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The 1964/1965 New York World's Fair
World's Fair
held over 140 pavilions, 110 restaurants, for 80 nations (hosted by 37), 24 US states, and over 45 corporations to build exhibits or attractions at Flushing Meadows Park in Queens, NY.[1][2][3] The immense fair covered 646 acres (261 ha) on half the park, with numerous pools or fountains, and an amusement park with rides near the lake. However, the fair did not receive official sanctioning from the Bureau of International Expositions (BIE). Hailing itself as a "universal and international" exposition, the fair's theme was "Peace Through Understanding", dedicated to "Man's Achievement on a Shrinking Globe in an Expanding Universe". American companies dominated the exposition as exhibitors. The theme was symbolized by a 12-story-high, stainless-steel model of the earth called the Unisphere, built on the foundation of the Perisphere
Perisphere
from the 1939 NYC fair.[4] The fair ran for two six-month seasons, April 22 – October 18, 1964, and April 21 – October 17, 1965. Admission price for adults (13 and older) was $2 in 1964 (equivalent to $15.78 in 2017) but $2.50 (equivalent to $19.41 in 2017) in 1965, and $1 for children (2–12) both years (equivalent to $7.89 in 2017).[5] The fair is noted as a showcase of mid-20th-century American culture and technology. The nascent Space Age, with its vista of promise, was well represented. More than 51 million people attended the fair, though fewer than the hoped-for 70 million. It remains a touchstone for many American Baby Boomers, who visited the optimistic fair as children before the turbulent years of the Vietnam War, cultural changes, and increasing domestic violence associated with the Civil Rights Movement. In many ways the fair symbolized a grand consumer show covering many products produced in America at the time for transportation, living, and consumer electronic needs in a way that would never be repeated at future world's fairs in North America. Many major American manufacturing companies from pen manufacturers, to chemical companies, to computers, to automobiles had a major presence.[2][1] This fair gave many attendees their first interaction with computer equipment. Corporations demonstrated the use of mainframe computers, computer terminals with keyboards and CRT displays, teletype machines, punch cards, and telephone modems in an era when computer equipment was kept in back offices away from the public, decades before the Internet and home computers were at everyone's disposal.

Contents

1 Site history 2 Beginnings 3 Architecture 4 International participation 5 Federal and state exhibits

5.1 US Pavilion 5.2 United States
United States
Space Park 5.3 New York State Pavilion 5.4 Other state pavilions 5.5 New York City Pavilion 5.6 Bourbon Street Pavilion

6 American industry

6.1 General Motors 6.2 IBM 6.3 Bell System 6.4 Westinghouse 6.5 Sinclair Oil 6.6 Ford 6.7 DuPont 6.8 Parker Pen 6.9 Chunky Candy

7 Films 8 Disney influence 9 Failure of amusements 10 Controversial ending 11 On-site legacy 12 Reuse of pavilions and major exhibits elsewhere 13 Cultural references 14 Gallery 15 See also 16 References

