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COVID-19 pandemic in France
COVID-19 outbreak France per capita deaths map.svg
Deaths per 100,000 residents by department up to July 2020.
DiseaseCOVID-19
Virus strainSARS-CoV-2
LocationFrance
First outbreakWuhan, Hubei, China
Index caseBordeaux
Arrival date24 January 2020
(1 year and 2 days)
Confirmed cases3,053,617 (total)[1]
Hospitalized cases
  • 26,393 (active)[1]
Critical cases2,965 (active)[1]
Recovered216,965 (after hospitalisation)[2][3]
Deaths
73,049 (total)[1]
48,310 (hospital)[2]
21,003 (care homes)[2][3]
Fatality rate2.43%
Government website
Public Health France

The COVID-19 pandemic in France is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was confirmed to have reached France on 24 January 2020, when the first COVID-19 case in both Europe and France was identified in Bordeaux. The first five confirmed cases were all individuals who had recently arrived from China.[4][5] A Chinese tourist who was admitted to hospital in Paris on 28 January died on 14 February, making it the first COVID-19 death in France as well as the first COVID-19 death outside Asia.[6][7][8][9] A key event in the spread of the disease across metropolitan France as well as its overseas territories was the annual assembly of the Christian Open Door Church between 17 and 24 February in Mulhouse which was attended by about 2,500 people, at least half of whom are believed to have contracted the virus.[10][11] On 4 May, retroactive testing of samples in one French hospital showed that a patient was probably already infected with the virus on 27 December, almost a month before the first officially confirmed case.[12][13]

On 12 March, President Emmanuel Macron announced on public television that all schools and all universities would close from Monday 16 March until further notice. The next day, Prime Minister Édouard Philippe banned gatherings of more than 100 people, not including public transport. The following day, the prime minister ordered the closure of all non-essential public places, including restaurants, cafés, cinemas and nightclubs, effective from that midnight.[14] On 16 March, Macron announced mandatory home lockdown for 15 days starting at noon on 17 March.[15] This was extended twice and ended on 11 May,[16] after a progressive lifting of lockdown and as face masks were made available to all citizens.[17] On 2 May, Health Minister Olivier Véran announced that the government would seek to extend the health emergency period until 24 July.[18] Several mayors opposed the 11 May lifting of the lockdown, which had been announced by the president a few weeks earlier in a televised address to the nation,[16] saying it was premature. Véran's bill was discussed in Senate on 4 May.[19]

From August, there was an increase in the rate of infection and on 10 October, France set a record number of new infections in a 24-hour period in Europe with 26,896 recorded. The increase caused France to enter a second nationwide lockdown on 28 October. On 15 October, police raided the homes and offices of key government officials, including Véran and Philippe, in a criminal negligence probe opened by the Cour de Justice de la République.[20] According to a team of French epidemiologists, under 5% of the total population of France, or around 2.8 million people, may have been infected with COVID-19. This was believed to have been nearly twice as high in the Île-de-France and Alsace regions.[21]

Background

The pandemic occurred following a series of national protests, which were followed by a strike against pension reform which had been proposed by President Emmanuel Macron in his election manifesto.[22][23] The pension reform strike was the longest strike in modern French history.[24] In President Emmanuel Macron's second address to the nation on the pandemic on 16 March, he announced the suspension of all reforms, notably those of pensions.[25]

On 12 January, the World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed that a novel coronavirus was the cause of a respiratory illness in a cluster of people in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, who had initially come to the attention of the WHO on 31 December 2019.[26][27] On 21 January, Agnès Buzyn, Minister of Solidarity and Health declared that "The risk of introduction into France is low but it cannot be excluded".[28]

