4th Infantry Regiment (United States)
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The U.S. 4th Infantry Regiment ("Warriors") is an
infantry Infantry is an army specialization whose military personnel, personnel engage in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and armored warfare, armored forces. Also known as foot soldiers, infantrymen or infanteer, i ...

infantry
regiment in the
United States Army The United States Army (USA) is the land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable over geologic time frames) and consists ma ...
. It has served the United States for approximately two hundred years.


History


Origins

It has been alleged that the regiment traces its lineage to the original Fourth United States Infantry, which was organized as the Infantry of the Fourth Sub-Legion on 4 September 1792, only four years after the adoption of the
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Constitution
. The infantry of the Fourth Sub-Legion fought at Miami Rapids in 1794. In 1796, it was re-designated the Fourth Regiment of the Infantry. After ten years, due to a reduction in the army, the regiment was disbanded in 1802. However, according to the
United States Army Center of Military History The United States Army Center of Military History (CMH) is a directorate within TRADOC Established 1 July 1973, the United States Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) is a major command of the United States Army The United States ...
, this Fourth Infantry was a temporary unit with no lineal connection to either the original permanent 4th Infantry Regiment, or the modern 4th Infantry Regiment. See the lineage of the first 4th US Infantry below.


Northwest Territory Indian Wars

In 1808, the
Regular Army A regular army is the official army of a state or country (the official armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intens ...
was reorganized to meet the growing threat posed by the Indian nations living on the western boundaries of the United States. The first permanent Regular Army unit to bear the designation of 4th Infantry Regiment was constituted on 12 April 1808 in the Regular Army, and organized during May–June 1808 in
New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region In geography ...

New England
. Under the leadership of General , the 4th Infantry, commanded by
Colonel Colonel (; abbreviated as Col., Col or COL) is a senior military officer An officer is a person who has a position of authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social rel ...
John Parker Boyd John Parker Boyd (December 21, 1764 – October 4, 1830) was an officer in the United States Army The United States Army (USA) is the land military branch, service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the eight Uniformed ser ...

John Parker Boyd
, was sent into the Northwest Territories, which included
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Ohio
,
Indiana Indiana () is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern United States. It is the List of U.S. states and territories by area, 38th-largest by area and the List of U.S. states and territories by population, 17th-most populous o ...

Indiana
, and
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Illinois
. Its mission was to eliminate the threat posed by a union of Indian tribes from the surrounding area. The hostile actions of these tribes were effectively stopping settlement of this vast area. General Harrison, who was later to become a
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United States President
, led the 4th Infantry and a force of
militia A militia () is generally an army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the broadest sense, it is the land-b ...
and volunteers against the Indians at . During this battle, the American forces completely routed the Indians, bringing peace to the area, but at a cost of 188 dead. The regiment then returned to , and in 1812, after a trying march through the forests of Ohio, joined forces with General
William Hull William Hull (June 24, 1753 – November 29, 1825) was an American soldier and politician. He fought in the American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American W ...

William Hull
.


War of 1812

Within months of the Battle of Tippecanoe, the United States declared war against
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Great Britain
. This required the increased manning of the Regular Army. The modern 4th Infantry Regiment was constituted 11 January 1812 in the Regular Army as the original 14th Infantry Regiment, and organized in March 1812 in
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Virginia
,
Maryland Maryland ( ) is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware ...

Maryland
,
Delaware Delaware ( ) is a state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Maryland to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean to its east. The state takes i ...
, and
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Pennsylvania
. On 12 July, General Hull crossed with his command into
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Canada
(then
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), and made camp at Sandwich (now
Windsor Windsor may refer to: Places Australia *Windsor, New South Wales ** Municipality of Windsor, a former local government area *Windsor, Queensland, a suburb of Brisbane, Queensland **Shire of Windsor, a former local government authority around Winds ...
), Canada, just on the Canada–US border. The regiment remained inactive for the rest of the month and grew restless. Then the Fourth was given a mission of escorting some supplies into Camp Detroit, previous escorts having been surprised and routed. The Fourth Infantry undertook this duty enthusiastically, and although ambushed at the
Battle of Maguaga The Battle of Maguaga (also known as the Battle of Monguagon or the Battle of the Oakwoods) was a small battle between British troops, Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection ma ...
, fourteen miles below Detroit, by a superior force of British, Canadians, and Indians, the American regulars captured the enemy's concealed breastworks, wounded Chief
Tecumseh Tecumseh (English: ; 1768 – October 5, 1813) was a Shawnee The Shawnee are an Algonquian-speaking indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands Indigenous peoples of the Northeastern Woodlands include Native American tribes Th ...

Tecumseh
, and completely routed their opponents. Before they could follow up on their success and complete the victory, the Fourth received orders from General Hull to return to Detroit. There, the Fourth found out that General Hull had surrendered his entire force to include the Fourth led by Captain Cook to Lieutenant Bullock of the 41st Regiment on 16 August 1812 at
Fort Detroit Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or Fort Detroit (1701–1796) was a fort A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfa ...

Fort Detroit
,
Michigan Michigan () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Michigan
. For this General Hull was tried and found guilty of "Cowardliness" and "Neglect of Duty". President Monroe, mitigating the court-martial sentence that General Hull be shot, ruled: "The rolls of the army shall no longer be debased by having upon them the name of Brigadier General Hull". The Fourth Infantry's colors, taken by the British at the surrender ordered by Hull, were kept in the
Tower of London The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle A castle is a type of structure built during the predominantly by the or royalty and by . Scholars debate the sc ...

Tower of London
until 1889, then the colors for many years hung in the Chapel of the Royal Hospital Chelsea until 1961. Along the walls of the Great Hall are replicas (the original are in the museum). They are currently in the Welch Regiment Museum. After remaining several months in Canada as
prisoners of war A prisoner of war (POW) is a non-combatant Non-combatant is a term of art Jargon is the specialized terminology associated with a particular field or area of activity. Jargon is normally employed in a particular Context (language use), co ...
, the officers and men were returned under parole to Boston and given furloughs until exchanged for British prisoners of war. Early in 1813 the exchange was effective and the regiment reassembled and recruited to strength. It fought at the second Battle of Lacolle Mills, Canada and at
Plattsburgh Plattsburgh is a city in and the county seat, seat of Clinton County, New York, United States. The population was 19,989 at the United States Census, 2010, 2010 census. The population of the unincorporated areas within the surrounding (and separ ...
in 1814. These actions give the 4th Infantry campaign credit for the War of 1812. Following the end of the War of 1812, and consistent with the reduction in force of the Regular Army, the original 4th Infantry Regiment was consolidated on May–October 1815 with the 9th and 13th Infantry (both constituted 11 January 1812), the 21st Infantry (constituted 26 June 1812), the 40th Infantry (constituted 29 January 1813), and the 46th Infantry (constituted 30 March 1814) to form the 5th Infantry Regiment. Thereafter separate lineage. In the same time period the 14th Infantry Regiment was consolidated May–October 1815 with the 18th Infantry Regiment and 20th Infantry Regiment (both constituted 11 January 1812) and the 36th Infantry Regiment and 38th Infantry Regiment (both constituted 29 January 1813) to form the modern 4th Infantry Regiment. On 21 August 1816 unspecified 4th Infantry Regiment companies were redesignated as Companies A and B, 4th Infantry Regiment. These companies would later be instrumental in the reorganization of 4th Infantry Regiment from the original organizational model, which included a headquarters element and 10 lettered companies with no battalion organization. The original Companies A and B would become Headquarters and Headquarters Company 1st and Headquarters and Headquarters Company 2nd Battalion.