16.1 Bibliography 16.2 Notes

17 External links

17.1 Videos

Site history[edit] The site, Flushing Meadows Corona Park
Flushing Meadows Corona Park
in the borough of Queens, was previously Manhattan's Corona Ash Dumps featured prominently in F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby
The Great Gatsby
as the Valley of Ashes. Prior to that, the site had been a natural wetland — literally wetland meadows that would flush the nearby runoff entering the adjacent bay. Flushing Meadows had been a Dutch settlement, named after the village of Vlissingen
Vlissingen
(which translates from Dutch to English as "flushing"). Subsequently, the site was reclaimed for the 1939/1940 New York World's Fair, one of the largest world's fairs to be held in the United States, occupying nearly a square mile (2.6 km2) of land. The 1939 fair also occupied space that was filled in for the 1964/1965 exposition. Preceding these fairs was the 1853–54 New York's World's Fair, called the Exhibition of the Industry of All Nations, located in the New York Crystal Palace
New York Crystal Palace
on what is now Bryant Park
Bryant Park
in the borough of Manhattan, New York City (All three of New York's world's fairs were the only international expositions to run for two years, rather than one). Beginnings[edit] The 1964/1965 Fair was conceived by a group of New York businessmen who remembered their childhood experiences at the 1939 New York World's Fair. Thoughts of an economic boom to the city as the result of increased tourism was a major reason for holding another fair 25 years after the 1939/1940 extravaganza.[6] Then-New York City mayor, Robert F. Wagner, Jr., commissioned Frederick Pittera, a producer of international fairs and exhibitions, and author of the history of International Fairs & Exhibitions for the Encyclopædia Britannica and Compton's Encyclopedia, to prepare the first feasibility studies for the 1964/1965 New York World's Fair. He was joined by Austrian architect Victor Gruen
Victor Gruen
(creator of the shopping mall) in studies that eventually led the Eisenhower Commission to award the world's fair to New York City in competition with a number of American cities. Organizers turned to private financing and the sale of bonds to pay the huge costs to stage them. The organizers hired New York's "Master Builder" Robert Moses, to head the corporation established to run the fair because he was experienced in raising money for vast public projects. Moses had been a formidable figure in the city since coming to power in the 1930s. He was responsible for the construction of much of the city's highway infrastructure and, as parks commissioner for decades, the creation of much of the city's park system. In the mid-1930s, Moses oversaw the conversion of a vast Queens
Queens
tidal marsh garbage dump into the fairgrounds that hosted the 1939/1940 World's Fair.[7] Called Flushing Meadows Park, it was Moses' grandest park scheme. He envisioned this vast park, comprising some 1,300 acres (5 km2) of land, easily accessible from Manhattan, as a major recreational playground for New Yorkers. When the 1939/1940 World's Fair
World's Fair
ended in financial failure, Moses did not have the available funds to complete work on his project. He saw the 1964/1965 Fair as a means to finish what the earlier fair had begun.[8] To ensure profits to complete the park, fair organizers knew they would have to maximize receipts. An estimated attendance of 70 million people would be needed to turn a profit and, for attendance that large, the fair would need to be held for two years. The World's Fair
World's Fair
Corporation also decided to charge site-rental fees to all exhibitors who wished to construct pavilions on the grounds. This decision caused the fair to come into conflict with the Bureau of International Expositions (BIE), as the international body headquartered in Paris
Paris
that sanctions world's fairs: BIE rules stated that an international exposition could run for one six-month period only, and no rent could be charged to exhibitors. In addition, the rules allowed only one exposition in any given country within a 10-year period, and the Seattle
Seattle
World's Fair
World's Fair
had already been sanctioned for 1962, as 2 years prior.[7] The United States
United States
was not a member of the BIE at the time, but fair organizers understood that a sanction by the BIE would assure that its nearly 40 member nations would participate in the fair. Moses, undaunted by the rules, journeyed to Paris
Paris
to seek official approval for the New York fair. When the BIE balked at New York's bid, Moses, used to having his way in New York, angered the BIE delegates by taking his case to the press, publicly stating his disdain for the BIE and its rules.[7] The BIE retaliated by formally requesting its member nations not to participate in the New York fair.[7] The 1939/1940 and 1964/1965 New York World's Fairs were the only significant world's fairs since the formation of the BIE to be held without its endorsement.[9] Architecture[edit] Many of the pavilions were built in a Mid-Century modern
Mid-Century modern
style that was heavily influenced by "Googie architecture". This was a futurist architectural style influenced by car culture, jet aircraft, the Space Age, and the Atomic Age, which were all on display at the fair. Some pavilions were explicitly shaped like the product they were promoting, such as the US Royal tire-shaped Ferris wheel, or even the corporate logo, such as the Johnson Wax
Johnson Wax
pavilion. Other pavilions were more abstract representations, such as the oblate spheroid-shaped IBM pavilion, or the General Electric
General Electric
circular dome shaped "Carousel of Progress". The pavilion architectures often expressed a new-found freedom of form enabled by modern building materials, such as reinforced concrete, fiberglass, plastic, tempered glass, and stainless steel. The facade or the entire structure of a pavilion served as a giant billboard advertising the country or organization housed inside, flamboyantly competing for the attention of busy and distracted fairgoers. By contrast, some of the smaller international, US state, and organizational pavilions were built in more traditional styles, such as a Swiss chalet or a Chinese temple. After the fair's final closing in 1965, some pavilions crafted of wood were carefully disassembled and transported elsewhere for re-use. Other pavilions were "decorated sheds", a building method later described by Robert Venturi
Robert Venturi
and Denise Scott Brown, using plain structural shells embellished with applied decorations. This allowed designers to simulate a traditional style while bypassing expensive and time-consuming methods of traditional construction. The expedient was considered acceptable for temporary buildings planned to be used for only two years, and then to be demolished. International participation[edit]

View of the Unisphere
Unisphere
with world flags

West Berlin
West Berlin
Pavilion, by Hans Wehrhahn[10]

