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The first millennium was a period of time that began on January 1, AD 1, and ended on December 31, AD 1000, of the Julian calendar.[citation needed] It was the first period of one thousand years in the Anno Domini or Common Era. In Europe
Europe
and the Mediterranean, the first millennium was a time of great transition. The 1st century
1st century
saw the peak of the Roman Empire, followed by its gradual decline during the period of Late Antiquity, the rise of Christianity
Christianity
and the Great Migrations. The second half of the millennium is characterized as the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
in Europe, and marked by the Viking
Viking
expansion in the west, the rise of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
in the east, and by the Islamic conquests
Islamic conquests
throughout the Near East, North Africa
North Africa
and the Iberian peninsula, culminating in the Islamic Golden Age
Islamic Golden Age
(700–1 200
200
AD). In Arabia, in the mid-7th century, a man called Muhammad
Muhammad
became the leader and the final prophet of Islam. After his death, his companions extended the religion. In East Asia, the first millennium was also a time of great cultural advances, notably the spread of Buddhism
Buddhism
to East Asia. In China, the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
is replaced by the Jin dynasty and later the Tang dynasty until the 10th century
10th century
sees renewed fragmentation in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. In Japan, a sharp increase in population followed when farmers' use of iron tools increased their productivity and crop yields. The Yamato court was established. In South Asia, the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
was divided among numerous kingdoms throughout the first millennium, until the formation of the Gupta Empire. In Mesoamerica, the first millennium was a period of enormous growth known as the Classic Era (200– 900
900
AD). Teotihuacan
Teotihuacan
grew into a metropolis and its empire dominated Mesoamerica. In South America, pre-Incan, coastal cultures flourished, producing impressive metalwork and some of the finest pottery seen in the ancient world. In North America, the Mississippian culture
Mississippian culture
rose at the end of the millennium in the Mississippi and Ohio river valleys. Numerous cities were built; Cahokia, the largest, was based in present-day Illinois. The construction of Monks Mound
Monks Mound
at Cahokia
Cahokia
was begun in 900– 950
950
CE.

Contents

1 Civilizations, kingdoms and dynasties 2 Events 3 Significant people 4 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 5 Centuries and decades 6 References

Civilizations, kingdoms and dynasties[edit] The civilizations, kingdoms and dynasties in this section are organized according to the United Nations geoscheme

Kingdoms and civilizations of the 1st millennium
1st millennium
AD

Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania

Nok Ghana Empire Christian Nubia
Nubia
(Nobatia, Makuria, Alodia) Aksumite Empire Abbasid Caliphate Fatimid Caliphate Kingdom of Kangaba Igbo-Ukwu Kingdom of Nri Kanem Empire Ife Awka

Maya civilization Huastec Teotihuacan Toltec Totonac Zapotec Mixtec Teuchitlan Kaan Kingdom Tikal Palenque Tonina Caracol Copan Kingdom of Quito Muisca Confederation Tairona Chimor Tiwanaku Wari culture Moche culture Lima culture

Parthian Empire Han dynasty Kushan Empire Rashidun Caliphate Xiongnu Three Kingdoms Sassanid Empire Jin dynasty Gupta Empire Byzantine Empire Rashtrakuta dynasty Pala Empire Hephthalite Empire Sui dynasty Chola dynasty Tang dynasty Volga Bulgaria Song dynasty Goguryeo Buyeo Baekje Silla Srivijaya

Roman Empire Anglo-Saxon England Irish Kingdoms Merovingian dynasty Carolingian Empire West Francia Middle Francia East Francia Holy Roman Empire Kingdom of France Bulgarian Empire Viking Kievan Rus'

Tuʻi Tonga Empire

Events[edit] The events in this section are organized according to the United Nations geoscheme

Events and trends of the 1st millennium
1st millennium
AD

  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania

1st century AD 70 Kandake Amanikhatashan sends Kushite cavalry to aid Roman Emperor in Jerusalem revolt[1] AD 100
AD 100
rise of the Aksum AD 100
AD 100
Khoekhoe reach southern coast of Africa[2] AD 1
AD 1
Cahuachi
Cahuachi
established[3] AD 50
AD 50
Pyramid of the Sun
Pyramid of the Sun
began[3] AD 25 Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
reestablished under Guangwu AD 33 Christianity
Christianity
begins AD 70 Jewish diaspora AD 9 Rhine established as boundary between Rome and Germany[4] AD 47 London founded AD 58 Alpes Cottiae becomes a Roman province[4] AD 79
AD 79
Pompeii
Pompeii
destroyed AD 1
AD 1
Caroline Islands
Caroline Islands
colonized[5]

2nd century 150
150
Rhapta, hint of pre-Swahili, Periplus of the Erythraean Sea 200
200
Bantu reach east Africa[6] 200
200
Nok culture
Nok culture
ends 150
150
Cahuachi
Cahuachi
becomes dominant ceremonial site in southern Peru[3] 184
184
Yellow Turban Rebellion 106
106
Dacia becomes a Roman province[4] 166 Siege of Aquileia[4] 180
180
End of the Macromannic Wars[4]  