Creek and Seminole Campaigns

For the next twenty years, the regiment fought almost constantly with the
Creek A creek is a stream that is usually smaller than a river Creek may refer to: People * Muscogee, also known as Creek, Native Americans * Murder of Amber Creek, Amber Creek (1982–1997), American murder victim * Mitch Creek (born 1992), Austral ...
Indians in Georgia, and the
Seminoles The Seminole are a Native American people originally from Florida Florida (, ) is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. With a population of over 21million, Florida is the L ...
in Florida under the command of General
Andrew Jackson Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845) was an American lawyer, soldier, and statesman who served as the seventh president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of ...

Andrew Jackson
, a future president. In constant and long hardships the regiment marched through swamps, building cantonments and raking roads to open what now is the state of Georgia, Alabama, and Florida. A letter of Gen.
Lorenzo Thomas Lorenzo Thomas (October 26, 1804 – March 2, 1875) was a career United States Army The United States Army (USA) is the land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is s ...

Lorenzo Thomas
stated: "Each company built its own double block of logs and a house of one story for the officers quarters. The troops also saved the boards for flooring, and rived the pine shingles for roofs. In truth, the troops did the entire work, the quartermaster department only furnishing the few tools to work with, such as nails and other hardware. Scarcely a nail was used to secure the shingles, they being hung on the rafters with wooden pegs. The spaces between the logs were chinked with moss and clay and afterward the whole was whitewashed. All completed with scarcely any expense to the government." In December 1835,
Osceola Osceola (1804 – January 30, 1838, Asi-yahola in Muscogee language, Creek), named Billy Powell at birth in Alabama, became an influential leader of the Seminole people in Florida. His mother was Muscogee, and his great-grandfather was a Sc ...

Osceola
's Seminoles cut the line of communication and supply to one of the border stations, Fort King. One hundred artillerymen from
Fort Brooke Fort Brooke was a historical military post situated on the east bank (at the mouth) of the Hillsborough River (Florida), Hillsborough River in present-day Tampa, Florida. The fort was established in 1824, soon after Florida was acquired by the Uni ...

Fort Brooke
under Major Gardner were ordered to re-establish the contact. At the last moment, Major Gardner's bride of a few weeks fell ill. Captain and Brevet-Major Francis L. Dade of the Fourth Infantry took command for Major Gardner. Dade joined the expedition with eleven men of B Company, Fourth Infantry. The march was begun on 20 December; on 28 December, forty miles short of Fort King, Major Dade's column was ambushed by Osceola. The only survivors of the attack were three badly wounded privates who reported the command had fought stubbornly from eight in the morning until five at night when, their ammunition exhausted, they were killed. Those who died or were wounded were: Francis L. Dade, Brevet Maj., Pvt. John Barnes, Pvt. Donald Campbell, Pvt. Marvin Cunningham, Pvt. John Doughty, Pvt. Cornel Donovan, Pvt. William Downes, Pvt. Enoch Yates, Pvt. Samuel Hall, Pvt. Wiley Jones, Pvt. John Massacre, suffering some casualties: Pvt. David Hill was killed at Fort Call on 21 August 1836, Pvt. David Mclaughlin and Pvt. William Walker were killed at Thonotosassa on 26 August 1836, Sgt. Levi Clendening was killed at Chrystal River on 9 February 1837, Pvt. Othiel Lutz, Pvt. John Stewart, and Pvt. Bathol Shumard were killed at Okeechobee on 25 December 1837, and Pvt. William Foster was killed at Big Cypress on 20 December 1841. By 1842, the Fourth Infantry had caught up with the Indians and sent Osceola to a cell at Moutrie in which he would remain until his death. Hostile tribes that lived in these areas fled west of the Mississippi. The death roll of one company for one year includes casualties from the Indians, cholera, and five diagnosed types of fever. The same death roll has the entry "Intemperance" after two more soldier's names. In Orders No. 15, Western Army, 28 August 1832, General
Winfield Scott Winfield Scott (June 13, 1786May 29, 1866) was an American military commander and political candidate. He served as a general in the United States Army The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare, land military branch, service bra ...

Winfield Scott
states:


Mexican–American War

In 1842, the regiment was ordered to
Jefferson Barracks The Jefferson Barracks Military Post is located on the Mississippi River The Mississippi River is the List of longest rivers of the United States (by main stem), second-longest river and chief river of the second-largest Drainage system (geo ...
, Missouri, where after half a century of existence the regiment enjoyed for the first time the comforts of a regular post. The regiment trained at Jefferson barracks for two years when in 1844, it was ordered to the western border of Louisiana for the
war with Mexico War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or paramilitary groups such as Mercenary, mercenaries, Insurgency, insurgents, and militias. It is generally characterized by extreme violence ...

war with Mexico
. Hostilities were precipitated by the murder of Colonel Cross and the killing of a lieutenant with a small detachment of 4th Infantry soldiers by Mexican raiders. Although this happened in April, communications were slow and it was not until September that the command sailed to Corpus Christi, Texas, where with the 3rd, 5th, 7th and 8th Infantry regiments, one artillery regiment acting as infantry, seven companies of dragoons, and four companies of light artillery formed the Army of Observation under General
Zachary Taylor Zachary Taylor (November 24, 1784 – July 9, 1850) was an American military leader who served as the 12th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state A head of state (or c ...

Zachary Taylor
. The pay was seven dollars a month and flogging was the usual means of punishment.
U.S. Grant Ulysses S. Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant ; April 27, 1822July 23, 1885) was an American military officer and politician who served as the 18th president of the United States from 1869 to 1877. As president, Grant was an effective civil ...
, then a lieutenant in the 4th Infantry, stated in his personal memoir: "A more efficient army for its number and armament, I do not believe ever fought a battle than the one commanded by General Taylor in his first two engagements on Mexican--or Texan soil". The Army of Observation soon became the Army of Occupation. On the fields of
Palo Alto Palo Alto (; for "tall stick") is a located in the northwestern corner of , United States, in the . The city is named after a known as . The city was established by when he founded , following the death of his son, Palo Alto includes port ...
, , and at
Monterey Monterey ( es, Monterrey; Ohlone The Ohlone, formerly known as Costanoans (from Spanish ''costeño'' meaning "coast dweller"), are a Native American people of the Northern California Northern California (colloquially known as NorCal) is a ...

Monterey
, where the regimental band of the Fourth threw away their instruments, seized a Mexican light battery, and swung it about upon their fleeing enemy. According to the official citation, the breast cord of honor given them and their successors was red, the artillery's color, to show that they were expert artillerymen as infantrymen. General Taylor had in his command leaders such as Lieutenant
Ulysses S. Grant Ulysses S. Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant; ; April 27, 1822July 23, 1885) was an American military leader who served as the 18th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and he ...

Ulysses S. Grant
and Captain
Robert E. Lee Robert Edward Lee (January 19, 1807 – October 12, 1870) was an American Confederate general best known for his service to the Confederate States of America The Confederate States of America (CSA), commonly referred to as the Co ...

Robert E. Lee
serving as a company commander of engineers. These battles had a great influence in molding the leaders of the
American Civil War The American Civil War (also known by other names Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon novel), ''The Other'' (Tryon nove ...
, which followed. General Taylor having successfully invaded Northern Mexico moved the base of active operations to Vera Cruz on the east coast. In January 1847, the 4th Infantry was taken by sea to the port of Vera Cruz and after a siege, the city capitulated. General Scott commanding the Army at Vera Cruz ordered the advance on the capital,
Mexico City Mexico City ( es, link=no, Ciudad de México, ; abbreviated as CDMX; nah, Āltepētl Mēxihco) is the capital city, capital and largest city of Mexico, as well as the List of North American cities by population, most populous city in North Americ ...
, in April. On 17 April and 18th General Scott's forces moved through the mountain pass at Gerro Gordo, where lost his wooden leg in a hasty retreat. The Mexican soldiers fought well and the pass was won only after desperate attacks.