The BIE rejection was nearly a disaster for the fair. The absence of Canada, Australia, most of the major European nations and the Soviet Union, all members of the BIE, tarnished the image of the fair.[7] Additionally, New York was forced to compete with both Seattle
Seattle
and Montreal
Montreal
for international participants, with many nations choosing the officially sanctioned world's fairs of those cities over the New York Fair. The fair turned to trade and tourism organizations within many countries to sponsor national exhibits in lieu of official government sponsorship of pavilions. New York City, in the middle of the 20th century, was at a zenith of economic power and world prestige. Unconcerned by BIE rules, nations with smaller economies (as well as private groups in (or relevant to) some BIE members[11][12][13][14][15]) saw it as an honor to host an exhibit at the Fair.[16] Therefore, smaller nations made up the majority of the international participation. Spain,[17] Vatican City,[18] Japan,[19] Mexico,[20] Sweden,[21] Austria,[22] Denmark,[23] Thailand,[24] Philippines,[25] Greece,[26] and Pakistan,[27] and Ireland to name some, hosted national presences at the Fair. Indonesia sponsored a pavilion, but relations deteriorated rapidly between that nation and the USA during 1964, fueled by anti-Western and anti-American rhetoric and policies by Indonesian president Sukarno, which angered US President Lyndon Johnson. Indonesia
Indonesia
withdrew from the United Nations
United Nations
in January 1965, and officially from the Fair in March. The Fair Corporation then seized and shut down the Indonesian pavilion, and it remained closed and barricaded for the 1965 season.[28] One of the fair's most popular exhibits was the Vatican Pavilion, where Michelangelo's Pietà was displayed and brought in from St Peter's Basilica with the permission of Pope John XXIII; a small plaza, exedra monument, marking the spot (and Pope Paul VI's visit in October 1965) remains there today. A modern replica had been transported beforehand to ensure that the statue could be conveyed without being damaged. This copy is now on view in the Immaculate Conception Seminary in Douglaston, NY.[citation needed] The exedra monument is now utilized with permits since 1975 for prayer Vigils by Our Lady of the Roses relocated from Bayside, New York. A recreation of a medieval Belgian village proved very popular. Fairgoers were treated to the "Bel-Gem Brussels Waffle"—a combination of waffle, strawberries and whipped cream, sold by a Brussels couple, Maurice Vermersch and his wife.[29] Fairgoers could also enjoy sampling sandwiches from around the world at the popular Seven Up
Seven Up
International Sandwich Gardens Pavilion which featured the innovative fiberglass Seven Up
Seven Up
Tower.[30][31] In addition to all the 7-Up beverages one could drink, fair-goers were invited to sample varied culinary delights representing sixteen countries. While dinning, visitors enjoyed live performances on four circular stages from various instrumentalists which included a five piece musical ensemble - the 7-Up Continental Band. The musical programs included popular show tunes from the Broadway stage in America, as well as musical favorites from both Europe and Latin America The soloist John Serry Sr. appeared regularly with the orchestra to compliment the international flavor of the musical program.[32][33] The dining pods featured furnishings designed by the futuristic Finnish-American architect Eero Saarinen
Eero Saarinen
and were enclosed by twenty-four futuristic fiberglass domes which were topped by a commanding clock tower which soared over 107 feet (33 m) above the entire pavilion.[34][35][36] Emerging African nations displayed their wares in the Africa Pavilion. Controversy broke out when the Jordanian pavilion displayed a mural emphasizing the plight of the Palestinian people. The Jordanians also donated an ancient column which remains at their former site. The city of West Berlin, a Cold War
Cold War
hot-spot, hosted a popular display. On April 21, 1965, as part of the opening ceremonies for the second season of the 1964/1965 New York World's Fair, Ethiopian long-distance runners Abebe Bikila
Abebe Bikila
and Mamo Wolde
Mamo Wolde
participated in an exclusive ceremonial half marathon.[37] They ran from the Arsenal in Central Park at 64th Street & Fifth Avenue
Fifth Avenue
in Manhattan
Manhattan
to the Singer Bowl at the fair.[38] They carried with them a parchment scroll with greetings from Haile Selassie.[39]

Federal and state exhibits[edit] US Pavilion[edit] The US Pavilion was titled "Challenge to Greatness" and focused on President Lyndon B. Johnson's "Great Society" proposals. The main show in the multimillion-dollar pavilion was a 15-minute ride through a filmed presentation of American history. Visitors seated in moving grandstands rode past movie screens that slid in, out and over the path of the traveling audience. Elsewhere, there were tributes to President John F. Kennedy, who had broken ground for the pavilion in December 1962 but had been assassinated in November 1963 before the fair opened. United States
United States
Space Park[edit]

Space Park, as it appeared in December 1963 before its official opening

A 2-acre (8,100 m2) United States
United States
Space Park was sponsored by NASA, the Department of Defense and the fair. Exhibits included a full-scale model of the aft skirt and five F-1 engines of the first stage of a Saturn V, a Titan II booster with a Gemini capsule, an Atlas with a Mercury capsule and a Thor-Delta
Thor-Delta
rocket. On display at ground level were Aurora 7, the Mercury capsule flown on the second US manned orbital flight; full-scale models of an X-15
X-15
aircraft, an Agena upper stage; a Gemini spacecraft; an Apollo command/service module, and a Lunar Excursion Module. Replicas of unmanned spacecraft included lunar probe Ranger VII; Mariner II and Mariner IV; Syncom, Telstar
Telstar
I, and Echo II communications satellites; Explorer I
Explorer I
and Explorer XVI; and Tiros
Tiros
and Nimbus weather satellites.[40] New York State Pavilion[edit] Main article: New York State Pavilion New York played host to the fair at its six-million-dollar open-air pavilion called the "Tent of Tomorrow." Designed by famed modernist architect Philip Johnson, the 350-foot-by-250-foot pavilion was supported by sixteen 100-foot-high concrete columns, from which a 50,000-square-foot roof of polychrome tiles was suspended. Complementing the pavilion were the fair's three high-spot observation towers, two of which had cafeterias in their in-the-round observation-deck crowns. The pavilion's main floor, used for local art and industry displays including a 26-foot scale reproduction of the New York State Power Authority's St. Lawrence hydroelectric plant, comprised a 9,000-square-foot terrazzo replica of the official Texaco highway map of New York State, displaying the map's cities, towns, routes and Texaco
Texaco
gas stations in 567 mosaic panels.[41] An idea floated after the fair to use the floor for the World Trade Center did not materialize. The Fair was held in New York in honor of the 300th Anniversary of the naming of New York when King Charles II sent an English fleet to reclaim it from the Dutch in 1664. Prince James, the Duke of York named it New York from New Amsterdam. Other state pavilions[edit]

