. After conquering that kingdom, the army proceeded to capture
the city of
York (Jorvik) and establish the kingdom of Jorvik. The
Danes went on to subjugate the kingdom of
Northumbria and to take all
but the western portion of Mercia. The remaining kingdom of
the only kingdom of the
Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great managed to
maintain his kingdom of
Wessex and push back the
relieving the neighbouring kingdoms from the threat of the Danes
following his famous victory over them at the
Battle of Ethandun
Battle of Ethandun in
878. Alfred re-established
Anglo-Saxon rule over the western half of
Mercia, and the
Danelaw was established which separated
halves, the eastern half remaining under the control of the Danes.
Ireland was also affected by the
Viking expansion across the North
Sea. Extensive raids were carried out all along the coast and
eventually permanent settlements were established, such as that of
Dublin in 841. Particular targets for these raids were the monasteries
on the western coast of Ireland, as they provided a rich source for
loot. On such raids the
Vikings set up impermanent camps, which were
called longphorts by the Irish—this period of
Viking raids on the
Ireland has been named the longphort phase after these types
Ireland in the
9th century was organised into an
amalgam of small kingdoms, called tuatha. These kingdoms were
sometimes grouped together and ruled by a single, provincial ruler. If
such a ruler could establish and maintain authority over a portion of
these tuatha, he was sometimes granted the title of High King.
Scotland also experienced significant
Viking incursions during the 9th
Vikings established themselves in coastal regions,
usually in northern Scotland, and in the northern islands such as
Orkney and Shetland. The
Viking invasion and settlement in Scotland
provided a contributing factor in the collapse of the kingdoms of the
Picts, who inhabited most of
Scotland at the time. Not only were the
Pictish realms either destroyed or severely weakened, the Viking
invasion and settlement may have been the reason for the movement of
Kenneth MacAlpin, the king of
Dál Riata at that time. The kingdom of
Dál Riata was located on the western coast of Scotland, and Viking
incursions destroyed it after the death of its previous king, Áed mac
Boanta in 839, according to the Annals of Ulster. This may have caused
the new king, MacAlpin, to move to the east, and conquer the remnants
of the Pictish realms. MacAlpin became king of the
later kings would be titled as the
King of Alba
King of Alba or King of Scots.
Art of the 9th century
Art in the
9th century was primarily dedicated to the Gospel and
employed as basic tools of liturgy of the Roman Orthodox Church.
Thousands of golden art objects were made: Sacred cups, vessels,
reliquaries, crucifixes, rosaries, altar pieces, and statues of the
Virgin and Child or Saints all kept the flame of western art from
dying out. Architecture began to revive to some extent by the 9th
century, taking the form of Church facilities of all kinds, and the
first castle fortifications since Roman times began to take form in
simple "moat and baily" castles, or simple "strong point" tower
structures, with little refinement.
13th century - El Castillo, Chichen Itza, Yucatan, Mexico, is
built. Itza (northern Maya) culture.
Eastern Hemisphere at the beginning of the 9th century.
Eastern Hemisphere at the end of the 9th century.
An unknown event causes the decline of the Maya Classical Era.
Beowulf might have been written down in this century; alternatively,
it could also have been in the 8th century.
Reign of Charlemagne, and concurrent (and controversially labeled)
Carolingian Renaissance in Western Europe.
Viking attacks on Europe begin, devastating countless
numbers of people.
Oseberg ship burial.
Magyars begin their conquest of
Pannonia (roughly modern day
Hungary), a process that will take several decades to be completed.
Tukolor settle in the Senegal river valley.
Muslim traders settle in the northwest and southeast of Madagascar.
Charlemagne is crowned emperor of
Rome by Pope Leo III.
Charlemagne expands the Frankish state and founds the Carolingian
Empire. He rules over the empire for 14 years.
800: An Arab fleet sails up the Tiber.
800 – 909: Rule of
Aghlabids as an independent
Muslim dynasty in
North Africa, with their capital at Tunis.
Jayavarman II of the
Khmer people in
Cambodia founds the Khmer
empire and establishes the Angkorian dynasty.
803: Construction on the
Leshan Giant Buddha
Leshan Giant Buddha in
complete, after 90 years of rock-carving on a massive cliff-side.
805 - 820:
Tang Dynasty was under the rule of Emperor Xianzong of
809 – 815: War between the
Byzantine empire and Bulgaria.