Garrison duty

At the finish of the war the 4th Infantry left from Vera Cruz, and reached Camp Jeff Davis,
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, on 23 July 1848. The regiment was ordered to proceed by sea to
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and to take station at several different points on the lakes, between and
Plattsburgh Plattsburgh is a city in and the county seat, seat of Clinton County, New York, United States. The population was 19,989 at the United States Census, 2010, 2010 census. The population of the unincorporated areas within the surrounding (and separ ...
. Ordinary garrison duties were performed until June 1852. The regiment was consolidated at
Fort Columbus A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare, and is also used to establish rule in a region during peacetime. The term is derived from Latin ''fortis'' ("strong") and ''facere'' ( ...
, New York, to board the SS ''Ohio'' and travel to Aspinwall, on the Isthmus of
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Panama
on 5 July 1852. Their mission was to travel across the Isthmus of Panama and set up camp on the Pacific coast to protect early settlers of the
Pacific Northwest The Pacific Northwest (PNW) is a geographic region in western North America bounded by its coastal waters of the Pacific Ocean to the west and, loosely, by the Rocky Mountains to the east. Though no official boundary exists, the most common co ...
. After a long journey on the overcrowded ship (1,100 officers, men and camp followers) the regiment safely reached Aspinwall on 16 July 1852. The rainy season was at its height on the Isthmus and cholera was raging. Transportation was lacking for the trip across the Isthmus of Panama, the jungles, mountains, and rivers were difficult to cross; and cholera decimated the organization as well as the families who accompanied the men. The total deaths from cholera, fever, and allied diseases from the time the regiment arrived on the Isthmus to a few weeks after the arrival at
Benicia Benicia ( , ) is a waterside city in Solano County, California Solano County is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Pub ...
on the west coast, amounted to one officer and 106 enlisted men. On arrival on the Pacific coast, the regiment was distributed among many small posts.
Vancouver Barracks Established in 1849, the Vancouver Barracks was the first U.S. Army base located in the Pacific Northwest The Pacific Northwest (PNW), sometimes referred to as Cascadia, is a geographic region in western North America North America ...
, Fort Townsend,
Fort Hoskins Fort Hoskins was one of three "forts" (which were actually unfortified posts) built by the U.S. Army to monitor the Coastal Indian Reservation in Oregon in the mid- 19th century. The Fort Hoskins Site is listed on the National Register of Histori ...
,
Fort Humboldt A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically officially authorized and maintained by a sovereign state, w ...
,
Fort Dalles Fort Dalles was a United States Army The United States Army (USA) is the land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable over ...
,
Fort Steilacoom ''For the adjacent park, see Fort Steilacoom Park'' Fort Steilacoom was founded by the United States Army, U.S. Army in 1849 near Lake Steilacoom. It was among the first military fortifications built by the U.S. north of the Columbia River in what ...
, Fort Jones,
Fort Boise Fort Boise is either of two different locations in the Western United States, western United States, both in Southwestern Idaho, southwestern Idaho. The first was a Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) trading post near the Snake River on what is now the Ore ...
, Fort Lane, Fort Reading, Fort Yamhill, Orford, Fort Walla Walla, Crook, Fort Ter-Waw, Fort Cascades, Fort Simcoe, Fort Gaston, Chehalis, Fort Yuma, and Fort Mojave, Fort Mohave were all garrisoned and many of them built by the 4th Infantry at some time between 1852 and 1861. Major Granville O. Haller of the 4th Infantry led an expedition from
Fort Dalles Fort Dalles was a United States Army The United States Army (USA) is the land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable over ...
into central Washington (state), Washington, and Lieutenant William A. Slaughter also of the 4th Infantry with forty-eight men from
Fort Steilacoom ''For the adjacent park, see Fort Steilacoom Park'' Fort Steilacoom was founded by the United States Army, U.S. Army in 1849 near Lake Steilacoom. It was among the first military fortifications built by the U.S. north of the Columbia River in what ...
crossed Natchez Pass to aid Major Haller when attempts to move the Indians of Puget Sound onto reservations caused trouble between them and some white settlers. Captain Maloney of the 4th Infantry, and Captain Gilmore Hayes of the Washington Volunteers had started for Yakima via Natchez Pass when they were overtaken on 29 October 1855 by the Nisqually (tribe), Nisqually tribe under Chief Leschi. Lt. Slaughter and his men plus Captain Hayes' force met the Indians at the crossing of the White River (Washington), White River, and on 4 November 1855 fought without decisive results. The following day the troops met hostiles in the difficult country between the White and Green River (Washington), Green Rivers. The troops fell back into the valleys and on 24 November 1855, Lt. Slaughter, commanding a platoon of the 4th Infantry and a company of volunteers, was attacked in his camp at Puyallup, Washington, Puyallup. The lieutenant moved to the present site of Auburn, Washington, Auburn and here again the Indians attacked. Slaughter and two corporals of the volunteer company were killed, four other men were injured, one later dying of his wounds. For years the town, which sprang up on this site, was known as Slaughter in honor of this officer of the 4th Infantry; it was later changed to Auburn. During the Puget Sound War, hostilities many settlers had taken refuge at Fort Steilacoom, the woman and children being left there, while the men enrolled in the volunteers. Ezar Meeker, one of the settlers, paid the following tribute to First Lieutenant John Nugen of the Fourth Infantry, commanding Fort Steilacoom while Captain Maloney was in the field. Hostile tribes attacked Battle of Seattle (1856), Seattle on 26 January 1856, and two settlers were killed. Meanwhile, the regular forces were augmented by additional companies of the 4th Infantry from Vancouver Barracks and by three companies of the U.S. 9th Infantry Regiment, 9th Infantry. On 12 February 1856, they moved from Fort Steilacoom and were joined by Chief Patkanim with friendly Indians. This force advanced against the hostiles at Muckleshoot, losing one man and nine wounded, in a second battle on the White River overrunning the Indian encampment. Leshi retreated through Natches Pass and surrendered to Colonel. George Wright (general), Wright, the commanding officer of the 4th Infantry, who had been conducting a vigorous campaign against the Yakima Indians and their allies, while the action in the west was occurring. By the close of the Leschi War, the 4th Infantry included in its present and past roster of officers such as Robert C. Buchanan, Christopher C. Augur, Alden, William Wallace Smith Bliss,
Ulysses S. Grant Ulysses S. Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant; ; April 27, 1822July 23, 1885) was an American military leader who served as the 18th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and he ...

Ulysses S. Grant
, Philip Sheridan, Henry M. Judah, DeLancey Floyd-Jones, R.N. Scott, Lewis Cass Hunt, Granville O. Haller, Henry C. Hodges, Waller, David Allen Russell, Henry Prince, Benjamin Alvord (mathematician), Benjamin Alvord, August Kautz, Robert Macfeely and George Crook. Many of these officers would later serve in the
American Civil War The American Civil War (also known by other names Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon novel), ''The Other'' (Tryon nove ...
. In 1859, General William S. Harney ordered the occupation of San Juan Island as part of the territory of the United States. Three companies of the Fourth Infantry and one of the Ninth, under the command of Captain George Pickett, did the occupying. The British commander had under his command five men-of-war with 167 guns, and 2,000 sailors and marines. The British invited an officer of the Fourth to an official party of courtesy aboard the flagship. The American made a remark concerning a battle in the ongoing Second Italian War of Independence. It was September 1859; Magenta had been fought 4 June. The British, thus believed the Americans had more current information. With the memory of Pakenham's losses at New Orleans (in a battle fought after the war was ended) fresh in their minds, the British decided to wait. As it happened, the English commander was really the best informed man on the scene, as was proved by the subsequent arrival of General
Winfield Scott Winfield Scott (June 13, 1786May 29, 1866) was an American military commander and political candidate. He served as a general in the United States Army The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare, land military branch, service bra ...

Winfield Scott
with orders which vetoed General Harney's decision. The San Juan troops were quietly withdrawn, without bloodshed. This incident in Puget Sound is called the Pig War (1859), Pig War.