Wisconsin
Wisconsin
Pavilion

Wisconsin
Wisconsin
exhibited the "World's Largest Cheese." Florida
Florida
brought a dolphin show, flamingos, a talented cockatoo from Miami's Parrot Jungle, and water skiers to New York. Oklahoma
Oklahoma
gave weary fairgoers a restful park to relax in. Missouri
Missouri
displayed the state's space-related industries. Visitors could dine at Hawaii's "Five Volcanoes" restaurant. New York City Pavilion[edit] At the New York City pavilion, the Panorama of the City of New York
Panorama of the City of New York
(a huge scale model of the City) was on display, complete with a simulated helicopter ride around the metropolis for easy viewing.[42] Left over from the 1939 Fair, this building had been used partially as a recreational public roller skating rink.[citation needed] Bourbon Street Pavilion[edit]

Bourbon Street Pavilion

Louisiana
Louisiana
had a pavilion called "Louisiana's Bourbon Street" (later renamed to just "Bourbon Street"), which was inspired by New Orleans' French Quarter. It started off with financial trouble, not being able to complete its construction and subsequently filing for bankruptcy. A private company, called Pavilion Property, bought up the assets and assumed its debts. This prompted Louisiana
Louisiana
Governor John McKeithen
John McKeithen
to sever all ties and withdraw state's sanction, leaving the pavilion completely to private enterprise. Special
Special
media attention was given to a racially integrated minstrel show, that was intended to be satirical anti-bigotry, called "America, Be Seated", produced by Mike Todd Jr. During the opening of the fair, several civil rights protests were staged by members of the NAACP, who believed that the "minstrel-style" show was demeaning to African-Americans. The pavilion included ten theater restaurants, which served a variety of Creole food, a Jazz
Jazz
club called "Jazzland" which hosted live jazz artists, miniature Mardi Gras parades, a teenage dancing venue, a voodoo shop, and a doll museum. Due to the presence of the various bars, the pavilion was especially popular at night. Notable go-go dancer Candy Johnson headlined a show at a venue called "Gay New Orleans Nightclub". Near the closure of the fair, the pavilion was reported to have achieved the highest gross income of any single commercial pavilion at the fair. The 26-year-old director of operations, Gordon Novel, was called an "Entrepreneurial Prodigy & Boy Wonder" in Variety for his accomplishments.[43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53] American industry[edit] Many of the U.S.' top corporations built pavilions to demonstrate their wares, vision, and corporate cultures. These included: General Motors[edit]

Concept car inside the General Motors
General Motors
Pavilion

Industries played a major role at the New York World's Fair
World's Fair
of 1939/1940 by hosting huge, elaborate exhibits. Many of them returned to the New York World's Fair
World's Fair
of 1964/1965 with even more elaborate versions of the shows that they had presented 25 years earlier. The most notable of these was General Motors Corporation
General Motors Corporation
whose Futurama proved to be the fair's most popular exhibit, in which visitors seated in moving chairs glided past elaborately detailed miniature 3D model scenery showing what life might be like in the "near-future". Nearly 26 million people took the journey into the future during the fair's two-year run. IBM[edit] The IBM
IBM
Corporation had a popular pavilion, where a giant 500-seat grandstand called the "People Wall" was pushed by hydraulic rams high up into an ellipsoidal theater designed by Eero Saarinen. There, a film by Charles and Ray Eames
Charles and Ray Eames
titled Think was shown on fourteen projectors on nine screens, illuminating the workings of computer logic.[54] At ground level beneath the theater, visitors could explore Mathematica: A World of Numbers... and Beyond (an exhibit of mathematical models and curiosities) and view the Mathematics Peep Show (a series of short films illustrating basic mathematical concepts).[55] IBM
IBM
also demonstrated handwriting recognition on a mainframe computer that would look up what happened on a particular date that a person wrote down—for many visitors, this was their first hands-on interaction with a computer. Bell System[edit] The Bell System
Bell System
(prior to its break up into regional companies) hosted a 15-minute ride in moving armchairs depicting the history of communications in dioramas and film. Other Bell exhibits included the Picturephone
Picturephone
as well as a demonstration of the computer modem. Westinghouse[edit]

