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The 1994 Winter Olympics
1994 Winter Olympics
(Norwegian: Olympiske vinterleker 1994), officially known as the XVII Olympic Winter Games (French: Les XVIIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver), was a winter multi-sport event celebrated from 12 to 27 February 1994 in and around Lillehammer, Norway. Lillehammer
Lillehammer
failed to win the bid for the 1992 event, losing to Albertville. Lillehammer
Lillehammer
was awarded the 1994 Winter Olympics
1994 Winter Olympics
in 1988, after beating Anchorage, United States; Östersund, Sweden; and Sofia, Bulgaria. Lillehammer
Lillehammer
is the northernmost city to ever host the Winter Games and the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
overall. The Games were the first to be held in a different year from the Summer Olympics, the first and only one to be held two years after the previous winter games. The Games were the second Winter Olympics hosted in Norway, after the 1952 Winter Olympics in Oslo, and the fourth Olympics in the Nordic countries, after the 1912 Summer Olympics
1912 Summer Olympics
in Stockholm, Sweden, and the 1952 Summer Olympics
1952 Summer Olympics
in Helsinki, Finland. While many events took place in Lillehammer, skating took place in Hamar, some ice hockey matches were placed in Gjøvik, while Alpine skiing was held in Øyer
Øyer
and Ringebu. Sixty-seven countries and 1,737 athletes participated in six sports and sixty-one events. Fourteen countries made their debut in the Winter Olympics, of which nine were former Soviet republics. The Games also saw the introduction of stricter qualifying rules, reducing the number of under-performing participants from warm-weather countries. New events were two new distances in short track speed skating and aerials, while speed skating was moved indoors. Nearly two million people spectated the games, which were the first to have the Olympic truce in effect. The games were succeeded by the 1994 Winter Paralympics
1994 Winter Paralympics
from 10 to 19 March. Manuela Di Centa
Manuela Di Centa
and Lyubov Yegorova dominated women's cross-country skiing, taking five and four medals, respectively. A crowd of over 100,000 saw Italy
Italy
beat Norway
Norway
by 0.4 seconds on the men's 4 x 10 km relay. Vreni Schneider
Vreni Schneider
won a complete set of medals in Alpine skiing, while Norway
Norway
took a medal sweep in the men's combined. Nancy Kerrigan had, before the games, been clubbed by Tonya Harding's associate, but managed to take silver in ladies' singles. Johann Olav Koss won three speed skating events, while 13-year-old Kim Yoon-Mi became the youngest-ever Olympic gold medalist. Sweden
Sweden
beat Canada
Canada
in a dramatic penalty shootout in the ice hockey final. With 11 gold medals, Russia won the most events, while with 26, Norway
Norway
collected the most medals overall.

Contents

1 Host city selection 2 Organization 3 Cost and cost overrun 4 Broadcasting rights 5 Events

5.1 Opening ceremony 5.2 Alpine skiing 5.3 Biathlon 5.4 Bobsleigh 5.5 Cross-country skiing 5.6 Figure skating 5.7 Freestyle skiing 5.8 Ice hockey 5.9 Luge 5.10 Nordic combined 5.11 Short track speed skating 5.12 Ski jumping 5.13 Speed skating 5.14 Closing ceremony 5.15 Paralympics

6 Venues 7 Participating National Olympic Committees 8 Calendar 9 Medal table 10 References 11 External links

Host city selection[edit] Main article: Bids for the 1994 Winter Olympics

Lillehammer

Location of Lillehammer
Lillehammer
in Norway

Planning of the Lillehammer
Lillehammer
bid started in 1981, following Falun, Sweden's failed bid for the 1988 Winter Olympics, losing to Calgary respectively. It was supported by the government largely to help stimulate the economy of the inland counties.[2] Lillehammer originally bid for the 1992 Games, but came fourth in the voting with the games ultimately awarded to Albertville.[3] In 1986, the International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
(IOC) voted to separate the Summer and Winter Games, which had been held in the same year since the latter's inception in 1924, and arrange them in alternating even-numbered years.[4] A new bid was launched for the 1994 Games, modified with an indoor speed skating venue and an additional ice hall in Lillehammer. Additional government guarantees were secured.[5] Three other locations bid for the games: Östersund, Anchorage, and Sofia. The 94th IOC Session, held in Seoul
Seoul
on 15 September 1988, voted Lillehammer
Lillehammer
the host for the Games.[6] Until the 2018 Winter Olympics, the Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Olympics were the last Winter Games to date to be held in a town, rather than be centered in a city.

1994 Winter Olympics
1994 Winter Olympics
bidding results[7]

City Country Round 1 Round 2 Round 3

Lillehammer Norway 25 30 45

Östersund Sweden 19 33 39

Anchorage United States 23 22 —

Sofia Bulgaria 17 — —

Organization[edit] Main article: Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Olympic Organizing Committee

The ski jumping hill Lysgårdsbakken
Lysgårdsbakken
was the venue of the opening and closing ceremonies

1.21 million tickets were sold for the games. LOOC estimated that an additional 500,000 viewed the games for free along the courses. In addition, 180,000 seats were used by the media and VIPs.