Civil War

In 1861 with the secession of a number of Southern states to form the new Confederate States of America, the regiment moved from its dispersed posts in the Department of the Pacific to Southern California to suppress any secessionist uprising. Charged with the supervision of Los Angeles County, Los Angeles, San Bernardino County, San Bernardino, San Diego County, San Diego, and Santa Barbara County, Santa Barbara Counties, on 14 August 1861, Major William Scott Ketchum made a rapid march on 26 August and encamped near San Bernardino, California, with Companies D and G, later reinforced at the beginning of September by a detachment of ninety First U.S. Dragoons and a howitzer. Except for frequent sniping at his camp, this move stifled a secessionist uprising and prevented secessionist political demonstrations during the September California gubernatorial elections in San Bernardino County. In late October 1861 the regiment was relieved by California in the American Civil War#Regiments of the California Volunteers in Federal Service, California Volunteer units and marched to San Pedro, Los Angeles, California, San Pedro harbor where they waited for the balance of the regiment to gather before being transported to Washington D.C. to become part of the garrison in defense of the capital. The regiment was organized with other
Regular Army A regular army is the official army of a state or country (the official armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intens ...
units in the Volunteer Army as the First Brigade of George Sykes's "Regular Division" of the V Corps (ACW), V Corps. The regiment's first Civil War engagement was in April and May 1862 during the Battle of Yorktown (1862), Siege of Yorktown. By quick action at the Battle of Gaines Mill in June 1862, the Regulars saved Wood's and Tidball's artillery batteries from capture by Confederate States Army, Confederate infantry. It participated as a part of the Army of the Potomac in the Second Battle of Bull Run and then the subsequent Maryland Campaign. At the Battle of Antietam, the regulars held the Middle Bridge over Antietam Creek, guarding the vital passage. They advanced towards the Confederate-held town of Sharpsburg, Maryland, late in the afternoon of 17 September 1862, before being recalled to their lines. After seeing limited action at the Battle of Fredericksburg in December 1862, the regiment went into winter camp and saw no further combat for months. It formed part of Joseph Hooker's rear guard at Battle of Chancellorsville, Chancellorsville. Throughout the Gettysburg Campaign, the regiment served in the Regular Division under its newly promoted commander, Romeyn B. Ayres. During the Battle of Gettysburg, it was part of the fighting on the Battle of Gettysburg, Second Day#Wheatfield, Second Day, helping push back Confederate infantry near Devil's Den and the Wheatfield. Heavily depleted by battle casualties, the much-reduced regiment nevertheless continued to participate in the major campaigns of the Army of the Potomac, by 1864 under the command of
Ulysses S. Grant Ulysses S. Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant; ; April 27, 1822July 23, 1885) was an American military leader who served as the 18th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and he ...

Ulysses S. Grant
during the Overland Campaign. The remaining men participated in the battles of Battle of the Wilderness, Wilderness, Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, Spotsylvania Court House, Battle of Cold Harbor, Cold Harbor, and the Siege of Petersburg. By the time the regiment manned the breastworks around Petersburg, a lieutenant, George Randall, was in command as the senior officer still present for duty. On 22 June 1864, with less than 150 men left, the 4th Infantry reported to City Point, Virginia, to become Gen.
Ulysses S. Grant Ulysses S. Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant; ; April 27, 1822July 23, 1885) was an American military leader who served as the 18th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and he ...

Ulysses S. Grant
's headquarters guard. The greatly reduced regiment was present at Appomattox Court House National Historical Park, Appomattox Courthouse for
Robert E. Lee Robert Edward Lee (January 19, 1807 – October 12, 1870) was an American Confederate general best known for his service to the Confederate States of America The Confederate States of America (CSA), commonly referred to as the Co ...

Robert E. Lee
's surrender. Grant, then commanding the armies of the Union, never forgot the 4th Infantry, with which he had served as a lieutenant in Mexico and on the frontier. As recognition of its valor during the Civil War, he designated it as the guard unit during the formal surrender ceremony. Survivors of the 4th U.S. Infantry marched in the grand review of troops in Washington D.C. in May 1865, immediately following the war.


Post–Civil War

After the Civil War, the regiment returned to the West, now to Fort Laramie, Wyoming Territory in 1866. In 1867 the 4th Infantry built Fort Fetterman near present-day Douglas, Wyoming, completing it in July, garrisoning it, and making the new fort the regiment's headquarters. On 31 March 1869 the 4th Infantry was consolidated with the original 30th Infantry Regiment (United States), 30th United States Infantry Regiment, and the resulting consolidation retained the 4th Infantry's designation. Companies A and B of each organization were carefully blended together to retain their original status. On 9 December 1869, Private Jonathan Schewen of the regiment was killed in an Indian attack at the Horse River, in Wyoming Territory, and in 1871, a detachment of the 4th Infantry was sent to Louisville, Kentucky and split into small groups to chivvy moonshiners in Kentucky until 1872. On 4 March 1876, Sergeant Patrick Sullivan of the 4th was ambushed and murdered by outlaws at Fort Fetterman. In March 1876, Companies C, and I of the 4th Infantry accompanied Brigadier General George Crook, George R. Crook's Big Horn Expedition, and on 5 March 1876, participated in the Fort Reno Skirmish near the abandoned Fort Reno (Wyoming), Fort Reno, in Wyoming Territory. In May and June 1876, Companies D, and F of the 4th Infantry Regiment were with General Crook's southern column and fought at the Battle of Prairie Dog Creek (1876), Battle of Prairie Dog Creek on 10 June 1876, and at the Battle of the Rosebud on 17 June 1876, where Crook ordered the five Infantry companies that were present to advance to bluffs overlooking Rosebud Creek in support of his Indian scouts. The men of Company D, 4th Infantry, under Captain Avery B. Cain, were first to reach the crest of the ridge north of the Rosebud, where they opened fire. Company F, of the 4th Infantry, and Companies C, G, and H, of the 9th Infantry Regiment (United States), 9th United States Infantry Regiment, supported Company D's charge. The success of these five Infantry companies was critical to the outcome of the Battle of the Rosebud. Their enhanced firepower kept the Sioux and Cheyenne warriors at bay, while soldiers of the 2nd Cavalry Regiment (United States), 2nd United States Cavalry Regiment, and 3d Cavalry Regiment (United States), 3rd United States Cavalry Regiment fought in support. On 29 September 1879, Major Thomas T. Thornburgh of the 4th Infantry, and 12 other soldiers were killed by Indians in the Meeker massacre at the Milk River, in Colorado. In 1892 and 1893, the 4th Infantry under the command of Colonel Robert Hall escorted Coxey's Army through Washington (state), Washington and Idaho to guard the Northern Pacific Railway from Coxey's men.