Westinghouse Pavilion

The Westinghouse Corporation planted a second time capsule next to the 1939 one; today both Westinghouse Time Capsules
Westinghouse Time Capsules
are marked by a monument southwest of the Unisphere
Unisphere
which is to be opened in the year 6939. Some of its contents were a World's Fair
World's Fair
Guidebook, an electric toothbrush, credit cards (relatively new at the time) and a 50-star United States
United States
flag. Sinclair Oil[edit] The Sinclair Oil Corporation
Sinclair Oil Corporation
sponsored "Dinoland", featuring life-size replicas of nine different dinosaurs, including the corporation's signature Brontosaurus.[56] The statues were created by Louis Paul Jonas Studios in Hudson, New York.[57][58] Ford[edit] The Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company
introduced the Ford Mustang
Ford Mustang
automobile to the public at its pavilion on April 17, 1964. The Ford pavilion featured the "Ford's Magic Skyway" ride, in which guests rode in Ford convertibles past scenes featuring dinosaurs, cavemen, and a futuristic cityscape.[59] DuPont[edit] DuPont
DuPont
presented a musical review by composer Michael Brown called "The Wonderful World of Chemistry". Parker Pen[edit] At the Parker Pen
Parker Pen
Company's exhibit, a computer would make a match to an international penpal. Chunky Candy[edit] The Chunky Candy Corporation put on a transparent display of candy manufacturing where visitors were able to view "all the steps in a highly automated process".[60] The Pavilion also included an interactive sculpture playground called "Sculpture Continuum," designed by Oliver O'Connor Barrett. Films[edit] The fair was also a showplace for independent films. One of the most noted was a religious film titled Parable which showed at the Protestant
Protestant
Pavilion. It depicted humanity as a traveling circus and Jesus Christ
Jesus Christ
as a clown.[61] This marked the beginning of a new depiction of Jesus[62] and was the inspiration for the musical Godspell. Parable later went on to be honored at Cannes, as well as the Edinburgh Film Festival
Edinburgh Film Festival
and Venice Film Festival.[62] Another religious film was presented by evangelist Billy Graham
Billy Graham
called Man in the 5th Dimension. It was shot in the 70mm
70mm
Todd-AO
Todd-AO
widescreen process for exclusive presentation in a specially designed theater equipped with audio equipment that enabled viewers to listen to the film in Chinese, French, German, Japanese, Russian, and Spanish.[63] The 13-½ minute film Man's Search for Happiness was made for the Mormon Pavilion.[64] The surprise hit of the fair was a non-commercial movie short presented by the SC Johnson Wax
Johnson Wax
Company called To Be Alive!. The film celebrated the joy of life found worldwide and in all cultures, and it won a special award from the New York Film Critics Circle[65] and the 1965 Academy Award for Best Documentary (Short Subject).[66] Disney influence[edit]

Fountains and a reflecting pool mark the approach to the Unisphere

The fair is remembered as the venue that Walt Disney
Walt Disney
used to design and perfect his system of "Audio-Animatronics", in which electromechanical actuators and computers control the movement of lifelike robots to act out scenes.[67] WED Enterprises designed and created four shows at the fair:

" Pepsi-Cola
Pepsi-Cola
Presents Walt Disney's 'It's a Small World'—a Salute to UNICEF
UNICEF
and the World's Children" at the Pepsi-Cola
Pepsi-Cola
pavilion: Animated dolls and animals frolicked in a spirit of international unity accompanying a boat ride around the world. The iconic song was written by the Sherman Brothers. Each of the animated dolls had an identical face designed by New York artist Gregory S. Marinello in partnership with Walt Disney. General Electric
General Electric
sponsored "Progressland" where an audience was seated in a revolving auditorium called the "Carousel of Progress", where they viewed an audio-animatronic presentation of the progress of electricity in the home. The Sherman Brothers
Sherman Brothers
composed "There's a Great Big Beautiful Tomorrow" for this attraction. The highlight of the exhibit demonstrated a brief plasma "explosion" of controlled nuclear fusion. Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company
presented "Ford's Magic Skyway", a WED Imagineering-designed pavilion which was the second-most popular exhibit at the fair. It featured 50 motorless convertible Ford vehicles, including Mustangs, in an early prototype of what became the PeopleMover
PeopleMover
ride system. Audience members entered the vehicles on a main platform as they moved slowly along the track. The ride moved the audience through scenes featuring life-sized, audio-animatronic dinosaurs and cavemen. At the Illinois
Illinois
pavilion, a lifelike President Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
recited his famous speeches in "Great Moments with Mr. Lincoln", voiced by Royal Dano.