The overall responsibility for the games was held by the Lillehammer Olympic Organizing Committee, which was created on 14 November 1988 and led by Gerhard Heiberg.[8] It was reorganized several times with various subsidiaries, but from 1993 consisted of a single company owned 51% of Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Municipality, 24.5% by the Government of Norway
Norway
and 24.5% by the Norwegian Olympic Committee.[9] The government had issued a guarantee for the games, and also covered the expenses related to infrastructure.[8] The total costs of the games was 7.4 billion Norwegian krone
Norwegian krone
(NOK), of which NOK 0.95 billion was expenditure by the ministries, NOK 4.48 billion was for operations and event expenses, and NOK 1.67 billion was for investments.[10] The games had a revenue of NOK 2.71 billion, of which NOK 1.43 billion was from television rights, NOK 0.65 billion was from sponsors, and NOK 0.15 billion was from ticket sales.[11] Production of the broadcasting, which costs NOK 462 million,[12] was the responsibility of the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation (NRK), with assistance from the CTV Television Network (Canada) (CTV) and the European Broadcasting Union (EBU).[13] NRK had 1,424 people working at the Olympics, while international broadcasters sent an additional 4,050 accredited broadcasting personnel. The transmission rights for the games were held by EBU
EBU
in Europe, CBS in the United States, NHK
NHK
in Japan, CTV in Canada, the Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union, Nine Network
Nine Network
in Australia, as well as other broadcasters in other countries. The total transmission rights price was 350 million United States
United States
dollars.[14] In part because of the Harding–Kerrigan affair, the viewship in the United States
United States
is still the highest ever for Winter Olympics.[15] NOK 460 million was used on information technology,[16] with the main system running on an IBM AS/400.[17] 3,500 terminals were in use during the game based on the Info '94 system; it was the first Olympics to have terminals installed abroad.[16] Seiko
Seiko
delivered the time-keeping devices.[18] Telecommunications were delivered by Norwegian Telecom, including signal transmission.[19] This included a mobile radio network with nine base stations.[20] Cost and cost overrun[edit] The Oxford Olympics Study established the outturn cost of the Lillehammer
Lillehammer
1994 Winter Olympics
1994 Winter Olympics
at USD 2.2 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 277% in real terms.[21] This includes sports-related costs only, that is, (i) operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g., expenditures for technology, transportation, workforce, administration, security, catering, ceremonies, and medical services, and (ii) direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g., the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, and media and press center, which are required to host the Games. Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The cost and cost overrun for Lillehammer
Lillehammer
1994 compares with costs of USD 2.5 billion and a cost overrun of 13% for Vancouver 2010, and costs of USD 51[22] billion and a cost overrun of 289% for Sochi 2014, the latter being the most costly Olympics to date. Average cost for Winter Games since 1960 is USD 3.1 billion, average cost overrun is 142%. Broadcasting rights[edit]   Austria
Austria
ORF   Australia
Australia
Network Ten, Nine Network   Denmark
Denmark
DR1
DR1
  Canada
Canada
CTV   China
China
CCTV  EU EBU
EBU
Eurosport
Eurosport
  Finland
Finland
Yle
Yle
 France TF1
TF1
  Germany
Germany
ARD ZDF
ZDF
  Iceland
Iceland
RÚV   Italy
Italy
RAI   Netherlands
Netherlands
NOS   New Zealand
New Zealand
TVNZ   Norway
Norway
NRK    Switzerland
Switzerland
SRG SRR   Sweden
Sweden
STV1  United Kingdom BBC   United States
United States
CBS Sports, Turner Sports Events[edit] Main article: Events at the 1994 Winter Olympics There were 61 events contested in 6 sports (12 disciplines).

Alpine skiing
Alpine skiing
(10) (details) Biathlon
Biathlon
(6) (details) Bobsleigh
Bobsleigh
(2) (details) Cross-country skiing
Cross-country skiing
(10) (details) Figure skating
Figure skating
(4) (details) Freestyle skiing
Freestyle skiing
(4) (details)

Ice hockey
Ice hockey
(1) (details) Luge
Luge
(3) (details) Nordic combined
Nordic combined
(2) (details) Ski jumping
Ski jumping
(3) (details) Short track speed skating
Short track speed skating
(6) (details) Speed skating
Speed skating
(10) (details)

Opening ceremony[edit] Main article: 1994 Winter Olympics
1994 Winter Olympics
opening ceremony

Mexican artist Abel Ramírez Águilar
Abel Ramírez Águilar
with an ice sculpture he created for as part of a competition before the start of the Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Games

The opening ceremony was held at the ski jumping hill Lysgårdsbakken. Artistic content was made to present a range of Norwegian culture, included Sami joik, Telemark skiing, fiddlers and folk dancing,[23] simulations of traditional weddings and their processions, and vetter from Norse mythology.[24] After speeches by Heiberg and IOC president Juan Antonio Samaranch, the games were officially declared opened by King Harald V.[25] The Olympic Flame
Olympic Flame
was to be skied down the skijump before lighting the cauldron. Originally this task had rested upon Ole Gunnar Fidjestøl, but after he was injured in a practice jump, his back-up Stein Gruben received the honor. The cauldron was lit by Crown Prince Haakon Magnus. The Olympic oaths were issued by Vegard Ulvang for the athletes and Kari Kåring for the officials.[26] Alpine skiing[edit] Main article: Alpine skiing
Alpine skiing
at the 1994 Winter Olympics