Spanish–American War, Philippine–American War years

In 1898, the Fourth went east and embarked from Tampa, Florida, Tampa to Cuba on the steamer "Concho". Landing at Daiquiri, the regiment participated in the Battle of El Caney and the occupation of Santiago de Cuba, Santiago. Fever decimated the command and the campaign ended. The Fourth returned to New York in August 1898. Quickly recruited at Fort Sheridan, the regiment sailed in January 1899 for Manila via the Suez Canal. In March 1899 the Infantry regiments were reorganized with twelve, rather than the traditional ten, line companies. The twelve companies were organized into three four company battalions, each commanded by a major. The Fourth Infantry, or units of it, participated in fights of La Loma church, Wariquima, Dismarinias, Imus, Puento Julien, and elsewhere in the Philippines, finally capturing Lt. Mariano Trías, General Trias, second in command to Emilio Aguinaldo, Aquinaldo. On 20 November 1899, Private John C. Wetherby, Co. L, 4th Infantry, was near Imus, Luzon, Philippines when he was wounded carrying important orders on the battlefield, unable to walk, he crawled a great distance in order to deliver his orders. Private Wetherby received the Medal of Honor for his actions. On 2 July 1901, 2Lt Allen J. Greer of the 4th Infantry was near Majada, Laguna (province), Laguna Province, Philippines when he charged alone an insurgent outpost with his pistol, killing one, wounding two, and capturing three insurgents with their rifles and equipment. For his actions, 2Lt. Greer received the Medal of Honor. On 23 November 1901, 1LT. Louis J. Van Schaick, was pursuing a band of insurgents, near Nasugbu, Batangas, Philippines, and was the first to emerge from a canyon, and seeing a column of insurgents and fearing they might turn and attack his men as they emerged one by one from the canyon, galloped forward and closed with the insurgents, thereby throwing them into confusion until the arrival of others of the detachment. 1Lt. Van Schaick received the Medal of Honor for his actions. In 1902, the regiment returned to San Francisco, having circled the globe. The regiment returned to the Philippines for another tour from 1903 until 1906. In October 1906 the regiment moved to Wyoming in time to stop the Ute Tribe, Ute uprising, its last campaign against hostile Indians. In 1908, the regiment was ordered to the Philippines for a third time, remaining until 1910. Border War (1910–19), Trouble with Mexico caused the regiment to be stationed on the Texas border in 1913. On 1 January 1914 the regiment was at Galveston, Texas, as part of the 5th Brigade, 2nd Division where it had been since February 1913. The regiment was in Houston for 21 April parade commemorating the Battle of San Jacinto when it received orders on 20 April to return to Galveston where it embarked on the Army transport on 24 April bound for Veracruz, Veracruz, Veracruz arriving 28 April to relieve Navy occupation forces. The regiment camped at Los Cocos Station, practically the same ground it had occupied in the U.S.-Mexican War of 1847, sixty-seven years before. Pvt. Herman C. Moore, 4th Infantry Regiment was killed during this conflict in October 1915.


World War I

In 1917, the United States entered World War I. On 1 October 1917, the Fourth was assigned to the 3rd Infantry Division (United States), 3rd Infantry Division. Stationed at Fort Brown, Texas, the regiment recruited and trained up to strength and on the first anniversary of the American entry into the war, left for France. The Fourth Infantry disembarked at Brest, France, Brest, France in 1918 and participated in the defensive actions of Aisne, Château-Thierry, Second Battle of the Marne, and in the Third Battle of the Aisne, Battle of Saint-Mihiel, Saint-Mihiel, Meuse-Argonne offensives under the command of Colonel Halstead Dorey. The entire regiment was decorated with the French Croix de guerre 1914–1918 (France), Croix de Guerre, having lost eighty percent of its men, under constant and grueling fire during thirty days on the line; the regiment was relieved by the 60th Infantry. On 7 October 1918 near Cunel, France, PFC John L. Barkley, Co. K, 4th Infantry was stationed in an observation post half a kilometer from the German line, on his own initiative repaired a captured enemy machinegun and mounted it in a disabled French tank near his post. Shortly afterward, when the enemy launched a counterattack against American forces, PFC Barkley got into the tank, waited under the hostile barrage until the enemy line was abreast of him and then opened fire, completely breaking up the counterattack and killing and wounding a large number of the enemy. Five minutes later an enemy 77-millimeter gun opened fire on the tank pointblank. One shell struck the drive wheel of the tank, but this soldier nevertheless remained in the tank and after the barrage ceased broke up a second enemy counterattack, thereby enabling American forces to gain and hold Hill 25. PFC Barkley received the Medal of Honor for his actions. After a rest which the organization received six hundred replacements, it was marched to a position in the Forest De Passe, and on 9 November 1918, received orders to be ready on a moments notice. The men knew they were to take part in the final drive to encircle Metz in the event the Germans did not accept terms of the proposed armistice. Preparations were being made for the departure on the morning of 11 November, when the end of the war was heralded by the French villagers. The Fourth Infantry served as part of the Army of Occupation in France, until 1919. After returning to the United States, the Fourth Infantry was stationed at Camp Pike, Arkansas, and then moved to Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Camp Lewis, Washington, the site of which was part of the tribal grounds of Chief Leschi, the regiment's enemy in 1855–56. In June 1922, the regimental headquarters, headquarters and service companies and second battalion of the regiment were sent to Fort George Wright, Washington, while the other two battalions occupied Fort Missoula, Montana and Fort Lawton, Washington. On 19 February 1925 the unit was permitted to wear the red-green-red distinctive unit insignia.


Alaska defense

In 1927, the Third Battalion at Fort Lawton moved to Fort Lincoln (Washington, D.C.), Fort Lincoln, Maryland. After maneuvers in California in 1940, the 3rd battalion was redesigned as part of the 15th Infantry. Cadre made up a new 3rd Battalion from the remainder of the regiment and the transfer of two companies of the 32nd Infantry Regiment (United States), 32nd Infantry at Fort William H. Seward, Chilkoot Barracks, Alaska. The 1st battalion, 4th Infantry pioneered military development of the strategic Alaskan territory. The rest of the regiment arrived at Anchorage shortly after and started clearing ground for what became Fort Richardson (Alaska), Fort Richardson. It was the first organization of such size to arrive in Alaska. The Fourth formed the nucleus for the Alaska Defense Command, to deter a Japanese invasion of Alaska. The Japanese began to build up forces on the southernmost Alaskan Islands and the Fourth's major battle of the war was the Battle of Attu, a Japanese held island. On 8 May 1943 soldiers of the Fourth climbed over the sides of their transport ships to land on Massacre Bay (Alaska), Massacre Bay. Major John D. O'Reilly of Seattle, battalion commander, who was later to receive a battlefield promotion to lieutenant colonel, reported to Major General Landrem. Carrying extra rations and ammunition, the troops marched to engage the enemy less than 24 hours after landing. On Attu Island, the First Battalion fought the Japanese at altitudes of 2000 feet on snow-covered mountains. Moving north along the high west ridge of Chichagof Valley on 21 May 1943 the battalion came up against strong enemy opposition from machine gun and sniper positions. Later that day, the battalion moved along the ridge to a point where visual contact was established with other American forces that had proceeded inland from the Holtz Bay area, on the opposite side of the island. After five straight days of strong enemy opposition, the First Battalion was pulled to the rear for rest and to prepare for their next mission. After a day's rest, the First Battalion was given the task of clearing entrenched Japanese defenders from the high peaks of Fish Hook Ridge. Covered only by mortar and machine gun fire, troops of Company A scaled steep cliffs while facing heavy enemy fire. Small groups of soldiers were clearly visible as they slowly inched their way up to the enemy held peaks. Many were wounded or killed, but the battalion on 27 May 1943 finally took a portion of a high rock on the northeast end of the ridge, giving them a commanding position overlooking the main ridge running east toward the Chichagof Valley. The fighting continued into the night and by 1900 hours on the next day, the 4th Infantry had accomplished its mission. The Presidential Unit Citation was awarded to the 1st Battalion for its heroism during the attack on the peaks. The next day, the American invasion force engaged and defeated 1,000 Japanese in a suicide counter-attack near Sarana Valley. The Fourth was given the task of combing the area of Chichagof Valley by active patrolling, hunting out and capturing or killing Japanese stragglers. This was the last engagement with the Japanese for the regiment. The Japanese had been driven from Alaska's Aleutian Islands. In the fighting the regiment lost approximately five officers and sixty enlisted men. 2nd Battalion, 4th Infantry participated in a large troop movements by air. Early on the morning of 19 June 1942 the battalion was ordered to move to Nome, Alaska, near the edge of the Arctic Circle, where unidentified planes were flying threatening an invasion. Only a small number of army transport planes were available. The situation was critical and orders required that the vanguard of the force, 20 anti-aircraft guns and their crews, be in Nome within 24 hours. All civilian air traffic in Alaska was stopped that day and every suitable airplane in the vicinity was requisitioned for the movement. The fleet of planes included Stinsons, Bellancas, and two old Ford Tri-motors. By midnight of the same day, after 39 individual trips, the anti-aircraft units had been moved to Nome and the big shuttle movement was under way. Despite weather that kept the planes on the ground part of the time, the entire force and all its equipment, with the exception of big field guns and similar heavy equipment, was transported to Nome in a period of 18 days. The movement would have been completed in a week had it not been for the unfavorable weather conditions. Cargo-carrying commercial planes coming in from China were used to supplement the air armada. The midnight sun, providing almost full 24 hours of daylight, made it possible for some of the planes to make two trips in a single day. Ammunition, rations, tents, even 37 millimeter guns and field kitchens, everything necessary to make the force self-sufficient were moved by air without one accident. Heavy weapons were brought up later by boat. The troops stepped out of the planes in Nome, equipped and ready to fight. The total flights came to 218. The troops maneuvered in weather from 20 to 35 degrees below zero. They found that none of the elaborate footgear provided by the army protected their feet as well as the native Mukluk, made by the Eskimos from deer and the hide of sealskins. The 2nd Battalion remained in Nome for a year, later moving to the Aleutians. First to Dutch Harbor then to Adak, where they experienced other types of bad weather. The 3rd Battalion, which included two companies that were stationed at Chikoot Barracks for many years before the war, helped to establish two big bases, Fort Richardson (Alaska), Fort Richardson and Ladd Field. On 2 December 1943, the 4th returned to the Lower 48, and after consolidating the regiment at Fort Lewis, Washington, it moved on 23 January 1944 to Fort Benning, Georgia, where it was assigned to the United States Army Infantry School, United States Army Replacement and School Command. On 1 November 1945, the 4th Infantry was assigned to the 25th Infantry Division. The incumbent personnel and equipment were reassigned to the 4th Infantry Division (United States), 4th Infantry Division, which was at Camp Butner, North Carolina, while the regimental records and accouterments were forwarded to Japan to establish a unit for occupation duty. This iteration of the 4th Infantry Regiment was inactivated on 31 January 1947, at Osaka, Japan. The records and accouterments were returned to the United States and the 4th Infantry Regiment was relieved from assignment to the 25th Division on 1 February 1947.


