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The 1st century
1st century
was the century that lasted from AD 1
AD 1
to AD 100 according to the Julian calendar. It is often written as the 1st century AD[1] or 1st century
1st century
CE to distinguish it from the 1st century BC (or BCE) which preceded it. The 1st century
1st century
is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. During this period, Europe, North Africa
North Africa
and the Near East fell under increasing domination by the Roman Empire, which continued expanding, most notably conquering Britain under the emperor Claudius
Claudius
(AD 43). The reforms introduced by Augustus
Augustus
during his long reign stabilized the empire after the turmoil of the previous century's civil wars. Later in the century the Julio-Claudian dynasty, which had been founded by Augustus, came to an end with the suicide of Nero
Nero
in AD 68. There followed the famous Year
Year
of Four Emperors, a brief period of civil war and instability, which was finally brought to an end by Vespasian, ninth Roman emperor, and founder of the Flavian dynasty. The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
generally experienced a period of prosperity and dominance in this period and the First Century
Century
is remembered as part of the Empire's golden age. The 1st century
1st century
saw the appearance of Christianity. China
China
continued to be dominated by the Han Dynasty, despite a fourteen-year interruption by the Xin dynasty
Xin dynasty
under Wang Mang. Han rule was restored in AD 23; Wang Mang's rule represents the watershed between the Western/Former Han and the Eastern/Later Han. The capital was also moved from Chang'an
Chang'an
to Luoyang.

Contents

1 Regional events and politics 2 Events 3 Significant people

3.1 Literature 3.2 Science and philosophy

4 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 5 References

Regional events and politics[edit]

Western Europe: Celtic, Germanic, Saami and Finnic tribal chiefdom and the Roman Empire Eastern Europe: Roman Empire, Dacian, Sarmatian, Venedae and Balt tribal chiefdoms North Africa: Roman Empire, Garamantes, Mauri, Libyan and Gaetulian tribal chiefdoms West Africa: Gur, Kwa, Soninke and Mande tribal chiefdoms Central Africa: Bantu tribes, collapsing Nok culture
Nok culture
Nok civilization East Africa: Kingdom of Kush, Kingdom of Blemmyes, Kingdom of Aksum Southern Africa: Bantu tribes, Khoisan. Western Asia: Roman and Parthian Empires, Sabaean and Arabian Kingdoms, smaller tribes. Central Asia: Kushan Empire, Sarmatian, Dahae
Dahae
and other Iranian tribal chiefdoms South Asia: Kushan Empire, Western Satraps, Satavahana Empire, Dravidian Kingdoms, Kingdom of Kalinga, Indo-Parthian Kingdom, Zhangzhung. Southeast Asia: Mandala of city-states, Kingdom of Funan East Asia: Han Dynasty, Yamatai, Xiongnu
Xiongnu
and Xianbei
Xianbei
tribal chiefdoms, Three Kingdoms of Korea
Three Kingdoms of Korea
(Goguryeo, Baekje
Baekje
and Silla). North America: Central America: Mayan, Teotihuacan
Teotihuacan
and Zapotec civilizations. Caribbean: South America: Nazca, Moche civilizations, Tairona
Tairona
tribal chiefdoms.

Events[edit]

The skeleton called the "Ring Lady" unearthed in Herculaneum, one of the victims of the eruption of Mount Vesuvius
Mount Vesuvius
in AD 79