Since the 1992 Games, the rules for combined changed, where the winner was determined by total time instead of points. The women's downhill was originally scheduled for Hafjell, but after protests it was moved to Kvitfjell, which also hosted the men's downhill and super-G. In the men's events, Germany's Markus Wasmeier
Markus Wasmeier
won two disciplines, giant slalom and super-G, finishing ahead of the United States's Tommy Moe on the super-G. Moe won the downhill ahead of Norway's Kjetil André Aamodt, who came in third in the super-G. Austria's Thomas Stangassinger won the slalom ahead of Italy's Alberto Tomba. In the combined, Norway
Norway
took a medal sweep, with Lasse Kjus
Lasse Kjus
winning ahead of Aamodt and Harald Christian Strand Nilsen.[27] In the women's events, Switzerland's Vreni Schneider
Vreni Schneider
was the most successful, winning the slalom, taking silver in combined and taking bronze in giant slalom. The only other athlete to take multiple medals was Italy's Isolde Kostner, who took a third place in both downhill and super-G. The downhill was won by Germany's Katja Seizinger, super-G by the United States' Diann Roffe, the giant slalom by Italy's Deborah Compagnoni, and the combined by Sweden's Pernilla Wiberg.[27] Biathlon[edit] Main article: Biathlon
Biathlon
at the 1994 Winter Olympics Russia and Germany
Germany
split all the individual men's medals. In the 10 km sprint, Russia's Sergei Tchepikov won ahead of Ricco Groß, both with a clean sheet.[28] Bronze winner Sergei Tarasov won the 20 km individual ahead of Germany's Frank Luck
Frank Luck
and Sven Fischer.[29] Germany easily revenged itself by winning the 4 × 7.5 km relay ahead of Russia and France.[30] In the women's class, Canada's Myriam Bédard won both the individual events, finishing ahead of Belarus' Svetlana Paramygina on the 7.5 km sprint and ahead of France's Anne Briand on the 15 km individual.[29] In the 4 × 7.5 km relay, the format since 1992 was changed from three to four participants. Russia, with a clean sheet, won ahead of Germany, who made six misses, with France taking the bronze.[31] Bobsleigh[edit] Main article: Bobsleigh
Bobsleigh
at the 1994 Winter Olympics In two-man, Switzerland
Switzerland
took the top two places, with Gustav Weder, Donat Acklin winning 0.05 seconds ahead of Reto Götschi and Guido Acklin, who were again 0.15 seconds ahead of Italy's Günther Huber and Stefano Ticci placing third.[32] In four-man, Germany-II, consisting of Harald Czudaj, Karsten Brannasch, Olaf Hampel and Alexander Szelig, finished 0.06 seconds ahead of Switzerland-I and 0.23 ahead of Germany-I.[33] Cross-country skiing[edit] Main article: Cross-country skiing
Cross-country skiing
at the 1994 Winter Olympics

Participants from five countries took all the medals of the ten events. Starting in 1994, the Olympics alternated which of the medium-distance and long-distance races had classical and freestyle. men's 4 × 10 km relay was watched by a crowd of nearly 150,000. Norway, Italy
Italy
and Finland
Finland
followed each other tightly for three and a half rounds, with the second and third exchange of the three talking place within 1.1 seconds of each other. Finland
Finland
fell behind in the end, and Norwegian Bjørn Dæhlie
Bjørn Dæhlie
and Italian Silvio Fauner battled to the end, with Italy
Italy
beating Norway
Norway
by 0.4 seconds.[34] Dæhlie won the 10 km classical and 15 km pursuit, while taking silver in the 30 km freestyle. Kazakhstan's Vladimir Smirnov won the 50 km classical, in addition to silver in the 10 km and the 15 km. Norway's Thomas Alsgaard
Thomas Alsgaard
won the 30 km, while Finland's Mika Myllylä took an individual silver and a bronze.[35] Italy's Manuela Di Centa
Manuela Di Centa
and Russia's Lyubov Yegorova dominated the women's events. They took five and four medals each, respectively, and between them winning all the races. Yegorova finished ahead of Di Centa on the 5 km classical and the 10 km pursuit, while Di Centa finished ahead of Yegorova on the 15 km freestyle, and also won the 30 km classical ahead of Norway's Marit Wold. Finland's Marja-Liisa Kirvesniemi took two bronze medals, in 5 km and 30 km.[35] In the 4 × 5 km relay, Norway
Norway
and Russia kept up with each other until the final stage, in which Anita Moen lost to Yegorova, with Italy
Italy
finishing third. With Yegorova's sixth career gold, she was tied as the most-winning Winter Olympic participant.[36] Figure skating[edit] Main article: Figure skating
Figure skating
at the 1994 Winter Olympics

On 6 January, Tonya Harding's ex-husband Jeff Gillooly conspired with Shane Stant to club fellow female figure skater Nancy Kerrigan
Nancy Kerrigan
in the knee.[37] Both Harding and Kerrigan were selected for the Olympic team. After Harding admitted to helping to cover up the attack, the United States
United States
Olympic Committee initiated proceedings to remove her from the Olympic team, but Harding retained her place after threatening legal action.[38] In the ladies' singles, Ukraine's Oksana Baiul won ahead of Kerrigan and Chen Lu, with Harding finishing eighth.[39] In the men's singles, Russia's Alexei Urmanov
Alexei Urmanov
won ahead of Canada's Elvis Stojko
Elvis Stojko
and France's Philippe Candeloro.[40] Relaxation of the amateurism rules led to several former stars returning, such as ice dancing 1984 Champions Great Britain's Jayne Torvill
Jayne Torvill
and Christopher Dean, who took a bronze behind Russians Oksana Grishuk
Oksana Grishuk
and Evgeny Platov, and Maya Usova
Maya Usova
and Alexander Zhulin.[41] In pair skating, the Russians also took a double, with Ekaterina Gordeeva
Ekaterina Gordeeva
and Sergei Grinkov
Sergei Grinkov
winning ahead of Natalia Mishkutenok and Artur Dmitriev.[42] Freestyle skiing[edit] Main article: Freestyle skiing
Freestyle skiing
at the 1994 Winter Olympics