NATO mission

The 4th was again activated on 1 October 1948 at Fort Lewis, Washington, as the 4th Regimental combat team, Regimental Combat Team. It served in this assignment for six years with, the 1st Battalion being sent to Fort Richardson (Alaska), Ft. Richardson, Alaska, and participating in Operation Sweetbrier, an exercise to determine if Alaska could be defended if an attack from the Soviet Union came from over the pole. It was then was assigned as an organic element of the 71st Infantry Division (United States), 71st Infantry Division on 10 October 1954. On 15 September 1956, the 4th Infantry was assigned to the 4th Regimental Combat Team for the second time in this capacity and served for nearly a year. On 1 July 1957, the colors of Company B were relieved from assignment to the 4th Regimental Combat Team, reorganized and redesigned Headquarters Company, 2nd Battle Group, 4th Infantry, and assigned as an organic element of the 3d Infantry Division with duty station at Fort Benning, Georgia. The remaining companies and a mortar battery to comprise the 2d Battle Group, 4th Infantry were organized for the 1st and 2d Battalions, 15th Infantry which were already stationed at Fort Benning. On 22 July 1957, Colonel Seymore B. Satterwhite assumed command of the 2nd Battle Group, 4th Infantry and by 20 July all personnel of the battle group were thoroughly oriented on the ROCID concept. By 15 September 1957 the battle group had completed its organization under ROCID TO&E 7-11T, 1956, thus cadre training commenced in preparation for receiving 1,189 new soldiers straight from civilian life that would bring the unit to combat strength. The 2d Battle Group, 4th Infantry received the first 26 men on 12 November 1957. The remainder of the men arrived shortly after, and all of the men completed their basic training in time to go on leave for Christmas. When they returned in January, training was resumed, and training of all phases was completed by 3 April 1958. On 15 February 1958, it officially was reorganized and redesignated Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 2nd Battle Group, 4th Infantry and assigned to the U.S. 3rd Infantry Division. On that same date, the 1st Battle Group, 4th Infantry was assigned to the separate 2d Infantry Brigade. Embarkation leaves were held during April, and on 13 May 1958, the 2d Battle Group, 4th Infantry boarded the USNS Rose for Bremerhaven, Germany. The unit arrived in Bremerhaven on 22 May 1958 and reached Bamberg on 24 May 1958. On 2 April 1962, the 1st Battle Group, 4th Infantry was inactivated at Fort Devens, Massachusetts. On 18 April 1963 the 2d Battle Group, 4th Infantry was relieved from assignment to the 3d Infantry Division and the 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry was redesignated and assigned to the 3d Infantry Division. On 3 June 1963, the 2d Battle Group, 4th Infantry was inactivated in Germany and on 5 June 1963 the 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry was activated. The 2d Battle Group, 4th Infantry would later be activated (21 July 1969) as the 2d Battalion, 4th Infantry at Fort Campbell, Kentucky. The 3d Battle Group, 4th Infantry (Army Reserve) would become the 3d Battalion, 4th Infantry and be inactivated at Fairfield, Illinois, on 31 December 1965. In 1965, the 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry joined the 3d Brigade, 3d Infantry Division in Aschaffenburg, Germany. Taking part in the many REFORGER training exercises in Germany. The battalion was named "Warrior" Battalion in 1966 to commemorate the long service by the regiment between fighting wars and later protecting Indians in Florida, the Pacific Northwest, and the Great Plains. In May 1983, the 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry began to reorganize to the Division 86 concept in the Army of Excellence program by President Ronald Reagan, with the expectation of stopping a Soviet invasion of West Germany at the "Hofsburg Throat." This caused the battalion to expand to four rifle companies, an anti-armor company and a very large headquarters and headquarters company. In May 1984, the 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry began to transition to the M2 Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle. The transition was completed in August 1984. In the late 1980s the government again began to reduce the armed forces and the 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry was listed for inactivation, which took place on 16 December 1987 and the unit was relieved from assignment to the 3d Infantry Division. However, the battalion until then known as 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry (Warrior Battalion), then stationed in Aschaffenburg Germany, was reflagged as the 4th Battalion, 7th Infantry (Fighting Fourth), and remained in place as part of the 3d Brigade, 3d Infantry Division. In the summer of 1990, Company C moved from its Pershing II mission and provided security for Operation Steel Box/Golden Python (chemical weapons retrograde from Germany) at Miesau Army Depot. The unit deployed to secure the temporary storage area at the Miesau rail head, guarding over 100,000 toxic chemical artillery projectiles in steel shipping containers. Company C received the Army Superior Unit Award for flawless execution of this security mission. In November 1990, Company C was the first of the 2nd Battalion units to move to the CMTC – Hohenfels, Germany to reactivate as Company C, 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry and assume role as OPFOR. The 2d Battalion, 4th Infantry was inactive until 2004 when it was reactivated at Fort Polk, Louisiana, as part of the 4th Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division. The 2d Battalion, 4th Infantry deployed to Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom in 2006. The 3d Battalion, 4th Infantry Regiment was reactivated on 16 October 2009 in Germany as part of the 170th Infantry Brigade