Early 1st century
1st century
Augustus
Augustus
of Primaporta, (perhaps a copy of a bronze statue of ca. 20 BC), is made. It is now kept in Musei Vaticani, Braccio Nuovo, Rome. Early 1st century
1st century
Gemma Augustea
Gemma Augustea
is made. It is now kept at Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. Early 1st century
1st century
– House of the Silver Wedding, Pompeii, is built. Excavated in 1893, the year of the silver wedding anniversary of Italy's King Humbert and his wife, Margherita of Savoy, who have supported archaeological fieldwork at Pompeii. Early 1st century
1st century
- Inner shrine, Ise, Mie, Mie Prefecture, is built. Yayoi period. AD 1: Lions became extinct in Western Europe. AD 2: First census of China, the census is one of the most accurate in Chinese history. AD 6: Census
Census
of Quirinius. AD 7: Prince Cunobeline
Cunobeline
of Catuvellauni
Catuvellauni
defeats the Trinovantes
Trinovantes
in England
England
and establishes his capital at Camulodunum
Camulodunum
(modern-day Colchester). AD 9: Three Roman legions were ambushed and destroyed at Teutoberg Forest by Germans under the leadership of Arminius. AD 9: Prince Cunobeline
Cunobeline
is crowned King of Catuvellauni, his Kingdom dominates Southern England. AD 9–23: Wang Mang
Wang Mang
temporarily overthrew the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
of China. AD 9–23: Xin dynasty. AD 14: Augustus
Augustus
Caesar, first emperor of Rome, dies. His adopted son, stepson and son-in-law Tiberius
Tiberius
is his successor. AD 25: The Han dynasty
Han dynasty
is restored by Liu Xiu who proclaims himself Emperor Guangwu of Han. AD 28–75: Emperor Ming of Han, Buddhism
Buddhism
reaches China. Humans arrive on Pentecost Island
Pentecost Island
and establish the Bunlap
Bunlap
tribe, among others. c. AD 29: Jesus
Jesus
begins his ministry (traditional date).[2][3][4][5][6][7][8] c. AD 33: The Crucifixion of Jesus
Jesus
(traditional date).[9][10][11] c. AD 33–36: Conversion of Paul the Apostle.[12][13][14] AD 40: Succession crisis erupts at King Cunobeline's court and his exiled younger son Prince Adminius flees to the court of Caligula
Caligula
in Rome. AD 40: Emperor Caligula
Caligula
plans to invade Britain, but forgets to bring an army, he instead declares war upon the sea, whipping it and taking shells as prisoners. AD 40–43: Revolts erupts in Vietnam by the Trung sisters. AD 42: King Cunobeline
Cunobeline
dies, his son Caratacus becomes King. He and his brother conquer much of South-Eastern England, expanding territory into Atrebates, driving out King Verica. King Verica travels to Rome to the court of Claudius
Claudius
to help reclaim his throne. AD 43: Roman conquest of Britain
Roman conquest of Britain
begins. London is founded (although it could have existed centuries before this date). AD 44: Death of Herod Agrippa. AD 41–54: Rachias, an ambassador sent from Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
to the court of Claudius. Buddhist
Buddhist
monks in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
first write down Buddha's teachings, creating the Pali
Pali
canon. The regions of present-day Afghanistan, Pakistan
Pakistan
and North India
North India
come under the control of the Kushans, a nomadic people forced out of northwest China
China
by the Han Dynasty. Tacitus
Tacitus
mentions the Suiones, who will one day be called the Swedes. Kaundinya, an Indian brahmin marries Soma and establishes the pre- Angkor
Angkor
Cambodian Kingdom of Funan. The Goths
Goths
settle in northern Poland, which they called Gothiscandza, and shape the Wielbark culture. c. AD 50: Christian
Christian
Council of Jerusalem. Mid- 1st century
1st century
– Wall niche, from garden in Pompeii, is made. It is now kept at Fitzwilliam Museum, University of Cambridge, England. Mid- 1st century
1st century
– Detail of a wall painting in the House of M. Lucretius Fronto, Pompeii, is made. AD 58–88: Rule of Ming and Zhang. AD 60: Queen Boudica
Boudica
of The Iceni in England
England
launches a rebellion against The Romans. Tens of thousands die and the Roman army is massively damaged. The Rebellion fails and Boadicea commits suicide by poisoning herself. Three major cities are obliterated. AD 64: Great Fire of Rome, first Roman mass Persecution of Christians, earliest significant recognition of Christians
Christians
in Rome. AD 66–73: First Jewish-Roman War. AD 69: Cartimandua, Queen of the Brigantes in Northern England, is overthrown in a civil war. Her unpopular alliance with Rome, the betrayal of Caratacus and her love for someone other than her husband are the three reasons which led to her demise. The Action enraged the Romans so much that they conquered and annexed The Kingdom. AD 70: destruction of Herod's Temple
Herod's Temple
in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
by the Romans under Titus. AD 79: Pompeii
Pompeii
and Herculaneum
Herculaneum
destroyed by eruption of Mount Vesuvius. AD 80: The Colosseum
Colosseum
is finished. Jewish
Jewish
Council of Jamnia. Spread of the Roman Empire, reaches largest size under Trajan. Late 1st century—Cityscape, detail of a Second Style wall painting from a bedroom in the House of Publius Fannius Synistor, Boscoreale, is made. It is now at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. The painting "Alexander the Great confronts Darius III at the Battle of Issos", detail of mosaic floor decoration from Pompeii, Italy
Italy
is made. It is a Roman copy after a Greek painting of c. 310 BC, perhaps by Philoxenos or Helen of Egypt. It is now at Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples, Italy. Late 1st century
1st century
– Bedroom, from the House of Publius Fannius Synistor, Boscoreale
Boscoreale
is made. It is reconstructed with later furnishings at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Late 1st century
1st century
– Seascape, detail of a wall painting from Villa Farnesina, Rome, is made. Late 1st century
1st century
– Young Woman Writing, detail of a wall painting, from Pompeii, is made. It is now kept at Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples. Late 1st century
1st century
– Mausoleum under Construction, relief from the tomb of the Haterius family, Via Labicana, Rome, is made. It is now kept at Musei Vaticani, Museo Gregoriano Profano, ex Lateranese, Rome. Late 1st century
1st century
– Middle-Aged Flavian Woman, is made. It is now kept at Musei Vaticani, Museo Gregoriano Profano, ex Lateranese, Rome. c. Late 1st century-early 2nd century
2nd century
– Buddha and Attendants, from Katra Keshavdev, Mathura, Madhya Pradesh, India, is made. Kushan period. It is now kept at Mathura
Mathura
Museum. 1st-2nd centuries - Tomb model of a house, is made. Eastern Han dynasty. It is now kept at The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri.