Aerials was added as a discipline, after it had been a demonstration sport at the previous two games. Ski ballet, which had been a demonstration sport in 1992, was dropped.[43] Canada
Canada
dominated the men's events, with Jean-Luc Brassard
Jean-Luc Brassard
winning the men's moguls ahead of Russian Sergey Shupletsov.[44] In the men's aerials, Switzerlands's Andreas Schönbächler won ahead of Canada's Philippe LaRoche
Philippe LaRoche
and Lloyd Langlois, with Canadians also claiming the fourth and sixth places.[45] In the women's disciplines, Norway
Norway
was the only nation to take two medals; Stine Lise Hattestad won the moguls ahead of the United States' Liz McIntyre.[46] In the aerials, Lina Cheryazova
Lina Cheryazova
won, claiming Uzbekistan's only medal,[47] ahead of Sweden's Marie Lindgren and Norway's Hilde Synnøve Lid.[48] Ice hockey[edit] Main article: Ice hockey
Ice hockey
at the 1994 Winter Olympics Twelve teams participated in the ice hockey tournament, divided into two groups. Each played as a single round robin, with the four best advancing to the single elimination medal tournament.[49] Group A saw Finland
Finland
win all five matches, while the host nation lost all theirs. Also Germany, the Czech Republic and Russia advanced from the group, all with three victories. Group B was won by Slovakia ahead of Canada, Sweden
Sweden
and the United States.[50] The quarter-finals saw the Czech Republic, the United States, Germany
Germany
and Slovakia eliminated.[51] In the semi-finals, Canada
Canada
beat Finland
Finland
5–3, while Sweden
Sweden
beat Russia 4–3.[52] After the final period of the final, the match was a 2–2 tie, resulting in a shoot-out. After six shots, it was tied 2–2 until Sweden's Peter Forsberg
Peter Forsberg
beat Corey Hirsch, making the Swedes win after Paul Kariya
Paul Kariya
missed his shot. This led to Tomas Jonsson, Håkan Loob and Mats Näslund
Mats Näslund
becoming the first three members of the Triple Gold Club.[53] Luge[edit] Main article: Luge
Luge
at the 1994 Winter Olympics Italy, Germany
Germany
and Austria
Austria
collected all the medals in the luge events. Germany's Georg Hackl
Georg Hackl
won the men's singles, making him the first to defend an Olympic title in the event in thirty years. He finished ahead of Austria's Markus Prock and Italy's Armin Zöggeler. In the doubles, the two Italian teams finished on top, with Kurt Brugger and Wilfried Huber winning ahead of Hansjörg Raffl and Norbert Huber. In the women's singles, Italy's Gerda Weissensteiner won ahead of Germany's Susi Erdmann and Austria's Andrea Tagwerker.[54] The own debuts was start Nedžad Lomigora from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Marco Feder from Liechtenstein, Sminon J. Payne from Bermuda, Paul Hix from United Kingdom, Josef Svarek from Slovakia, Roger White from Australia. Nordic combined[edit] Main article: Nordic combined
Nordic combined
at the 1994 Winter Olympics While the events were the same, since the 1992 Games there was a rule change so that instead of jumping three times and taking the points for the best two, the competitors only jumped twice. In the individual normal hill/15 km, Japan's Kenji Ogiwara had only lost a single event in the season's World Cup, but came in sixth on the hill, which was won by Norway's Fred Børre Lundberg. He won the event after finishing eight-best in the skiing, ahead of Japan's Takanori Kono, Norway's Bjarte Engen Vik and Ogiwara in fourth.[55] In the team normal hill/3 x 10 km, Japan finished first, third and fifth among the jumpers, giving them a 5:07 minute lead over Norway
Norway
and finishing 4:49 minutes ahead. Switzerland
Switzerland
took the bronze.[56] Short track speed skating[edit] Main article: Short track speed skating
Short track speed skating
at the 1994 Winter Olympics Short track speed skating
Short track speed skating
was dominated by South Korea, who won four of the six events. After the discipline's debut in 1992, the 1994 featured two new events, the men's 500 meters and the women's 1000 meters.[57] South Korea's Chae Ji-Hoon won the men's 500 meters, while taking silver on the 1000 meters behind countryman Kim Ki-Hoon, who defended his 1992 gold. The bronze was won by Canada's Marc Gagnon, who won the B final. In the A final, countryman Derrick Campbell was obstructed by Great Britain's Nicky Gooch, who was disqualified. Campbell got up and started celebrating his bronze medal, when he discovered he had not completed the race.[58] In the men's 5000 meter relay, South Korea did not enter after a fall in the sole qualifying event, which took place in March 1993. Canada fell during the final, which saw Italy
Italy
take a clear victory ahead of the United States, who were marginally ahead of Australia. The United States' Eric Flaim
Eric Flaim
became the first to take Olympic medals in both short track and long track speed skating, while Australia
Australia
took its first Winter Olympic medal
Olympic medal
ever.[59] Six people took the individual medals in the women's events, with the United States' Cathy Turner defending her 1992 gold on the 500 meters[60] and South Korea's Chun Lee-Kyung taking the gold in 1000 meters.[57] South Korea won the 3000 meter relay with a team of four girls under 19. At 13, Kim Yoon-Mi became the world's youngest Olympic gold medalist.[61] Ski jumping[edit] Main article: Ski jumping
Ski jumping
at the 1994 Winter Olympics

Norway
Norway
won three of the six individual medals, with Norway's Espen Bredesen winning the normal hill ahead of Norway's Lasse Ottesen
Lasse Ottesen
and Germany's Dieter Thoma. In the large hill, Germany's Jens Weißflog won ahead of Bredesen and Austria's Andreas Goldberger.[62] In the large hill team, the 1994 Games introduced new rules whereby all four jumps in each round counted, and not just the best three. Neither Norway
Norway
nor Finland, who between them had won all but one former Olympic team jump, managed to collect a medal. The event became a duel between Germany
Germany
and Japan, with only a point separating them after the first round of jumps. Masahiko Harada had the last jump, and would secure a gold if he managed 105 meters but lost his 'cool' mistiming his leap and landed at 97.5 meters, giving the gold to the Germans.[63] Speed skating[edit] Main article: Speed skating
Speed skating
at the 1994 Winter Olympics