WED also created the 120-foot-high (37 m) Tower of the Four Winds which was located at the It's a Small World
It's a Small World
pavilion. In addition, costumed versions of Walt Disney's famous cartoon characters roamed around the fairgrounds and interacted with guests. After the fair, there was some discussion of the Disney company retaining these exhibits on-site and converting Flushing Meadows Park
Flushing Meadows Park
into an East Coast version of Disneyland, but this idea was abandoned. Instead, Disney relocated several of the exhibits to Disneyland in Anaheim, California, and subsequently replicated them at other Disney theme parks. Walt Disney
Walt Disney
World in Orlando, Florida
Florida
is essentially the realization of the original concept of an "East Coast Disneyland", with Epcot Center
Epcot Center
designed as a permanent world's fair.[68] Failure of amusements[edit]

The Krofft's "Les Poupées de Paris
Paris
Pavilion"

One of the fair's major crowd-attracting and financial shortcomings was the absence of a midway. The fair's organizers were opposed, on principle, to the honky-tonk atmosphere engendered by midways, and this was another thing that irked the BIE, which insisted that all officially sanctioned fairs have a midway. What amusements the fair actually had ended up being largely dull. The Meadow Lake Amusement Area was not easily accessible, and officials objected to shows being advertised. Furthermore, although the Amusement Area was supposed to remain open for four hours after the exhibits closed at 10 pm, the fair presented a fountain-and-fireworks show every night at 9 pm at the Pool of Industry. Fairgoers would see this show and then leave the fair rather than head to the Amusement Area; one was hard pressed to see anyone on the fairgrounds by midnight. The fair's big entertainment spectacles, including the "Wonder World" at the Meadow Lake Amphitheater, "To Broadway with Love" in the Texas Pavilion, and Dick Button's "Ice-travaganza" in the New York City Pavilion, all closed ahead of schedule, with heavy losses. It became apparent that fairgoers did not go to the fair for its entertainment value, especially as there was plenty of entertainment in Manhattan.[69] A notable exception to this situation was Les Poupées de Paris
Paris
(The Dolls of Paris), an adults-only musical puppet show created, produced and directed by Sid and Marty Krofft. This show, modeled after the Paris
Paris
revues Lido and Folies Bergère, was heavily attended, and financially successful.[70]

Controversial ending[edit] The fair ended in controversy over allegations of financial mismanagement. Controversy had plagued it during much of its two-year run. The Fair Corporation had taken in millions of dollars in advance ticket sales for both the 1964 and 1965 seasons. However, the receipts of these sales were booked entirely against the first season of the fair.[7] This made it appear that the fair had plenty of operating cash when, in fact, it was borrowing from the second season's gate to pay the bills. Before and during the 1964 season, the fair spent much money despite attendance that was below expectations. By the end of the 1964 season, Moses and the press began to realize that there would not be enough money to pay the bills and the fair teetered on bankruptcy.[7] In March 1965 a group of bankers and politicians asked showman Billy Rose
Billy Rose
to take over the fair, which he declined stating: "I'd rather be hit by a baseball bat" and "cancer in its last stages never attracted me very much".[44][71] While the 1939–1940 New York World's Fair
World's Fair
returned 40 cents on the dollar to bond investors, the 1964/1965 fair returned only 19.2 cents on the dollar.[7] On-site legacy[edit]

The Unisphere
Unisphere
on July 31, 2010

New York City was left with a much-improved Flushing Meadows Park following the fair, taking possession of the park from the Fair Corporation in June 1967. Today, it is heavily used for walking and recreation, and the paths and their names remain almost unchanged from the days of the fair. The Unisphere
Unisphere
stands at the center of the park as a symbol of "Man's Achievements on a Shrinking Globe in an Expanding Universe". It was featured in the 1997 film Men in Black, where it was portrayed as being destroyed by a crashing space ship. The Unisphere
Unisphere
has become a symbol of Queens
Queens
and has appeared on the cover of the borough's telephone directory books. The city also inherited a multimillion-dollar science museum and space park exhibiting the rockets and vehicles used in America's early space exploration projects. The space park deteriorated due to neglect, but in 2004 the surviving rockets were restored and placed back on display. The outdoors exhibit is now part of the expanded New York Hall of Science, a portion of whose building is also a remnant of the fair. The carousel that was the centerpiece of Carousel Park in the Lake Amusement Area was relocated to the former Transportation Area outside of the Queens
Queens
Zoo in the park where it still operates today.