Significant people[edit]

Augustus

Antonia Minor

Caligula

Claudius

Vespasian

Seneca the Younger

Plutarch

Antonia Minor, Roman noblewoman, mother of Germanicus
Germanicus
and Claudius Arminius, Germanic military leader Augustus
Augustus
Caesar (Gaius Octavius), first emperor of Rome Ban Chao, Chinese general Boudica, Celtic Briton leader Caligula
Caligula
(Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus
Augustus
Germanicus) (Caligula), emperor of Rome Gnaeus Julius Agricola, Roman general Livilla
Livilla
(Claudia Livia Julia), Roman noblewoman Claudia Octavia, empress of Rome Claudius
Claudius
( Tiberius
Tiberius
Claudius
Claudius
Nero), emperor of Rome Clement I of Rome, pope of Rome Decebalus, king of Dacia Domitian
Domitian
( Titus
Titus
Flavius Domitianus), emperor of Rome Galba
Galba
(Servius Sulpicius Galba), emperor of Rome Gan Ying, Chinese ambassador to Rome Germanicus
Germanicus
( Nero
Nero
Claudius
Claudius
Drusus), Roman general Guangwu of Han, emperor of China Heraios, Kushan chieftain Hillel the Elder, Jewish
Jewish
religious leader Ignatius of Antioch, bishop of Antioch James the Just, Christian
Christian
apostle Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth John the Baptist, religious prophet of Christianity and Islam Julia Agrippina, empress of Rome, mother of Nero Kujula Kadphises, Kushan ruler Livia Drusilla, first empress of Rome Ma Yuan, Chinese general Ming of Han, Chinese emperor Nero
Nero
Claudius
Claudius
Caesar (Nero), emperor of Rome Marcus Cocceius Nerva, emperor of Rome Marcus Salvius Otho, emperor of Rome Paul of Tarsus, Christian
Christian
apostle Publius Quinctilius Varus, Roman general Saint Peter, Christian
Christian
apostle, first pope of Rome Polycarp, bishop of Smyrna Pontius Pilate, Roman procurator of Judea Lucius Aelius Seianus, Roman statesman Thomas the Apostle, Christian
Christian
apostle Tiberius
Tiberius
( Tiberius
Tiberius
Claudius
Claudius
Nero
Nero
Caesar), emperor of Rome Titus
Titus
( Titus
Titus
Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus), emperor of Rome Trajan
Trajan
(Marcus Ulpius Traianus), emperor of Rome Trung Sisters, Vietnamese rebel leaders Vespasian
Vespasian
( Titus
Titus
Flavius Vespasianus), emperor of Rome Vitellius, emperor of Rome Valeria Messalina, empress of Rome Vipsania Agrippina Major, Roman noblewoman, mother of Caligula Wang Mang, Chinese official, founding emperor of the short-lived Xin dynasty Yuan An, Chinese statesman Zhang of Han, emperor of China