Battle of Pliska
Battle of Pliska fought between a Byzantine force led by emperor
Nicephorus I and a Bulgarian army commanded by Khan Krum. Byzantines
are defeated in a series of engagements, culminating with the death of
813: Byzantines are heavily defeated by the Bulgars at Versinikia.
China is reunited.[clarification needed]
813 – c. 915: Period of serious Arab naval raids on shores of
Tyrrhenian and Adriatic seas.
Charlemagne dies in the city of Aachen.
815: A 30-year peace agreement is signed between
Bulgaria and the
Han Yu dies.
825: Battle of Ellandun: King Egbert of
establishes the kingdom of
Wessex as the supreme Kingdom in England.
Borobudur is completed during the reign of Samaratungga.
Borobudur was likely founded around 800. This corresponds to the
period between 760 and 830, the peak of the
Sailendra dynasty in
central Java, when it was under the influence of the Srivijayan
Empire. The construction has been estimated to have taken 75 years and
been completed during the reign of
Samaratungga in 825.
827 – 902:
Aghlabid dynasty colonises emirates in
subsequently raids Southern Italy.
Ghana (Wagadu) Empire
Ghana (Wagadu) Empire is established.
830: The House of Wisdom, a library and translation institute
Baghdad by al-Ma'mun,
Abbasid caliph, to transfer the
knowledge of Greeks, Persians, Indians, etc. to
Muslim world. The
Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing, a book of
algebra, is also written there by Al-Khwarizmi.
Sweet Dew Incident
Sweet Dew Incident occurs. Emperor Wenzong of the Tang Dynasty
conspires to kill the powerful eunuchs of the Tang court, but the plot
839-842: Vlastimir defeats Presian.
840: Death of Louis the Pious.
Dublin is founded on the east coast of
Ireland by the Vikings.
Carolingian Empire is at its height in territory and area.
The three sons of
Louis the Pious
Louis the Pious reach an agreement known as the
Treaty of Verdun
Treaty of Verdun and split the
Carolingian empire into three
East Francia was given to Louis the German,
West Francia to
Charles the Bald
Charles the Bald and
Middle Francia to Lothair I.
Buddhism is persecuted and banned in China.
846 - 859:
Emperor Xuānzong of Tang
Emperor Xuānzong of Tang reigned. He was considered[by
whom?] the last capable emperor of the Tang dynasty.
846 - 11,000
Saracen Arab squadrons from Africa, with 500 horses,
Christian shrines in Rome, including the tombs and basilicas
of Sts. Peter and Paul.
848 – 852: The west bank of the
Tiber is annexed into the city of
Rome. A defensive wall, commissioned by Pope Leo IV, is built around
what came to be called the
Leonine City as a defensive response to the
Saracen desecration of
Rome in 846.
850 – 875: The first Norse settlers arrive on Iceland.
851: The Arab merchant
Sulaiman al-Tajir visits the Chinese seaport at
Guangzhou in southern China, and observes the manufacturing of
porcelain, the Islamic mosque built at Guangzhou, the granary system
of the city, and how its municipal administration functioned.
Prambanan is completed. According to the Shivagrha
inscription, Rakai Pikatan — the husband of
Pramodhawardhani — defeated Balaputra.
859: Muslims establish the
University of Al Karaouine
University of Al Karaouine as a madrasa in
860: Balaputra, the maharaja of Suvarnadvipa and the ruler of
Srivijaya, constructs the Buddhist temple and monastery in Nalanda
India, on the land given by King Devapaladeva. of Pala in Benggala,
according to the
862: The beginning of the
Rurik Dynasty in Rus'.
863: The Chinese author
Duan Chengshi describes the slave trade, ivory
trade, and ambergris trade of
Somalia in East Africa.
Bagratuni Dynasty of
Medieval Armenia begins with Ashot I.
863 – 879: Period of schism between Eastern and Western churches.
864: Christianization of
Bulgaria under Boris I
867: Onward revival of the
Byzantine Empire under the Macedonian
Ahmad ibn Tulun
Ahmad ibn Tulun breaks away from the
Abbasid Caliphate and
establishes the independent
869: An earthquake and tsunami struck Japan's Sanriku coast, killing
870: Christianization of the Serbs.
Prague Castle founded.
871 – 899: Reign of Alfred the Great, first king of the English.
