20th-century art
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Twentieth-century art—and what it became as
modern art Modern art includes artistic work produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes the styles and philosophies Philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental question ...
—began with
modernism , Solomon Guggenheim Museum 1946–1959 Modernism is both a philosophy, philosophical movement and an art movement that arose from broad transformations in Western world, Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The moveme ...
in the late nineteenth century. Nineteenth-century movements of Post-Impressionism (
Les Nabis Les Nabis (French: les nabis, ) were a group of young French artists active in Paris from 1888 until 1900, who played a large part in the transition from impressionism Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterized by relatively sma ...
),
Art Nouveau Art Nouveau (; ) is an international style Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style, the features that make a building or structure historically identifiable * Design, the process of creating somet ...
and
Symbolism Symbolism or symbolist may refer to: Arts * Symbolism (arts), a 19th-century movement rejecting Realism ** Symbolist movement in Romania, symbolist literature and visual arts in Romania during the late 19th and early 20th centuries ** Russian symb ...
led to the first twentieth-century art movements of
Fauvism Fauvism /ˈfoʊvɪzm̩/ is the style of ''les Fauves'' (French language, French for "the wild beasts"), a group of early 20th-century modern artists whose works emphasized painterly qualities and strong color over the Representation (arts), repres ...
in France and
Die Brücke Die Brücke (The Bridge) was a group of German expressionist artists formed in Dresden Dresden (, ; wen, label=Sorbian languages, Upper and Lower Sorbian, Drježdźany) is the capital city of the Germany, German States of Germany, state of ...
("The Bridge") in Germany. Fauvism in Paris introduced heightened non-representational colour into figurative painting. Die Brücke strove for emotional
Expressionism Expressionism is a modernist , Solomon Guggenheim Museum 1946–1959 Modernism is both a philosophy, philosophical movement and an art movement that arose from broad transformations in Western world, Western society during the late 19th and ...
. Another German group was
Der Blaue Reiter ''Der Blaue Reiter'' (The Blue Rider) was a group of artists united in rejection of the Neue Künstlervereinigung München in Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria. With a ...
("The Blue Rider"), led by Kandinsky in
Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria. With a population of 1,558,395 inhabitants as of 31 July 2020, it is the List of cities in Germany by population, third-largest city in Germany, a ...

Munich
, who associated the ''blue rider'' image with a spiritual non-figurative mystical art of the future. Kandinsky, Kupka, R. Delaunay and
Picabia Francis Picabia (: born Francis-Marie Martinez de Picabia; 22January 1879 – 30November 1953) was a French avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or ' vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are experimental, ...

Picabia
were pioneers of abstract (or non-representational) art.
Cubism Cubism is an early-20th-century avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or ' vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are experimental, radical, or unorthodox with respect to art, culture, or society.John Picch ...
, generated by
Picasso Pablo Ruiz Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist and Scenic design, theatre designer who spent most of his adult life in France. Regarded as one of the most influential artists of ...

Picasso
,
Braque Georges Braque ( , ; 13 May 1882 – 31 August 1963) was a major 20th-century French painter This is a list of French people, French painters sorted alphabetically and by the century in which the painter was most active. alphabetically ...
, Metzinger, Gleizes and others rejected the plastic norms of the
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in m ...

Renaissance
by introducing multiple perspectives into a two-dimensional image.
Futurism , Carlo Carrà, Filippo Tommaso Marinetti Filippo Tommaso Emilio Marinetti (; 22 December 1876 – 2 December 1944) was an Italian poet, editor, art theorist, and founder of the Futurism, Futurist movement. He was associated with the utopian a ...

Futurism
incorporated the depiction of movement and machine age imagery.
Dadaism : left, ''Le saint des saints c'est de moi qu'il s'agit dans ce portrait'', 1 July 1915; center, ''Portrait d'une jeune fille americaine dans l'état de nudité'', 5 July 1915; right, ''J'ai vu et c'est de toi qu'il s'agit, De Zayas! De Zayas! Je ...
, with its most notable exponents,
Marcel Duchamp Henri-Robert-Marcel Duchamp (; ; 28 July 1887 – 2 October 1968) was a French Americans, French-American painter, sculptor, chess player, and writer whose work is associated with Cubism, Dada, and conceptual art. Duchamp is commonly regarded, a ...

Marcel Duchamp
, who rejected conventional art styles altogether by exhibiting
found object A found object (a loan translation In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional ...
s, notably a Fountain (Duchamp), urinal, and too Francis Picabia, with his ''Portraits Mécaniques''. Parallel movements in Russia were Suprematism, where Kasimir Malevich also created non-representational work, notably a black canvas. The Jack of Diamonds (artists), Jack of Diamonds group with Mikhail Larionov was expressionist in nature. Image:Matisse-Woman-with-a-Hat.jpg, Henri Matisse, ''Woman with a Hat'', 1905 Image:Derain CharingCrossBridge.png, André Derain, ''Charing Cross Bridge, London,'' 1906, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. Image:Les Demoiselles d'Avignon.jpg, Pablo Picasso, ''Les Demoiselles d'Avignon'', 1907 File:Georges Braque, 1908, Le Viaduc de L'Estaque (Viaduct at L'Estaque), oil on canvas, 73 x 60 cm, private collection.jpg, Georges Braque, ''Le Viaduc de L'Estaque (Viaduct at L'Estaque)'', 1908 File:Jean Metzinger, Le goûter, Tea Time, 1911, 75.9 x 70.2 cm, Philadelphia Museum of Art.jpg, Jean Metzinger, ''Le goûter (Tea Time)'', 1911, Philadelphia Museum of Art. André Salmon dubbed this painting "The Mona Lisa of Cubism" Image:Recoveredgleizes.jpg, Albert Gleizes, ''Le Chemin, Paysage à Meudon (Gleizes), Le Chemin, Paysage à Meudon, Paysage avec personnage'', 1911 File:Duchamp - Nude Descending a Staircase.jpg,
Marcel Duchamp Henri-Robert-Marcel Duchamp (; ; 28 July 1887 – 2 October 1968) was a French Americans, French-American painter, sculptor, chess player, and writer whose work is associated with Cubism, Dada, and conceptual art. Duchamp is commonly regarded, a ...