Literature[edit]

Martial
Martial
(Marcus Valerius Martialis), Roman poet Methodios I of Constantinople, Roman hagiographer, saint and patriarch Ovid
Ovid
(Publius Ovidius Naso), Roman poet Petronius
Petronius
(Gaius Petronius
Petronius
Arbiter), Roman poet Phaedrus, Roman fabulist of Macedonian origin Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
(Gaius Plinius Secundus), Roman writer, commentator and naturalist Pliny the Younger
Pliny the Younger
(Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus), Roman writer and lawyer Lucius Annaeus Seneca, Roman writer, philosopher and statesman Silius Italicus
Silius Italicus
( Tiberius
Tiberius
Catius Asconius Silius Italicus), Roman poet Statius
Statius
(Publius Papinius Statius), Roman poet Valerius Maximus, Roman writer

Science and philosophy[edit]

Aulus Cornelius Celsus, Roman encyclopaedist Apollonius of Tyana, Greek philosopher Ban Biao, Chinese historian Ban Gu, Chinese historian Ban Zhao, Chinese historian Columella
Columella
(Lucius Junius Moderatus Columella), Roman writer on agriculture Hero of Alexandria, Greek mathematician and engineer Josephus
Josephus
( Titus
Titus
Flavius Josephus), Jewish-Roman scholar and historian Livy
Livy
( Titus
Titus
Livius Patavinus), Roman historian Philo of Alexandria, Jewish
Jewish
Hellenistic philosopher Plutarch, Greek historian and biographer Rabbi Akiva, Jewish
Jewish
tannaim theologian Strabo, Greek geographer, philosopher and historian Tacitus
Tacitus
(Gaius Cornelius Tacitus), Roman historian Quintilian
Quintilian
(Marcus Fabius Quintilianus), Roman rhetorician Quintus Asconius Pedianus, Roman historian Quintus Curtius Rufus, Roman historian Yochanan ben Zakkai, Jewish
Jewish
tannaim theologian Wang Chong, Chinese philosopher

Inventions, discoveries, introductions[edit]

Codex, the first form of the modern book, appears in the Roman Empire AD 78: the beginning of the Saka Era used by South Asian calendars. Bookbinding Various inventions by Hero of Alexandria, including the steam turbine (aeolipile), water organ, and various other water-powered machines. AD 31: the Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
Chinese engineer and statesman Tu Shih
Tu Shih
(d. AD 38) from Nanyang invented the first-known hydraulic-powered bellows to heat the blast furnace in smelting cast iron. He used a complex mechanical device that was powered by the rushing current against a waterwheel, a practice that would continue in China. Although Philo of Byzantium described the saqiya chain pump in the early 2nd century
2nd century
BC, the square-pallet chain pump was innovated in China
China
during this century, mentioned first by the philosopher Wang Chong around AD 80. Wang Chong
Wang Chong
also accurately described the water cycle in meteorology, and argued against the mainstream 'radiating influence' theory for solar eclipses, the latter of which was accepted by many, including Zhang Heng. The Chinese astronomer Liu Xin (d. AD 23) documented 1080 different stars, amongst other achievements. End of 1st century
1st century
– codex replaces the scroll.