The long track speed skating events moved indoors, after they had been held outdoors in 1992. The 1994 Games introduced new qualification rules, limiting the number of participants in the men's 5000 meters and women's 3000 meters to 32, and only allowing the 16 best in each of these events to participate in the men's 10000 meters and the women's 5000 meters. Norway's Johann Olav Koss took three golds, in the men's 1,500 meters, 5000 meters and 10000 meters. In the latter two, he finished ahead of fellow countryman Kjell Storelid. The men's 500 meters was won by Russia's Aleksandr Golubev ahead of fellow countryman Sergey Klevchenya, while the men's 1000 meters was won by American Dan Jansen. For women, American Bonnie Blair
Bonnie Blair
defended her two 1992 golds in 500 meters and 1000 meters. Austria's Emese Hunyady
Emese Hunyady
won the 1500 meters ahead of Russia's Svetlana Bazhanova
Svetlana Bazhanova
and Germany's Gunda Niemann. However, Bazhanova took gold ahead of Nemeth-Hunyady on the 3000 meters, with Germany's Claudia Pechstein
Claudia Pechstein
in third. Pechstein would go on to win the 5000 meters ahead of Niemann.[64] Closing ceremony[edit] Main article: 1994 Winter Olympics
1994 Winter Olympics
closing ceremony At the closing ceremonies, also held at Lysgårdsbakken, all spectators were handed a flashlight with the inscription "Remember Sarajevo"—the host of the 1984 Winter Olympics
1984 Winter Olympics
which was at the heart of the Bosnian War. The first entrants on the stage were Liv Ullmann and Thor Heyerdahl,[65] followed by the athletes' precession. After the flag had been transferred to Nagano mayor Tasuka Tsukada, speeches were held by Lillehammer
Lillehammer
mayor Audun Tron, Heiberg and Samaranch. The latter used his speech to remind about Sarajevo's situation,[66] before giving Heiberg IOC's gold medal.[67] Artistic presentations followed with many of the themes from the opening ceremony. The 1998 Winter Games' mascots, Snowlets, was also presented. Of the 2,200 people performing in the opening and closing ceremonies, only 50 were professionals.[68] Paralympics[edit] Main article: 1994 Winter Paralympics The VI Winter Paralympics were run as an independent tournament, but organized by LOOC from 10 to 19 March. Competitions were held in Alpine skiing, ice sledge speed racing, biathlon and cross-country skiing; the games also introduced ice sledge hockey. The Paralympics used the same venues as the Olympics, and were the second in Norway, after the 1980 Winter Paralympics
1980 Winter Paralympics
in Geilo. 471 athletes from 31 countries participated, with Norway
Norway
claiming the most gold medals ahead of Germany. The Paralympics featured their own logo, the amputee mascot Sondre, but retained the same overall design as the Olympics.[69] Venues[edit] Main article: Venues of the 1994 Winter Olympics

Map of the venues

The games were spread out over ten venues in five municipalities in two counties, Oppland
Oppland
and Hedmark. Lillehammer, with 25,000 inhabitants, and Hamar
Hamar
and Gjøvik, both with 27,000 inhabitants, are all situated on the lake Mjøsa. Gjøvik
Gjøvik
and Hamar
Hamar
are located 45 and 54 kilometers (28 and 34 mi) south of Lillehammer. Hunderfossen is located 15 kilometers (9.3 mi) north of Lillehammer, but lies within the municipality. Øyer
Øyer
and Ringebu, both with just under 5,000 inhabitants, are located 18 and 50 kilometers (11 and 31 mi) north of Lillehammer, in the valley Gudbrandsdalen. Lillehammer
Lillehammer
had four venues, Hamar
Hamar
had two venues, while Hunderfossen, Gjøvik, Øyer and Ringebu
Ringebu
had one venue each.[70] In Lillehammer, Lysgårdsbakken
Lysgårdsbakken
features twin ski jumping hills. The large hill has a hill size of 138 and a critical point of 120, while the normal hill has a hill size of 100 and a critical point of 90. The hill has capacity for 35,000 spectators and hosted, in addition to the ski jumping events, the opening and closing ceremonies.[71] Birkebeineren Skistadion
Birkebeineren Skistadion
featured cross-country skiing and biathlon, with the stadium itself having a capacity for 31,000 spectators during cross-country skiing and 13,500 during biathlon. In addition, spectators could watch from along the tracks.[72] Kanthugen Freestyle Arena featured a capacity for 15,000 spectators.[73] All the outdoor skiing arenas had free areas, which saw up to 25,000 extra spectators at the team jump and 75,000 extra spectators at the 50 km.[74] Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Olympic Bobsleigh
Bobsleigh
and Luge
Luge
Track is located at Hunderfossen. It had a capacity for 10,000 spectators and is the only bobsleigh and luge track in the Nordic countries.[75] Ice hockey
Ice hockey
was played at two venues, in Håkons Hall
Håkons Hall
in Lillehammer
Lillehammer
and Gjøvik Olympic Cavern Hall in Gjøvik. Håkons Hall
Håkons Hall
has a capacity for 10,500 spectators, and also features the Norwegian Olympic Museum. The Cavern Hall is built as a man-made cave and had a capacity for 5,300 spectators.[76][77] Skating events took place at two venues in Hamar. Vikingskipet
Vikingskipet
had a capacity for 10,600 spectators and featured speed skating events,[78] while figure skating and short-track speed skating were held at Hamar
Hamar
Olympic Amphitheatre.[79] Alpine skiing
Alpine skiing
was split between two ski resorts: Hafjell
Hafjell
in Øyer
Øyer
and Kvitfjell
Kvitfjell
in Ringebu. The former was used for the slalom and giant slalom, while the latter hosted downhill and super-G.[80] Spectators relied heavily on the use of buses and trains for transportation. Downtown Lillehammer
Lillehammer
and the axis between Lillehammer and Oslo were the most limiting areas, and the Norwegian State Railways ran up to 22 trains per day between Oslo and Lillehammer. Trains were also used northwards towards Trondheim, while other areas were served by bus. All the venues were located along railway lines, making use of spectators walking from the stations to the venues to limit road congestion, although special services were available for disabled people. Shuttle buses were established between venues and also connected to park and ride facilities.[81] Participating National Olympic Committees[edit]

Vikingskipet
Vikingskipet
in Hamar
Hamar
was the venue for speed skating.