Timeline

COVID-19 cases in France  ()
     Deaths        Recoveries        Active cases
2020202020212021
JanJanFebFebMarMarAprAprMayMayJunJunJulJulAugAugSepSepOctOctNovNovDecDec
JanJan
Last 15 daysLast 15 days
Date
# of cases
# of deaths
2020-01-24 3(n.a.) 0(n.a.)
3(=) 0(n.a.)
2020-01-28 4(+33%) 0(n.a.)
4(=) 0(n.a.)
2020-01-31 5(+25%) 0(n.a.)
5(=) 0(n.a.)
2020-02-09 11(+120%) 0(n.a.)
11(=) 0(n.a.)
2020-02-18 11(=) 0(n.a.)
11(=) 0(n.a.)
2020-02-24 11(=) 0(n.a.)
2020-02-25 13(+18%) 1([i])
2020-02-26 18(+38%) 2(+100%)
2020-02-27 38(+111%) 2(=)
2020-02-28 57(+50%) 2(=)
2020-02-29
100(+75%) 2(=)
2020-03-01
130(+30%) 3(+50%)
2020-03-02
191(+47%) 3(=)
2020-03-03
212(+11%) 4(+33%)
2020-03-04
285(+34%) 4(=)
2020-03-05
423(+48%) 7(+75%)
2020-03-06
613(+45%) 9(+29%)
2020-03-07
949(+55%) 16(+78%)
2020-03-08
1,126(+19%) 19(+19%)
2020-03-09
1,412(+25%) 25(+32%)
2020-03-10
1,784(+26%) 33(+32%)
2020-03-11
2,281(+28%) 48(+45%)
2020-03-12
2,876(+26%) 61(+27%)
2020-03-13
3,661(+27%) 79(+30%)
2020-03-14
4,499(+23%) 91(+15%)
2020-03-15
5,423(+21%) 127(+40%)
2020-03-16
6,633(+22%) 148(+17%)
2020-03-17
7,730(+17%) 175(+18%)
2020-03-18
9,134(+18%) 244(+39%)
2020-03-19
10,995(+20%) 375(+54%)
2020-03-20
12,612(+15%) 450(+20%)
2020-03-21
14,459(+15%) 562(+25%)
2020-03-22
16,689(+15%) 674(+20%)
2020-03-23
19,856(+19%) 860(+28%)
2020-03-24
22,302(+12%) 1,100(+28%)
2020-03-25
25,233(+13%) 1,331(+21%)
2020-03-26
29,155(+16%) 1,696(+27%)
2020-03-27
32,964(+13%) 1,995(+18%)
2020-03-28
37,575(+14%) 2,314(+16%)
2020-03-29
40,174(+6.9%) 2,606(+13%)
2020-03-30
44,550(+11%) 3,024(+16%)
2020-03-31
52,128(+17%) 3,523(+17%)
2020-04-01
56,989(+9.3%) 4,032(+14%)
2020-04-02
59,105(+3.7%) 5,387(+34%[ii])
2020-04-03
64,338(+8.9%) 6,507(+21%)
2020-04-04
68,605(+6.6%) 7,560(+16%)
2020-04-05
70,478(+2.7%) 8,078(+6.9%)
2020-04-06
74,390(+5.6%) 8,911(+10%)
2020-04-07
78,167(+5.1%) 10,328(+16%)
2020-04-08
82,048(+5%) 10,869(+5.2%)
2020-04-09
86,334(+5.2%) 12,210(+12%)
2020-04-10
90,676(+5%) 13,197(+8.1%)
2020-04-11
93,790(+3.4%) 13,832(+4.8%)
2020-04-12
95,403(+1.7%) 14,393(+4.1%)
2020-04-13
98,076(+2.8%) 14,967(+4%)
2020-04-14
103,573(+5.6%) 15,729(+5.1%)
2020-04-15
106,206(+2.5%) 17,167(+9.1%)
2020-04-16
108,847(+2.5%) 17,920(+4.4%)
2020-04-17
109,252(+0.37%) 18,681(+4.2%)
2020-04-18
111,821(+2.4%) 19,323(+3.4%)
2020-04-19
112,606(+0.7%) 19,718(+2%)
2020-04-20
114,657(+1.8%) 20,265(+2.8%)
2020-04-21
117,324(+2.3%) 20,796(+2.6%)
2020-04-22
119,151(+1.6%) 21,340(+2.6%)
2020-04-23
120,804(+1.4%) 21,856(+2.4%)
2020-04-24
122,577(+1.5%) 22,245(+1.8%)
2020-04-25
124,114(+1.3%) 22,614(+1.7%)
2020-04-26
124,575(+0.37%) 22,856(+1.1%)
2020-04-27
125,770(+0.96%) 23,293(+1.9%)
2020-04-28
126,835(+0.85%) 23,660(+1.6%)
2020-04-29
128,442(+1.3%) 24,087(+1.8%)
2020-04-30
129,581(+0.89%) 24,376(+1.2%)
2020-05-01
130,185(+0.47%) 24,594(+0.89%)
2020-05-02
130,979(+0.61%) 24,760(+0.67%)
2020-05-03
131,287(+0.24%) 24,895(+0.55%)
2020-05-04
131,863(+0.44%) 25,201(+1.2%)
2020-05-05
132,967(+0.84%) 25,531(+1.3%)
2020-05-06
137,150(+3.14%[iii]) 25,809(+1.1%)
2020-05-07
137,779(+0.46%) 25,987(+0.69%)
2020-05-08
138,421(+0.47%) 26,230(+0.94%)
2020-05-09
138,854(+0.31%) 26,310(+0.3%)
2020-05-10
139,063(+0.15%) 26,380(+0.27%)
2020-05-11
139,519(+0.33%) 26,643(+1%)
2020-05-12
140,227(+0.51%) 26,991(+1.3%)
2020-05-13
140,734(+0.36%) 27,074(+0.31%)
2020-05-14
141,356(+0.44%) 27,425(+1.3%)
2020-05-15
141,919(+0.4%) 27,529(+0.38%)
2020-05-16
142,291(+0.26%) 27,625(+0.35%)
2020-05-17
worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was confirmed to have reached France on 24 January 2020, when the first COVID-19 case in both Europe and France was identified in Bordeaux. The first five confirmed cases were all individuals who had recently arrived from China.[4][5] A Chinese tourist who was admitted to hospital in Paris on 28 January died on 14 February, making it the first COVID-19 death in France as well as the first COVID-19 death outside Asia.[6][7][8][9] A key event in the spread of the disease across metropolitan France as well as its overseas territories was the annual assembly of the Christian Open Door Church between 17 and 24 February in Mulhouse which was attended by about 2,500 people, at least half of whom are believed to have contracted the virus.[10][11] On 4 May, retroactive testing of samples in one French hospital showed that a patient was probably already infected with the virus on 27 December, almost a month before the first officially confirmed case.[12][13]