  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania

3rd century 212
212
Egyptians granted Roman citizenship[6] 230
230
Aksum wars with Himyar
Himyar
and Saba alliance 300
300
Aksum prints own coins 250
250
Rise of Laguna de los Cerros 292 Stela 29 inscribed[3] 300
300
Tikàl conquers El Mirador[3] 208
208
Battle of Red Cliffs
Battle of Red Cliffs
during the decline of the Han Dynasty 280
280
Jin reunifies China 212
212
Roman citizenship extended to all free people in the empire[4] 214 Hispania divided into Gallaecia, Tarraconensis, Baetica and Lusitania[4] 286
286
Diocletian
Diocletian
divides the empire East and West[4] 300
300
Eastern Polynesian culture develops[7]

4th century 333 Aksum converts to Christianity 350
350
Meroe
Meroe
comes to an end [6] 350
350
King of Anwar, Kaja Maja 378
378
Teotihuacan
Teotihuacan
conquers Waka, Tikal, and Uaxactun, the beginning of its conquest of the Maya[8] 319
319
Rise of Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
in South Asia 383 Battle of Fei River 393
393
Last Olympic Games

313
313
Edict of Milan[4] 370
370
Huns invade Eastern Europe[4] 396
396
Alaric and the Visigoths invade Greece[4]

 

  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania

5th century 401
401
c. camel main transport for trans-Sahara 429 Vandal invasion[6] 500
500
Nubia
Nubia
split into Nobadia, Makuria, Alodia   420
420
Southern and Northern Dynasties
Southern and Northern Dynasties
period begins 407
407
Vandals enter Iberia[9] 421
421
Romans defeat Persians[9] 476
476
Fall of Roman Empire[9] 500
500
Settlement of Hawaii, Easter Island, Society Islands, Tuamotus and Mangareva[7]

6th century 520
520
Kaleb attacks Yemen 533
533
Belisarius
Belisarius
invades Africa[6] 540
540
Nubia
Nubia
converts to monophysite Christianity 600
600
Wari' conquer Peru[10] 600
600
Construction of Palenque[3] 538 Buddhism
Buddhism
introduced in Japan. 570
570
Birth of the Islamic prophet Muhammad 507
507
Battle of Vouillé[9] 535
535
Byzantine army invades Italy[9] 585
585
Visigoths conquer Suevi kingdom[9]  

  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania

7th century 641
641
Muslims invade Africa[11] 690
690
Za Dynasty founded 697
697
Carthage destroyed[11] 650
650
Settlement of Xochitecatl
Xochitecatl
and Cacaxtla[10] 700
700
Teotihuacan
Teotihuacan
destroyed[10] 618
618
Tang Dynasty established 632
632
Rise of Islam 651 Islamic conquest of Persia c. 680
680
Bulgarian Empire
Bulgarian Empire
was founded; 700
700
Settlement of the Cook Islands[7]

8th century 702 Aksum attacks Arabia[11] 706
706
Arabic in Egypt[11] 789
789
Independent Morocco[11] 738
738
Quiriguá
Quiriguá
becomes independent of Copan 750
750
Sacred Cenote
Sacred Cenote
built at Chichén Itzá[10] 780
780
Murals at Bonampak
Bonampak
abandoned[10]

738
738
Caliphate campaigns in India
Caliphate campaigns in India
and invasion of India by Umayyad Caliphate was averted 755
755
An Shi Rebellion 717
717
Siege of Constantinople 718
718
Islamic conquest of Spain  

  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania

9th century
9th century
  801
801
c. Kanem Empire
Kanem Empire
founded 801c. Aksum declines, capital moved to interior 900c. Igbo-Ukwu founded[12]   835
835
Ganlu Incident 872
872
Norway unites c. 874
874
Settlement of Iceland 896
896
Hungarians invade Carpathia 900
900
Settlement of New Zealand[7]

10th century 905 Tulunids
Tulunids
ejected[11] 909
909
Fatimid established[11] 969
969
Fustat
Fustat
captured[11] 950
950
Great Serpent Mound
Great Serpent Mound
constructed[10] 990
990
Toltecs conquer Chichén Itzá 907
907
Political upheaval of the Five Dynasties begins 960 Song dynasty
Song dynasty
established 958
958
Denmark unites 985
985
Erik the Red
Erik the Red
founds colony in Greenland 1000 Polynesians build stone temples[7]

Significant people[edit] The people in this section are organized according to the United Nations geoscheme

Significant people of the 1st millennium
1st millennium
AD

  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania

1st century Natakamani Zoskales Amanikhatashan   Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth Paul of Tarsus Kanishka Mary Magdalene Caesar Augustus Nero Pliny the Elder  