Ruins of the observatory towers in 2006

The New York State Pavilion
New York State Pavilion
was retained for future use, but it found no use other than as TV and movie sets.[72] In the decades after the fair closed, it remained an abandoned and badly neglected relic, with its roof gone and the once bright floors and walls almost faded away; the Texaco
Texaco
terrazzo floor map of New York State was exposed to the weather and was ruined. In 1994, the Queens
Queens
Theater took over the Circarama adjacent to the towers and continues to operate there, using the ruined state pavilion as a storage depot. Some conservation and restoration efforts were demonstrated in 2008 by researchers from the University of Pennsylvania, and a handful of local groups advocated for funds to complete the tile floor's restoration. The New York State Pavilion was listed on the National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
in 2009.[73] In the fall of 2013, New York City's Department of Parks and Recreation announced plans to restore the pavilion with new landscaped paths and event spaces at an estimated cost of $73 million, as opposed to the $14 million cost to demolish the structure.[41] The former New York City Pavilion is now home to the Queens
Queens
Museum, which also continues to display the scale model Panorama of the City of New York, updated from time to time.[42] The historic 1939 structure also has an excellent display of memorabilia from the two world's fairs, as well as an original 3D scale model of the entire 1964 World's Fair
World's Fair
site. In April 2011, the Queens
Queens
Museum broke ground on an expansion project that almost doubled its floor space, bringing the total to about 100,000 square feet (9,300 m2).[74] Flushing Meadows-Corona Park became the home to the United States
United States
Tennis Association in 1978, and the US Open tennis tournament is played there annually. Reuse of pavilions and major exhibits elsewhere[edit]

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Aerial view of some remaining structures in Flushing Meadows in 2004, including the ruins of the New York State Pavilion
New York State Pavilion
in the foreground.

The carillon was moved to Stone Mountain
Stone Mountain
in Georgia.

Like its predecessor, the 1964/1965 New York World's Fair
World's Fair
lost money. It was unable to repay its financial backers their investment, and it became embroiled in legal disputes with its creditors until 1970, when the books were finally closed and the New York World's Fair 1964–1965 Corporation was dissolved. Most of the pavilions constructed for the fair were demolished within six months following the fair's close. While only a handful of pavilions and exhibits survived, some of them traveled great distances and found new homes following the fair:

The Austria
Austria
pavilion became a ski lodge at Cockaigne Ski Resort in western New York. On January 25, 2011, the building was destroyed by fire.[75] The Wisconsin
Wisconsin
pavilion's front teepee-like portion became a radio station in Neillsville, Wisconsin. The pavilion's large rear structure that formed a squat-looking "H" (if seen from above) is the combined kitchen, dining hall, and recreation hall of Camp Ramah in upstate Lakewood, Pennsylvania. The US Royal tire-shaped Ferris wheel
Ferris wheel
was relocated to become a landmark along Interstate 94
Interstate 94
in the Metro Detroit
Metro Detroit
Downriver
Downriver
community of Allen Park, Michigan.[76] The Pavilion of Spain
Spain
relocated to St. Louis, Missouri, and is now a part of a Hilton Hotel.[77] The Parker Pen
Parker Pen
pavilion became offices for the Lodge of Four Seasons in Lake of the Ozarks, Missouri. The Golden Rondelle Theater
Golden Rondelle Theater
was reworked by Taliesin Associated Architects,[78] and moved to the S. C. Johnson administration complex in Racine, Wisconsin,[79] which was designed by Frank Lloyd Wright.[78] The chapel and stained glass windows from the Vatican pavilion were built into a Roman Catholic church called Saint Mary Mother of the Redeemer in Groton, Connecticut.[80] The Christian Science
Christian Science
pavilion became a church in Poway, California. The structure was demolished in 2006. The Mormon
Mormon
pavilion became a church in Plainview, New York, dedicated December 2, 1967, and still in use. A large oil painting of a woman, painted in 1964 by Roy Lichtenstein and titled New York World's Fair, is in the Weisman Art Museum
Weisman Art Museum
in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The carillon from the Coca-Cola
Coca-Cola
Pavilion was moved to Stone Mountain Park, near Atlanta, Georgia. Mathematica: A World of Numbers... and Beyond, an interactive exhibit from the IBM
IBM
Pavilion, was relocated to the Pacific Science Center
Pacific Science Center
in Seattle, but is no longer there. An identical copy of the exhibit was obtained by the New York Hall of Science
New York Hall of Science
around 2000, and remains on display not far from the site of the original 1964 installation. For many years the fair's amateur radio station console was used by the American Radio Relay League. Later sold, in 2006 it was purchased by a Collins Radio
Collins Radio
collector in Texas.[81] The illuminated "G" from the large fiberglass square and compasses that stood in front of the Masonic
Masonic
Brotherhood Center was moved to the New York Masonic
Masonic
Home campus in Utica, New York, and installed into a smaller sculpture. The Grand Lodge of New York
Grand Lodge of New York
installed a bronze sculpture by artist Donald De Lue, of George Washington
George Washington
in Masonic regalia at the fairgrounds after it closed. It still stands near the soccer fields. (De Lue also sculpted the Fair's iconic Rocket Thrower sculpture.) Sinclair Oil "Dinoland" spent a period of time as a traveling exhibit. The Stegosaurus
Stegosaurus
model was eventually donated to Dinosaur
Dinosaur
National Monument. The Stegosaurus
Stegosaurus
and some of the others still remain in displays at various locations.[58] As noted, the Disney-created attraction It's a small world was transferred to Disneyland, along with the "Carousel of Progress" and the first Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
audio-animatronics figure for the original Great Moments With Mr. Lincoln show. Scenery and the audio-animatronics dinosaurs from the Ford Magic Skyway show were installed in the Disneyland Railroad's Primeval World Diorama, and the attraction's actual WEDway ride system was improved upon and used for Tomorrowland's PeopleMover. Some of the light fixtures that lined the walkways can be found still functioning at Penn Hills Resort
Penn Hills Resort
in the Pocono Mountains, Analomink, Pennsylvania, and the Orange County Fairgrounds in Middletown, New York. Until 2011, Canobie Lake Park
Canobie Lake Park
in Salem, New Hampshire, also had the Illuminators, but they have since been replaced. Canobie Lake Park also has been reusing street mailbox-shaped trash cans from the World's Fair. The Skyway cable car tower structures and gondolas were moved to Six Flags Great Adventure (at that time called Great Adventure) in New Jersey for use from 1974 to the present.[82] The New England Pavilion was disassembled and moved to South Portland, Maine, where most of it was reassembled and used as a small shopping mall at 50 Maine Mall Road.[83] In August 2016, these buildings were torn down to make way for new businesses.[83] The World's Fair
World's Fair
Building/Churchill Tribute[84] was dismantled after the fair and later reassembled as the aviary for the Flushing Meadows zoo (now Queens
Queens
Zoo). It is still in use.[85] The Triumph of Man exhibit from the Traveler's Insurance Pavilion[86] was on display at the original location of the Center of Science and Industry (COSI) in Columbus, Ohio, from 1966 to 1999 when the museum moved. It had been revamped as the Time Tunnel in 1983.[87][88][89] The Belgian Village carousel after the 1964 World's Fair
World's Fair
went to Montreal, Quebec, Canada, where it was part of Expo '67
Expo '67
in the Carrefour International at the La Ronde amusement area. After that fair closed, the ride was moved into the Kiddieland area of the now-permanent La Ronde Amusement Park. The 1885 "Le Galopant" carousel was restored in 2008 and still turns in LaRonde today, which is now owned by Six Flags. The R33 and R36 cars built for the IRT Flushing Line
IRT Flushing Line
(#7) subway route that served the 1964 fair ran the route for over 39 years afterwards, with some still in revenue service through 2003. Some of the rolling stock still survives today in maintenance work use or in storage. Three of these cars (9306, 9586, 9587) are in the collection of the New York Transit Museum, with 9306 regularly on display there. The rest of the fleet has been sunk to the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean as part of the "Redbird Reef" off the coast of the Northeast US, to serve as an artificial barrier reef habitat for marine life.