875 – 884:
Huang Chao leads an unsuccessful rebellion against the
Tang Dynasty in China.
Battle of Ethandun
Battle of Ethandun results in the victory of Alfred the Great
over the Danish warlord Guthrum.
885: Arrival of the disciples of Saints Cyril and Methodius, Clement
of Ohrid and
Naum of Preslav
Naum of Preslav in Bulgaria. Development of the Cyrillic
Carolingian Empire declines and falls after the death of
Council of Preslav - Vladimir-Rasate is dethroned and succeeded
as Prince of
Bulgaria by Simeon I; the capital is moved from
Preslav; the Byzantine clergy is expelled and replaced by Bulgarian;
Old Bulgarian becomes the official language of the country.
895/896: The year of the
Magyars arrival in Pannonia. This year is
widely accepted as the beginning of the Hungarian "Landtaking"* Late
Bulgaria stretches from the mouth of the
Danube to Epirus
In Italy, some cities became free republics: for instance Forlì, in
Christian Nubian kingdom reaches its peak of prosperity and
military power. (Early history of Sudan).
Harald Fairhair was victorious at the battle of Hafrsfjord, and Norway
was unified into one kingdom.
Chess reaches Japan.
Medieval Warm Period
Medieval Warm Period begins.
The Coptic period, at its most broad definition, ends.
Koran (Surah II:286 and title Surah III) in kufic script,
from Syria, is made. It is now kept at The Metropolitan Museum of Art,
Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great of Wessex, First King of The English, dies.
9th century –
Pallava dynasty ends in Southern India.
9th century - Womb World mandala, To-ji, Kyoto, is made. Heian
10th century – Bowl with kufic border, from Samarkand,
Uzbekistan, is made. It is now kept at Musée du Louvre, Paris.
Laguna Copperplate Inscription, Kavi script, inscribed in Luzon,
Philippines, dated Saka year
Further information: Category:9th-century people
Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. 10th-century copy of a
lost original from about 830.
Saint Clement of Ohrid
Alfonso III of Asturias, king of Asturias, Galicia and León.
Alfred the Great
Arnulf of Carinthia
Árpád, Grand Prince of the Magyars
Basil I the Macedonian
Basil I the Macedonian (Βασίλειος Α') (811–886), ruled
Boris I of Bulgaria
Empress Irene of Athens
Clement of Ohrid
Harald I of Norway
Ivar the Boneless
Jayarasi Bhatta, philosophical skeptic
Krum, Khan of Bulgaria
Kenneth I of Scotland
Louis the Pious
Naum of Preslav
Ordoño I of Asturias, King of Asturias
Simeon I of Bulgaria
Saints Cyril and Methodius
emperor Theophilus of Amorium
Emperor Xianzong of Tang
Emperor Xuānzong of Tang
Inventions, discoveries, introductions
See also: Timeline of historic inventions § 9th century
First image of a rotary grindstone in a European source—illustration
shows crank, first known use of a crank in the West (Utrecht Psalter,
First known printed book, the Diamond Sutra, printed in
woodblock printing in 868.
Invention of gunpowder by Chinese
Vulgar Latin begins to develop into various Romance languages.
Two syllabaries or kana are developed from simplified Chinese
characters in Japan.
Timeline of 9th-century
^ Apley, Alice. "
Igbo-Ukwu (ca. 9th century)". Metropolitan Museum of
Art. Archived from the original on 4 December 2008. Retrieved
^ a b Dumarçay (1991).
^ a b Paul Michel Munoz (2007). Early Kingdoms of the Indonesian
Archipelago and the Malay Peninsula. Singapore: Didier Millet.
p. 143. ISBN 981-4155-67-5.
^ Soekmono (1976), page 9.
^ Miksic (1990)
^ "Succession of the Carolingian Empire,
843 CE". Cmunce.org. Columbia
Model United Nations Conference and Exposition. Retrieved 24 December
2014. The year is
843 C.E., and the
Carolingian Empire has reached the
peak of its expansion, covering more territory in Western Europe than
any one dynasty since the Roman Empire.
^ Miksic (1997)
^ Soekmono, R, Drs., Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2, 2nd ed.
Penerbit Kanisius, Yogyakarta, 1973, 5th reprint edition in 1988 p.46
Decades and years
7th century ← 8th century ← ↔ → 10th
century → 11th century
Centuries and millennia