A record 67 nations participated in the 1994 Winter Olympic Games. The Games were the first following the implementation of stricter qualifying standards, which prevented low-performing athletes from competing without meeting minimum standards. As a consequence, eleven "warm-weather countries" signed up to participate in the Games, but were ultimately absent as none of their athletes succeeded in qualifying. The number of African athletes fell from nineteen in 1992 to three in 1994. These rules were, however, not applied to bobsled events, enabling the United States
United States
Virgin Islands, Monaco, Trinidad and Tobago and Jamaica to compete in that sport.[82] On 25 October 1993, the United Nations General Assembly
United Nations General Assembly
urged its members to observe the Olympic truce from seven days before to seven days after the Olympic games, making the Lillehammer
Lillehammer
games the first to observe the truce.[83] IOC appealed for a truce in the ongoing Bosnian War
Bosnian War
and the Siege of Sarajevo, the city that had hosted the 1984 Winter Olympics.[84] The Unified Team, which had represented participants from former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
states, was broken up, and the nine former Soviet republics of Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Ukraine and Uzbekistan participated as nations. The break-up of Czechoslovakia resulted in the Czech Republic and Slovakia participating for the first time. Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
participated for the first time, after their independence from Yugoslavia. The composition of the Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
four-man bob team was one Croat, two Bosniaks and a Serb, mirroring the ethnic diversity of the country. Three "warm countries", American Samoa, Israel and Trinidad and Tobago, made their debuts.

Participating NOCs

Participating National Olympic Committees

 American Samoa (2)  Andorra (6)  Argentina (10)  Armenia (2)  Australia (25)  Austria (80)  Belarus (33)  Belgium (5)  Bermuda (1)  Bosnia and Herzegovina (10)  Brazil (1)  Bulgaria (17)  Canada (95)  Chile (3)  China (24)  Croatia (3)  Cyprus (1)  Czech Republic (63)  Denmark (4)  Estonia (26)  Fiji (1)  Finland (61)  France (98)  Georgia (5)  Germany (112)  Great Britain (32)  Greece (9)  Hungary (16)  Iceland (5)  Israel (1)  Italy (104)  Jamaica (4)  Japan (57)  Kazakhstan (29)  South Korea (21)  Kyrgyzstan (1)  Latvia (27)  Liechtenstein (10)  Lithuania (6)  Luxembourg (1)  Mexico (1)  Moldova (2)  Monaco (5)  Mongolia (1)  Netherlands (21)  New Zealand (7)  Norway (88) (host)  Poland (28)  Portugal (1)  Puerto Rico (5)  Romania (23)  Russia (113)  San Marino (3)  Senegal (1)  Slovakia (42)  Slovenia (22)  South Africa (2)  Spain (13)  Sweden (84)  Switzerland (59)  Chinese Taipei (2)  Trinidad and Tobago (2)  Turkey (1)  Ukraine (37)  United States (147)  Uzbekistan (7)  Virgin Islands (8)

Calendar[edit]

All dates are in Central European Time
Central European Time
(UTC-6)

OC Opening ceremony ● Event competitions 1 Event finals CC Closing ceremony

February 12th Sat 13th Sun 14th Mon 15th Tue 16th Wed 17th Thu 18th Fri 19th Sat 20th Sun 21st Mon 22nd Tue 23rd Wed 24th Thu 25th Fri 26th Sat 27th Sun Events

Ceremonies OC

CC N/A

Alpine skiing

1 ● 1

1

1 ● 1

1 1 1 1 1 10

Biathlon

1

1

2

1 1

6

Bobsleigh

● 1

● 1 2

Cross country skiing

1 1 1

2

1

1 1

1

1 10

Figure skating

1

● ● 1 ● 1

1

4

Freestyle skiing

● 2

2

4

Ice hockey ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● 1 1

Luge

● 1 ● 1

1

3

Nordic combined

● 1

● 1

2

Short track

2

4

6

Ski jumping

1

1

1

3

Speed skating

1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1

1

1

10

Daily medal events

3 3 3 4 4 3 5 4 4 4 4 5 5 6 4 61

Cumulative total

3 6 9 13 17 20 25 29 33 37 41 46 51 57 61

February 12th Sat 13th Sun 14th Mon 15th Tue 16th Wed 17th Thu 18th Fri 19th Sat 20th Sun 21st Mon 22nd Tue 23rd Wed 24th Thu 25th Fri 26th Sat 27th Sun Total events

Medal table[edit] Main article: 1994 Winter Olympics
1994 Winter Olympics
medal table Russia won the most golds, while Norway
Norway
won the most medals overall. The following table presents the top ten nations, sorted by gold medals, with the host nation highlighted.[47]

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total

1  Russia 11 8 4 23

2  Norway 10 11 5 26

3  Germany 9 7 8 24

4  Italy 7 5 8 20

5  United States 6 5 2 13

6  South Korea 4 1 1 6

7  Canada 3 6 4 13

8  Switzerland 3 4 2 9

9  Austria 2 3 4 9

10  Sweden 2 1 0 3

References[edit]