References[edit]

^ in violation of the general rule that the abbreviation AD should precede the date in question. ^ J. Dwight Pentecost, The Words and Works of Jesus
Jesus
Christ: A Study of the Life of Christ (Zondervan, 1981) pages 577-578. ^ Andreas J. Köstenberger, John (Baker Academic, 2004), page 110. ^ Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible 2000 Amsterdam University Press ISBN 90-5356-503-5 page 249 ^ Paul L. Maier "The Date of the Nativity and Chronology of Jesus" in Jerry Vardaman and Edwin M. Yamauchi, Chronos, kairos, Christos: nativity and chronological studies (1989) ISBN 0-931464-50-1, pp. 113-129 ^ The Riddles of the Fourth Gospel: An Introduction to John by Paul N. Anderson 2011 ISBN 0-8006-0427-X pages 200 ^ Herod the Great by Jerry Knoblet 2005 ISBN 0-7618-3087-1 page 183-184 ^ Jesus
Jesus
in Johannine tradition by Robert Tomson Fortna, Tom Thatcher 2001 ISBN 978-0-664-22219-2 page 77 ^ Jesus
Jesus
& the Rise of Early Christianity: A History of New Testament Times by Paul Barnett 2002 ISBN 0-8308-2699-8 pages 19-21 ^ The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown: An Introduction to the New Testament by Andreas J. Köstenberger, L. Scott Kellum 2009 ISBN 978-0-8054-4365-3 pages 77-79 ^ Paul's early period: chronology, mission strategy, theology by Rainer Riesner
Rainer Riesner
1997 ISBN 978-0-8028-4166-7 page 19-27 (page 27 has a table of various scholarly estimates) ^ Bromiley, Geoffrey William (1979). International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: A-D (International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (W.B.Eerdmans)). Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 689. ISBN 0-8028-3781-6.  ^ Barnett, Paul (2002). Jesus, the Rise of Early Christianity: A History of New Testament Times. InterVarsity Press. p. 21. ISBN 0-8308-2699-8.  ^ L. Niswonger, Richard (1993). New Testament History. Zondervan Publishing Company. p. 200. ISBN 0-310-31201-9. 

Millennia Centuries Decades Years

v t e

Decades and years

1st century 2nd century
2nd century
BC ←  1st century
1st century
BC ← ↔ → 2nd century → 3rd century

0s BC 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC 1 BC

0s

AD 1 AD 2 AD 3 AD 4 AD 5 AD 6 AD 7 AD 8 AD 9

10s AD 10 AD 11 AD 12 AD 13 AD 14 AD 15 AD 16 AD 17 AD 18 AD 19

20s AD 20 AD 21 AD 22 AD 23 AD 24 AD 25 AD 26 AD 27 AD 28 AD 29

30s AD 30 AD 31 AD 32 AD 33 AD 34 AD 35 AD 36 AD 37 AD 38 AD 39

40s AD 40 AD 41 AD 42 AD 43 AD 44 AD 45 AD 46 AD 47 AD 48 AD 49

50s AD 50 AD 51 AD 52 AD 53 AD 54 AD 55 AD 56 AD 57 AD 58 AD 59

60s AD 60 AD 61 AD 62 AD 63 AD 64 AD 65 AD 66 AD 67 AD 68 AD 69

70s AD 70 AD 71 AD 72 AD 73 AD 74 AD 75 AD 76 AD 77 AD 78 AD 79

80s AD 80 AD 81 AD 82 AD 83 AD 84 AD 85 AD 86 AD 87 AD 88 AD 89

90s AD 90 AD 91 AD 92 AD 93 AD 94 AD 95 AD 96 AD 97 AD 98 AD 99

100s AD 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109

v t e

Centuries and millennia

Millennium Century

BC (BCE)

4th 40th 39th 38th 37th 36th 35th 34th 33rd 32nd 31st

3rd 30th 29th 28th 27th 26th 25th 24th 23rd 22nd 21st

2nd 20th 19th 18th 17th 16th 15th 14th 13th 12th 11th

1st 10th 9th 8th 7th 6th 5th 4th 3rd 2nd 1st

AD (CE)

1st 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th

2nd 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th

3rd 21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th 26th 2

.