Marcel Duchamp
, ''Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2'', 1912, Philadelphia Museum of Art File:Vassily Kandinsky, 1913 - Composition 7.jpg, Wassily Kandinsky ''Composition VII'', 1912 Image:František Kupka, 1912, Amorpha, fugue en deux couleurs (Fugue in Two Colors), 210 x 200 cm, Narodni Galerie, Prague.jpg, František Kupka, ''Amorpha, Fugue in Two Colors'', 1912 Image:Robert Delaunay, 1913, Premier Disque, 134 cm, 52.7 inches, Private collection.jpg, Robert Delaunay, ''Le Premier Disque'', 1912–13 Image:De Chirico's Love Song.jpg, Giorgio de Chirico, ''The Song of Love (Giorgio de Chirico), Love Song'' 1914, Museum of Modern Art File:Kazimir Malevich, 1915, Black Suprematic Square, oil on linen canvas, 79.5 x 79.5 cm, Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.jpg, Kasimir Malevich, ''Black Square (painting), Black Square'', 1915
Dadaism : left, ''Le saint des saints c'est de moi qu'il s'agit dans ce portrait'', 1 July 1915; center, ''Portrait d'une jeune fille americaine dans l'état de nudité'', 5 July 1915; right, ''J'ai vu et c'est de toi qu'il s'agit, De Zayas! De Zayas! Je ...
preceded Surrealism, where the theories of Sigmund Freud, Freudian psychology led to the depiction of the dream and the unconscious in art in work by Salvador Dalí. Wassily Kandinsky, Kandinsky's introduction of Abstract art, non-representational art preceded the 1950s American Abstract Expressionist school, including Jackson Pollock, who dripped paint onto the canvas, and Mark Rothko, who created large areas of flat colour. Detachment from the world of imagery was reversed in the 1960s by the Pop Art movement, notably Andy Warhol, where brash commercial imagery became a Fine Art staple. Warhol also minimised the role of the artist, often employing assistants to make his work and using mechanical means of production, such as Screen-printing, silkscreen printing. This marked a change from Modernism to Post-Modernism. Photorealism evolved from Pop Art and as a counter to Abstract Expressionists. Subsequent initiatives towards the end of the century involved a paring down of the material of art through Minimalism, and a shift toward non-visual components with Conceptual art, where the idea, not necessarily the made object, was seen as the art. The last decade of the century saw a fusion of earlier ideas in work by Jeff Koons, who made large sculptures from kitsch subjects, and in the United Kingdom, UK, the Young British Artists, where Conceptual Art, Dada and Pop Art ideas led to Damien Hirst's exhibition of a The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living, shark in formaldehyde in a vitrine.


Some important movements

*Symbolism (arts) *Divisionism *
Fauvism Fauvism /ˈfoʊvɪzm̩/ is the style of ''les Fauves'' (French language, French for "the wild beasts"), a group of early 20th-century modern artists whose works emphasized painterly qualities and strong color over the Representation (arts), repres ...
*
Cubism Cubism is an early-20th-century avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or ' vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are experimental, radical, or unorthodox with respect to art, culture, or society.John Picch ...
*
Futurism , Carlo Carrà, Filippo Tommaso Marinetti Filippo Tommaso Emilio Marinetti (; 22 December 1876 – 2 December 1944) was an Italian poet, editor, art theorist, and founder of the Futurism, Futurist movement. He was associated with the utopian a ...

Futurism
*Cubo-Futurism *Orphism (art), Orphism *Purism (arts), Purism *Synchromism *Surrealism *Suprematism *Bauhaus *
Dadaism : left, ''Le saint des saints c'est de moi qu'il s'agit dans ce portrait'', 1 July 1915; center, ''Portrait d'une jeune fille americaine dans l'état de nudité'', 5 July 1915; right, ''J'ai vu et c'est de toi qu'il s'agit, De Zayas! De Zayas! Je ...
*De Stijl *Social Realism *American Regionalism *Butoh *Biomorphism *Abstract Expressionism *Tachisme *Lyrical Abstraction *Informalism *COBRA (avant-garde movement), COBRA *Outsider art (''art brut'') *Fluxus *Neo-Dada *Rayonism *Art Deco *Color Field painting *Arte Povera *Zero (art), Zero Group *Pop Art *Photorealism *Minimalism *Conceptual art *Neo-expressionism *Appropriation art *Installation art *Digital art *Op Art *Modernism *Late Modernism *Remodernism


See also

*History of painting *Western painting *List of modern artists *20th-century Western painting *List of 20th-century women artists *Contemporary art *Postmodern art *Classificatory disputes about art *List of art movements


External links

* {{DEFAULTSORT:20th century art Modernism Western art Modern art 20th century in art,