2nd century Gadarat Septimius Severus[6] Gärmat Yax Moch Xoc[3] Cai Lun Zhang Heng Plutarch Ptolemy Commodus  

  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania

3rd century Macrinus[6] King Aphilas
Aphilas
of Aksum[6] Endubis Curl Snout[3] Mani Cao Cao Zhuge Liang Diocletian[6]  

4th century Ezana King Kaja Maja Ousanas Siyaj K'ak'[8] Empress Jingū Samudragupta Constantine I  

  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania

5th century Augustine of Hippo Nezool Ouazebas K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo'[3] Aryabhata Hypatia Attila the Hun Geiseric[6] Hawaiiloa

6th century Saifu Gelimer[6] Saint Frumentius[6]   Muhammad Emperor Wen of Sui Khosrau I Clovis I Theodoric the Great Justinian I  

  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania

7th century Gregory the Patrician[11] Bilal Ibn Rabah Za Alieman K'inich Janaab' Pakal[10] Waxaklahùn Ubàh K'awìl[10] Abu Bakr Umar Uthman Ali Saint Isidore of Seville Kubrat Asparukh  

8th century Mai Sef of Saif Ghana Majan Dyabe Cisse Merkurios of Makuria   Abū Ḥanīfa Muḥammad ibn Idrīs al Shāfīʿī Abi Ishaq Li Bai Saint Bede Charles Martel Tervel  

  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania

9th century Mai Fune Bilikisu Sungbo Georgios I   Ahmad ibn Hanbal Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Bukhari Abu Dawood Muhammad
Muhammad
Khwarizmi Bayazid Bastami Charlemagne Alfred the Great Krum  

10th century Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah Georgios II Rafael Ce Acatl Topiltzin Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī Ḥasan ibn Alhazen Al Battani Emperor Taizu of Song Simeon I Otto the Great Bjarni Herjólfsson Erik the Red[10] 'Aho'eitu

Inventions, discoveries, introductions[edit]

Inventions, discoveries and introductions

Communication Math and Science Agriculture Transportation Warfare

Woodblock printing Paper[13]

Algebra Ptolemaic system Steel

Coffee Hops

Horseshoe Stirrup Magnetic compass

Greek fire Chess Gunpowder[13]

Centuries and decades[edit]

1st century

10s 20s 30s 40s 50s 60s 70s 80s 90s

2nd century 100s 110s 120s 130s 140s 150s 160s 170s 180s 190s

3rd century 200s 210s 220s 230s 240s 250s 260s 270s 280s 290s

4th century 300s 310s 320s 330s 340s 350s 360s 370s 380s 390s

5th century 400s 410s 420s 430s 440s 450s 460s 470s 480s 490s

6th century 500s 510s 520s 530s 540s 550s 560s 570s 580s 590s

7th century 600s 610s 620s 630s 640s 650s 660s 670s 680s 690s

8th century 700s 710s 720s 730s 740s 750s 760s 770s 780s 790s

9th century 800s 810s 820s 830s 840s 850s 860s 870s 880s 890s

10th century 900s 910s 920s 930s 940s 950s 960s 970s 980s 990s

References[edit]

^ Jr Ph D Grant Bishop Williams(2009). Abraham's Other Sons. AuthorHouse: pp. 50,51. ISBN 9781438997094 ^ Ehret, Christopher (2002). The Civilizations of Africa. Charlottesville: University of Virginia, p. 177, ISBN 0-8139-2085-X. ^ a b c d e f g h i "World Timeline of the Americas 200
200
BC - AD 600". The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 2009-05-13. Retrieved 2009-04-01.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "World Timeline of Europe
Europe
200
200
BC-AD 400 Roman". The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 2009-05-13. Retrieved 2009-04-06.  ^ "World Timeline of the Oceania 1 500
500
BC-AD 1". The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 2009-05-13. Retrieved 2009-04-02.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "World Timeline of Africa 332 BC-AD 400". The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 2009-05-13. Retrieved 2009-04-02.  ^ a b c d e "World Timeline of Oceania AD 1-1100". The British Museum. 2005. Retrieved 2009-04-02.  ^ a b http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/print/2007/08/maya-rise-fall/gugliotta-text ^ a b c d e f "World Timeline of Europe
Europe
AD 400-800 Early medieval". The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 27 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-06.  ^ a b c d e f g h i "World Timeline of the Americas AD 600-1000". The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 27 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-01.  ^ a b c d e f g h i "World Timeline of Africa AD 600-1500". The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 13 March 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-02.  ^ Coquery-Vidrovitch, Catherine. The History of African Cities South of the Sahara. Princeton: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2005, p. 45, ISBN 1-55876-303-1 ^ a b "Who Built it First". Ancient Discoveries. A&E Television Networks. 2008. Archived from the original on 2009-05-13. Retrieved 2009-04-03. 

v t e

Millennia

CE / AD

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th and beyond

BCE / BC

201st and prior 200th to 11th 10th 9th 8th 7th 6th 5

.