^ "The Olympic Winter Games Factsheet" (PDF). International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 5 August 2012.  ^ LOOC (I): 13 ^ LOOC (I): 16 ^ " Lillehammer
Lillehammer
1994". www.olympic.org. Archived from the original on 5 April 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2010.  ^ Hove-Ødegård, Celius and Brun: 9 ^ Hove-Ødegård, Celius and Brun: 6 ^ "Past Olympic host city election results". GamesBids. Archived from the original on 17 March 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2011.  ^ a b LOOC (I): 19 ^ LOOC (I): 22 ^ LOOC (I): 29 ^ LOOC (I): 36 ^ LOOC (I): 30 ^ LOOC (II): 206 ^ LOOC (II): 205 ^ Seidman, Robert (1 March 2010). "190 million People watched Olympics, 2nd most watched winter Olympics in history". TV By the Numbers. Archived from the original on 13 December 2010. Retrieved 13 December 2010.  ^ a b LOOC (II): 5 ^ LOOC (II): 18 ^ LOOC (II): 10 ^ LOOC (II): 33 ^ LOOC (II): 28 ^ Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stewart, Allison; Budzier, Alexander (2016). The Oxford Olympics Study 2016: Cost and Cost Overrun at the Games. Oxford: Saïd Business School Working Papers (Oxford: University of Oxford). pp. 9–13. SSRN 2804554 .  ^ "Sochi 2014: the costliest Olympics yet but where has all the money gone?". The Guardian. Retrieved 2014-02-12.  ^ LOOC (III): 154 ^ LOOC (III): 158 ^ LOOC (III): 155 ^ LOOC (III): 156 ^ a b "Alpine Skiing at the 1994 Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Winter Games". Sports Reference. Archived from the original on 13 December 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2010.  ^ " Biathlon
Biathlon
at the 1994 Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Winter Games: Men's 10 kilometres Sprint". Sports Reference. Archived from the original on 13 December 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2010.  ^ a b " Biathlon
Biathlon
at the 1994 Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Winter Games". Sports Reference. Archived from the original on 13 December 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2010.  ^ " Biathlon
Biathlon
at the 1994 Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Winter Games: Men's 4 × 7.5 kilometres Relay". Sports Reference. Archived from the original on 13 December 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2010.  ^ " Biathlon
Biathlon
at the 1994 Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Winter Games: Women's 4 × 7.5 kilometres Relay". Sports Reference. Archived from the original on 13 December 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2010.  ^ LOOC (IV): 97 ^ LOOC (IV): 99 ^ "Cross Country Skiing at the 1994 Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Winter Games: Men's 4 × 10 kilometres Relay". Sports Reference. Archived from the original on 13 December 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2010.  ^ a b "Cross Country Skiing at the 1994 Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Winter Games". Sports Reference. Archived from the original on 13 December 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2010.  ^ "Cross Country Skiing at the 1994 Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Winter Games: Women's 4 × 5 kilometres Relay". Sports Reference. Archived from the original on 13 December 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2010.  ^ Swift, E. M. (14 February 1994). "Anatomy of a Plot". Sports Illustrated. Archived from the original on 11 December 2011. Retrieved 11 December 2012.  ^ "Mass Moments: Skater Nancy Kerrigan
Nancy Kerrigan
Assulted". Massachusetts Foundation for the Humanities. Archived from the original on 26 November 2010. Retrieved 13 December 2010.  ^ LOOC (IV): 148 ^ LOOC (IV): 147 ^ "Figure Skating at the 1994 Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Winter Games: Mixed Ice Dancing". Sports Reference. Archived from the original on 13 December 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2010.  ^ LOOC (IV): 145 ^ "Freestyle Skiing at the 1994 Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Winter Games". Sports Reference. Archived from the original on 13 December 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2010.  ^ LOOC (IV): 105 ^ LOOC (IV): 104 ^ LOOC (IV): 102 ^ a b LOOC (IV): 65 ^ LOOC (IV): 103 ^ "Ice Hockey at the 1994 Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Winter Games". Sports Reference. Archived from the original on 12 December 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2010.  ^ "Ice Hockey at the 1994 Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Winter Games: Men's Ice Hockey Preliminary Round". Sports Reference. Archived from the original on 12 December 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2010.  ^ "Ice Hockey at the 1994 Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Winter Games: Men's Ice Hockey Quarter-Finals". Sports Reference. Archived from the original on 13 December 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2010.  ^ "Ice Hockey at the 1994 Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Winter Games: Men's Ice Hockey Semi-Finals". Sports Reference. Archived from the original on 13 December 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2010.  ^ "Ice Hockey at the 1994 Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Winter Games: Men's Ice Hockey". Sports Reference. Archived from the original on 13 December 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2010.  ^ " Luge
Luge
at the 1994 Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Winter Games". Sports Reference. Archived from the original on 13 December 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2010.  ^ "Nordic Combined at the 1994 Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Winter Games: Men's Individual". Sports Reference. Archived from the original on 13 December 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2010.  ^ "Nordic Combined at the 1994 Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Winter Games: Men's Team". Sports Reference. Archived from the original on 13 December 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2010.  ^ a b "Short Track Speed Skating at the 1994 Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Winter Games". Sports Reference. Archived from the original on 12 December 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2010.  ^ "Short Track Speed Skating at the 1994 Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Winter Games: Men's 1,000 metres". Sports Reference. Archived from the original on 12 December 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2010.  ^ "Short Track Speed Skating at the 1994 Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Winter Games: Men's 5,000 metres Relay". Sports Reference. Archived from the original on 12 December 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2010.  ^ "Short Track Speed Skating at the 1994 Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Winter Games: Women's 500 metres". Sports Reference. Archived from the original on 12 December 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2010.  ^ "Short Track Speed Skating at the 1994 Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Winter Games:Women's 3,000 metres Relay". Sports Reference. Archived from the original on 12 December 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2010.  ^ "Ski Jumping at the 1994 Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Winter Games". Sports Reference. Archived from the original on 12 December 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2010.  ^ "Ski Jumping at the 1994 Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Winter Games: Men's Large Hill, Team". Sports Reference. Archived from the original on 12 December 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2010.  ^ "Speed Skating at the 1994 Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Winter Games". Sports Reference. Archived from the original on 12 December 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2010.  ^ LOOC (III): 161 ^ LOOC (III): 163 ^ LOOC (III): 164 ^ LOOC (III): 166 ^ " Lillehammer
Lillehammer
1994". International Paralympic Committee. Archived from the original on 11 December 2010. Retrieved 13 December 2010.  ^ Hove-Ødegård, Celius and Brun: 23 ^ LOOC (III): 18–22 ^ LOOC (III): 31–36 ^ LOOC (III): 23–26 ^ LOOC (II): 241–242 ^ LOOC (III): 37–41 ^ LOOC (III): 27–30 ^ LOOC (III): 61–64 ^ LOOC (III): 51–56 ^ LOOC (III): 57–60 ^ LOOC (III): 42–50 ^ LOOC (II): 38–43 ^ Clarey, Christopher (7 February 1994). "The Tourist Athlete Gets Snowed Out of These Games". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 December 2010. Retrieved 11 December 2010.  ^ "The United Nations and the Olympic Truce". UN. Archived from the original on 12 December 2010. Retrieved 11 December 2010.  ^ " Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Has the War in Sarajevo on Its Mind". The New York Times. Reuters. 8 February 1994. Archived from the original on 12 December 2010. Retrieved 11 December 2010. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1994 Winter Olympics.