Pershing


2nd Battalion, 4th Infantry Regiment

Reorganized and redesignated 15 February 1958 as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 2nd Battle Group, 4th Infantry, and assigned to the 3rd Infantry Division (organic elements concurrently constituted and activated),Battle Group relieved 18 April 1963 from assignment to the 3rd Infantry Division, Inactivated 3 June 1963 in West Germany. Redesignated 21 July 1969 as the 2nd Battalion, 4th Infantry, and activated at Fort Campbell, Kentucky. On 18 September 1970 the battalion was assigned to the 56th Field Artillery Brigade headquartered in Schwäbisch Gmünd, West Germany. Headquarters and Headquarters Company (HHC) and Company A were garrisoned at Flak Kaserne in Ludwigsburg. Company B was at Nelson Barracks in Neu Ulm and Company C was at Artillery Kaserne in Heilbronn. HHC moved to Nelson Barracks in Neu Ulm in 1971. Company A moved to Wilkins Barracks in Kornwestheim, then to Nelson Barracks in Neu Ulm in 1986. Company C moved to Wharton Barracks in Heilbronn in 1971. By 1974 HHC was at Wilkins Barracks in Kornwestheim, as was battalion headquarters. The unit defended the missile battalions from intruding protesters of the Nationalist Green Party and other elements. The mission of the 2d Battalion, 4th Infantry was to provide armed security, including patrols, of the Pershing nuclear missiles and missile storage sites; Muetlangen was the Missile Storage Site, and Inneringen (Company A), Von Steuben (Company B), and Red Leg (Company C) were the 3 Combat Alert Sites (CAS). Additional duties included protecting Pershing nuclear systems during field operations and dealing with numerous anti-nuclear protests, as well as a rigorous infantry training schedule. Initially, HHC (Hurons) and Company A (Apaches or Alpha) were stationed at Wilkins Barracks in Kornwestheim, outside of Stuttgart; Company B (Blackfeet) was stationed at Nelson Kaserne in Neu Ulm; and, Company C (Cherokees) was stationed at Wharton Barracks and ultimately moved to Badenerhof Kaserne, both in Heilbronn. HHC and Company A were relocated to Nelson Kaserne in Neu Ulm at some point. The 2nd Battalion, 4th Infantry participated in major exercises each winter at training areas such as Baumholder, Hohenfels, Wildflecken, and Grafenwoehr. This helped to prepare the unit for encounters with Warsaw Pact military forces in the event of an assault on the missile sites. This was considered a very real possibility during the years of the Cold War. In addition each of the line companies rotated each year to Doughboy City, Berlin to train in military operations in an urban terrain (MOUT). On 18 August 1971, soldiers from the heavy mortar platoon from battalion headquarters were being transported from Ludwigsburg to Grafenwoehr for live fire training exercises aboard a CH-47A helicopter. The helicopter crashed and exploded, killing all 38 on board, including four members of the 4th Aviation Company. On 17 January 1986 the battalion was withdrawn from the Combat Arms Regimental System and reorganized under the United States Army Regimental System. The signing of the Intermediate Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty (1987), the fall of the Berlin Wall 1989, and the demise of the Soviet Union (1991) signaled the end of the Cold War and resulted in the eventual inactivation of the 2d Battalion, 4th Infantry. On 15 May 1991, the 56th Field Artillery Command and all its subordinate units were inactivated.


OPFOR role

On 16 November 1990, 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry was assigned as the Opposing force, Opposing Force (OPFOR) at the Combat Maneuver Training Center (CMTC), Hohenfels, Bavaria, Hohenfels, Germany. The battalion consists of three rifle companies, a tank company, a Combat Support Company, and a headquarters and headquarters company. The combat support company was disbanded in 1995 and the platoons reassigned to the HHC. In order to support the United States Army Europe, USAREUR commander's training strategy the battalion portrays a brigade tactical group or an insurgency that challenges all the battlefield operating systems of rotational units in force-on-force situations. The battalion has trained units deploying to Bosnia, Kosovo, Iraqi, and Afghanistan during high intensity conflict rotations, and mission readiness exercises. Additionally, the battalion has deployed forces to other countries to take part in training exercises to include the training of security forces for the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Greece. In addition to its OPFOR mission, the battalion has the same training requirements as other infantry battalions in the army. The battalion conducts squad external evaluations, tank gunnery, antitank gunnery, training for urban operations, marksmanship, and live fire exercises.


Afghanistan

In August 2004 the battalion deployed Company A to War in Afghanistan (2001–present), Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. Team Apache was awarded the Meritorious Unit Commendation (MUC) for its service as the only US force in the International Security Assistance Force from August to December 2004. The MUC citation reads: During the period of 31 August to 12 December 2004, Company A, 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry distinguished themselves while in support of the International Security Assistance Force operations led by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in Afghanistan. They provided superb support to coalition forces supporting a safe and successful Afghanistan National Presidential Election. Throughout the operation the company performed as a lethal, responsive, and relevant combat force directly responsible for supporting security and stabilization forces in theater. Their ability to respond to crisis was superb. Company A, 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry's efforts reflect great credit upon themselves, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and the United States Army. In August 2005 the battalion deployed Company D to Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. Team Dragon was used as a force protection company for the newly formed Afghanistan elections. Team Dragon was awarded the Joint Meritorious Unit Commendation for its service. Most of Team Dragon returned November 2006. During 2006, the 2d Battalion, 4th Infantry formed the core of a task force that deployed to Zabol Province in eastern Afghanistan for Operation Enduring Freedom. Along with other elements of the 4th Brigade, 10th Mountain Division, 2–4 Infantry and TF Boar conducted combat operations in support of Combined Forces Command Afghanistan and the International Security Assistance Force. Starting in July 2006 and ended in January 2011, the 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry relieved its sister battalion in Zabol Province, Afghanistan, as part of ISAF's assumption of responsibility for the province. As part of TF Zabul, nominally under Romanian command, 1–4 maintained a reinforced infantry company in the mountainous northern regions of the province, responsible for all combat operations in that area. The battalion rotated companies every 7 to 8 months, starting with C Company, followed in turn by B, A, and D companies. While each task force was deployed, the remaining companies of 1–4 continued their OPFOR mission in Hohenfels, Germany as well as training for their next combat mission in Afghanistan. 2–4 Infantry deployed again in late 2007 to Iraq with 4th Brigade, 10th Mountain Division, this time for 15 months as part of the "surge" strategy. Their deployment ended January 2009. 2–4 Infantry once again deployed to Afghanistan in 2010 under 4th Brigade, 10th Mountain Division in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. As of 7 January 2011 the 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry has halted all deployments to Afghanistan after Company C's return, and it now serves only as the OPFOR unit for Hohenfels, Germany. Company C, 2-4 conducted combat operations in support of Operation Enduring Freedom XX in 3 different provinces including Logar, Wardak and Kabul. They were spread out into 7 different village stability outposts while directly supporting 7 different ODAs and 3 separate United States Navy SEALs, Navy SEAL teams. They completed a 9-month deployment in spring of 2014.


Operations in Germany

An article in the edition of 23 February 2012 of the ''Stars & Stripes'' reported the removal of 17 officers and NCOs from 3d Squadron (Recon & Surveillance), 108th Cavalry Regiment of the 560th Battlefield Surveillance Brigade (Georgia ARNG) during a peacekeeping mission in Kosovo "following an Army investigation into allegations about harsh tactics used to initiate junior troops." The article also stated that "Because so many of the Georgian company's leaders were pulled from their positions, USAREUR recently deployed two Army platoons and a command team from the Hohenfels-based 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry to support the company, [Lieutenant General] Hertling said." An article in the edition of 27 June 2014 of the ''Stars & Stripes'' noted the inactivation of Company D, the armored element of the 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry Regiment at a ceremony conducted in Hohenfel
2 Bavarian units deactivate in dual ceremonies


Operation Inherent Resolve

2018 - 2019


Lineage


First Battalion

* Constituted 12 April 1808 in the Regular Army as the 4th Infantry * Organized May–June 1808 in
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New England
. * Consolidated May–October 1815 with the 9th and 13th Infantry (both constituted 11 January 1812), the 21st Infantry (constituted 26 June 1812), the 40th Infantry (constituted 29 January 1813), and the 46th Infantry (constituted 30 March 1814) to form the 5th Infantry Regiment. Thereafter separate lineage.


Second Battalion

* Constituted 11 January 1812 in the Regular Army as the 14th Infantry Regiment * Organized in March 1812 in
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Virginia
(recruited from eastern and western counties),
Maryland Maryland ( ) is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware ...