On 12 March, President Emmanuel Macron announced on public television that all schools and all universities would close from Monday 16 March until further notice. The next day, Prime Minister Édouard Philippe banned gatherings of more than 100 people, not including public transport. The following day, the prime minister ordered the closure of all non-essential public places, including restaurants, cafés, cinemas and nightclubs, effective from that midnight.[14] On 16 March, Macron announced mandatory home lockdown for 15 days starting at noon on 17 March.[15] This was extended twice and ended on 11 May,[16] after a progressive lifting of lockdown and as face masks were made available to all citizens.[17] On 2 May, Health Minister Olivier Véran announced that the government would seek to extend the health emergency period until 24 July.[18] Several mayors opposed the 11 May lifting of the lockdown, which had been announced by the president a few weeks earlier in a televised address to the nation,[16] saying it was premature. Véran's bill was discussed in Senate on 4 May.[19]

From August, there was an increase in the rate of infection and on 10 October, France set a record number of new infections in a 24-hour period in Europe with 26,896 recorded. The increase caused France to enter a second nationwide lockdown on 28 October. On 15 October, police raided the homes and offices of key government officials, including Véran and Philippe, in a criminal negligence probe opened by the Cour de Justice de la République.[20] According to a team of French epidemiologists, under 5% of the total population of France, or around 2.8 million people, may have been infected with COVID-19. This was believed to have been nearly twice as high in the Île-de-France and Alsace regions.[21]