" Lillehammer
Lillehammer
1994". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.  "Results and Medalists". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.  Olympic Review 1994 – Official results The program of the 1994 Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Winter Olympics Hove-Ødegård, Arne; Celius, Sten; Brun, Ivar Ole (2004). "An Olympic Fairy Tale". Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Municipality. Archived from the original on 12 December 2010. Retrieved 11 December 2010.  Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Olympic Organizing Committee. "1994 Winter Olympics Report, volume I" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 December 2010. Retrieved 10 December 2010.  Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Olympic Organizing Committee. "1994 Winter Olympics Report, volume II" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 December 2010. Retrieved 10 December 2010.  Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Olympic Organizing Committee. "1994 Winter Olympics Report, volume III" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 December 2010. Retrieved 10 December 2010.  Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Olympic Organizing Committee. "1994 Winter Olympics Report, volume IV" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 December 2010. Retrieved 10 December 2010. 

Preceded by Albertville Winter Olympics Lillehammer XVII Olympic Winter Games (1994) Succeeded by Nagano

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v t e

Events at the 1994 Winter Olympics (Lillehammer)

Alpine skiing Biathlon Bobsleigh Cross‑country skiing Figure skating Freestyle skiing Ice hockey Luge Nordic combined Short track speed skating Ski jumping Speed skating

v t e

Nations at the 1994 Winter Olympics
1994 Winter Olympics
in Lillehammer, Norway

Africa

Senegal South Africa

America

Argentina Bermuda Brazil Canada Chile Jamaica Mexico Puerto Rico Trinidad-Tobago United States Virgin Islands

Asia

China Chinese Taipei Japan Kazakhstan South Korea Kyrgyzstan Mongolia Uzbekistan

Europe

Andorra Armenia Austria Belarus Belgium Bosnia-Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Great Britain Greece Hungary Iceland Israel Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Moldova Monaco Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine

Oceania

American Samoa Australia Fiji New Zealand

v t e

Venues of the 1994 Winter Olympics

Birkebeineren Ski Stadium Gjøvik
Gjøvik
Olympic Cavern Hall Håkon Hall Hamar
Hamar
Olympic Amphitheatre Hamar
Hamar
Olympic Hall Kanthaugen Freestyle Arena Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Olympic Alpine Centre Hafjell Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Olympic Alpine Centre Kvitfjell Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Olympic Bobsleigh
Bobsleigh
and Luge
Luge
Track Lysgårdsbakkene Ski Jumping Arena

v t e

Sport in Lillehammer

Clubs

Faaberg IL Lillehammer
Lillehammer
FK Lillehammer
Lillehammer
IF Lillehammer
Lillehammer
IK Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Skiklub Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Skøiteklubb Søre Ål IL

Venues

Balbergbakken (closed) Håkons Hall Kanthaugen Freestyle Arena Kristins Hall Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Olympic Bobsleigh
Bobsleigh
and Luge
Luge
Track Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Stadium (closed) Lysgårdsbakken Stampesletta

Events

World All-Round Speed Skating Championships for Women 1953 World Ice Hockey Championships

1989 (Group B) 1999

World Women's Handball Championship

1993 1999

1994 Winter Olympics 1994 Winter Paralympics 2008 European Men's Handball Championship 2010 European Women's Handball Championship 2016 Winter Youth Olympics

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Sport in Hamar

Clubs

Briskebyen FL • FL Fart
FL Fart
Hamar
Hamar
AIL • Hamar
Hamar
IL • Hamarkameratene
Hamarkameratene
Storhamar IL
Storhamar IL
(Handball • Dragons) • Vang FL

Venues

Ankerskogen svømmehall • Briskeby Arena
Briskeby Arena
• Fartbana • Hamar stadion (closed) • CC Amfi
CC Amfi
• Prestrudhallen • Storhamar Ishall • Vikingskipet

Events

1938 Cup Final • 1994 Winter Olympics
1994 Winter Olympics
( Speed skating
Speed skating
• Short track speed skating • Figure skating) • 1994 Winter Paralympics
1994 Winter Paralympics
Idrettsgallaen
Idrettsgallaen
2016 Winter Youth Olympics
2016 Winter Youth Olympics
( Speed skating
Speed skating
• Figure skating)

World championships

Speed skating
Speed skating
(Allround : 1895 (men) • 1952 (men) • 1980 (women) • 1985 (men) • 1991 (women) • 1993 (men) • 1999 • 2004 • 2009 • 2013 • 2017 — Sprint : 1997 • 2002 • 2007 — Single distance : 1996 • Bandy (1993) • Ice hockey (1999) • Women's handball (1999) • Ice Sledge hockey (2012)

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TCA Award for Outstanding Achievement in Sports

1984 Summer Olympics
1984 Summer Olympics
(1985) No award given (1986) 1987 America's Cup
1987 America's Cup
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1988 Winter Olympics
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1988 Summer Olympics
(1989) 1989 World Series
1989 World Series
(1990) 1991 NCAA Final Four (1991) When It Was a Game (1992) Bob Costas
Bob Costas
(1993) 1994 Winter Olympics
1994 Winter Olympics
(1994) Baseball (1995) SportsCenter
SportsCenter
(1996) SportsCenter
SportsCenter
(1997)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 123091778 LCCN: n94025366 GND: 2134988-5 SUDOC: 030636140

1990s portal Olympics po

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