Maryland
,
Delaware Delaware ( ) is a state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Maryland to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean to its east. The state takes i ...
and
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. * Consolidated May–October 1815 with the 18th and 20th Infantry (both constituted 11 January 1812) and the 36th and 38th Infantry (both constituted 29 January 1813) to form the 4th Infantry Regiment. * 21 August 1816 Unspecified 4th Infantry Regiment companies redesignated as Companies A and B, 4th Infantry Regiment. * Consolidated in March 1869 with the 30th Infantry (see 30th Infantry Regiment below) and consolidated unit designated as the 4th Infantry Regiment as follows: :Company A, 4th infantry Regiment Consolidated with Company A, 30th Infantry Regiment :Company B, 4th Infantry Regiment Consolidated with Company B, 30th Infantry Regiment * Assigned 1 October 1917 to the 3rd Infantry Division (United States), 3d Division, and reorganized as follows: :Company A reorganized and redesignated as HHC, 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry Regiment. :Company B reorganized and redesignated as HHC, 2nd Battalion, 4th Infantry Regiment. * Regiment Stationed at the start of World War II at Fort George Wright Walsh, Washington. * Regiment moved to Fort Ord, California, on 22 January 1940 to join the 3rd Division. * Relieved 15 May 1940 from assignment to the 3d Division, and participated in World War II as a separate infantry regiment. * Regiment returned to Fort George Wright Walsh on 23 May 1940, and the location remained the regimental garrison while its units rotated in and out of Fort Lewis, Washington, between 1 August 1940 and 26 August 1940. * Regiment Deployed from the Seattle Port of Embarkation on 24 December 1940. * Regiment arrived at Anchorage, Alaska, on 3 January 1941, where it was assigned to the Alaska Defense Command. * Regiment arrived on Kodiak Island on 23 November 1942. * Regiment arrived on Unalaska Island on 30 November 1942. * Regiment posted to Adak Island on 8 December 1942. * Regiment Assaulted Attu Island on 11 May 1943, and participated in the Battle For Fish Hook Ridge. * Regiment relieved from assignment to Alaskan Defense Command, and returned to Seattle Port of Embarkation on 2 December 1943, and was stationed at Fort Lewis the same date. * Regiment reassigned to the US Army Replacement and School Command at Fort Benning, Georgia, on 23 January 1944, where it conducted infantry training to prepare for the expected invasion of the Japanese Home Islands late in 1944. * Regiment was at Fort Benning on 14 August 1945, which is when the surrender of the Japanese was announced. * Assigned 1 November 1945 to the 25th Infantry Division (United States), 25th Infantry Division. The incumbent personnel and equipment were reassigned to the 4th Infantry Division (United States), 4th Infantry Division at Camp Butner, North Carolina, while the regimental records and accoutrements were forwarded to Japan for occupation duty. * Inactivated 31 January 1947 in Japan * Relieved 1 February 1947 from assignment to the 25th Infantry Division * Activated 1 October 1948 at Fort Lewis, Washington, as a separate regiment. * Assigned 10 October 1954 to the 71st Infantry Division (United States), 71st Infantry Division * Relieved 15 September 1956 from assignment to the 71st Infantry Division * Reorganized 15 February 1958 as a parent regiment under the U.S. Army Combat Arms Regimental System, and assigned as follows: :1st Battle Group assigned to 2d Infantry Brigade. :2d Battle Group assigned to 3rd Infantry Division (United States), 3d Infantry Division. * 1st Battle Group inactivated 2 April 1962 at Fort Devens, Massachusetts. * 1st Battle Group relieved from assignment to the 2d Infantry Brigade, redesignated as the 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry, and assigned to the 3d Infantry Division on 18 April 1963. * On 3 June 1963, 2d Battle Group's personnel and equipment were reassigned to the 1st Battalion, still with 3d Infantry Division. * 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry activated on 5 June 1963. * 2d Battle Group redesignated at 2d Battalion, 4th Infantry on 21 July 1969 and activated at Fort Campbell, Kentucky. * Withdrawn 17 January 1986 from the Combat Arms Regimental System and reorganized under the United States Army Regimental System * 1st Battalion inactivated on 16 December 1987 in Germany, and relieved from assignment to 3d Infantry Division. * 1st Battalion activated on 16 November 1990 in Germany. * 2d Battalion inactivated on 15 May 1991 in Germany. * 2d Battalion redesignated as 2d Battalion, 4th Infantry Regiment on 1 October 2005.


Third Battalion

Re-activated on 15 July 2009, at Baumholder, Germany (assigned to the 170th Infantry Brigade Combat Team). Inactivated in October 2012.


30th Infantry Regiment

* Constituted 3 June 1861 in the Regular Army as the 3d Battalion, 12th Infantry Regiment, with Companies A and B Constituted 3 May 1861. * Organized 23 December 1865 at Fort Hamilton, New York * Redesignated 7 December 1866 as the 30th Infantry Regiment * Consolidated in March 1869 with the 4th Infantry and consolidated unit designated as the 4th Infantry Regiment. Companies A and B consolidated with identically designated companies in the 4th Infantry Regiment.


Honors


Campaign participation credit

* War of 1812: # Battle of Bladensburg, Bladensburg; # Fort McHenry, McHenry * Mexican–American War: # Palo Alto; # Battle of Cañada, Cañada; # Resaca de la Palma; # Monterrey; # Siege of Veracruz; # Battle of Cerro Gordo, Cerro Gordo; # Churubusco; # Molino del Rey; # Chapultepec; # Puebla 1847; # Tlaxcala 1847 * American Civil War: # Peninsula Campaign; # Second Battle of Bull Run, Second Bull Run; # Battle of Antietam, Antietam; # Battle of Fredericksburg, Fredericksburg; # Battle of Chancellorsville, Chancellorsville; # Battle of Gettysburg, Gettysburg; # Battle of the Wilderness, The Wilderness; # Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, Spotsylvania Court House; # Battle of Cold Harbor, Cold Harbor; # Siege of Petersburg; # Appomattox Campaign * Indian Wars: # ; # Seminole Wars; # Black Hawk War; # Battle of Little Big Horn, Little Bighorn Campaign; # Ute Tribe, Utes; # Rogue River Wars, Oregon 1855; # Oregon 1856; # Yakima War, Washington 1855; # Washington 1856 * War with Spain (Cuba): # Battle of Santiago de Cuba, Santiago * Philippine–American War (Philippines): # Manila; # Malolos; # Cavite; # Luzon * World War I (France): # Aisne; # Champagne-Marne; # Aisne-Marne; # Battle of Saint-Mihiel, Saint-Mihiel; # Meuse-Argonne; # Champagne 1918 * World War II: # Aleutian Islands


Decorations

* Presidential Unit Citation (United States), Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for CHICHAGOF VALLEY (1st Battalion) * French Croix de guerre 1914–1918 (France), Croix de guerre with Gilt Star, World War I for CHAMPAGNE-MARNE AISNE-MARNE * Superior Unit Award, streamer embroidered 1983–1986 (2nd Battalion) * Superior Unit Award, Streamer embroidered 1990 (Company C, 2nd Battalion) * Valorous Unit Award, Streamer embroidered OIF 07-09 (2nd Battalion, 4th Infantry Regiment)


See also

*List of United States Regular Army Civil War units


Notes


External links


1–4th Infantry Regiment website

3–4th Infantry Regiment website
{{Pershing missile Infantry regiments of the United States Army, 0004 Military units and formations of the Mexican–American War, 004 Military units and formations of the Great Sioux War of 1876, 004 Military units and formations of the United States in the Indian Wars, 004 Military units and formations of the United States in the Philippine–American War, 004 Military units and formations of the United States in the Spanish–American War, 004 United States Regular Army Civil War regiments, 004 United States Army regiments of World War I, 004 Infantry regiments of the United States Army in World War II, 004 Active Infantry regiments of the United States Army 1812 establishments in the United States Pershing missile Military units and formations established in 1781