Cultural references[edit]

Contents of the 1964 Westinghouse Time Capsule.

The Queens
Queens
Museum has approximately 900 items on permanent display from both the 1964/1965 and 1939/1940 World's Fairs.[90]

The observation towers of Men in Black: Alien Attack are cleaned-up smaller replicas of the original structures

Connecticut Public Television
Connecticut Public Television
produced The 1964 World's Fair, a documentary about the fair narrated by Judd Hirsch
Judd Hirsch
(1996).[91] The fair features heavily in the 2015 Disney film Tomorrowland. Alternative Rock band They Might Be Giants
They Might Be Giants
have often referred to the event in their songs, notably with 'Ana Ng' referencing the event directly, and the music video for 'Don't Let's Start' which was shot at the site of the fair.

Gallery[edit]

Westinghouse Time Capsule

RCA Pavilion

Johnson Wax
Johnson Wax
Pavilion

Kodak Pavilion

Ford Pavilion

Transportation and Travel Pavilion

Alaska Pavilion

Hong Kong Pavilion

General Motors
General Motors
Pavilion

Unisphere
Unisphere
Fountain

Aerial tramway "Pods"

The Hall of Science is a science museum today

1964-1965 New York World's Fair
World's Fair
US postage stamp

See also[edit]

1960s portal

List of world expositions List of world's fairs

References[edit] Bibliography[edit]

World's Fair
World's Fair
Legacies William P. Young.[92] Flushing Meadows-Corona Park Today William P. Young.[93] International Participation in the New York World's Fair
World's Fair
1964–1965 Sharyn Elise Jackson.[94] Editors, Time-Life Books Official Guide: 1964–1965 New York World's Fair . Book Sales: 1963–1965. Third Supplemental Report on New York World's Fair
World's Fair
1964–1965 Corporation Covering Operations from Inception to December 31, 1966. October 26, 1967.[95] Cotter, Bill; Young, Bill (July 21, 2008). The 1964-1965 New York World's Fair: Creation and Legacy (Images of America). Arcadia Publishing. p. 128. ISBN 978-0738557458. [96] Samuel, Lawrence R. (August 30, 2007). The End of the Innocence: The 1964-1965 New York World's Fair
World's Fair
(First ed.). Syracuse University Press. p. 243. ISBN 978-0815608905.  New York Public Library
New York Public Library
archives of '64–'65 World's Fair. Manuscripts & Archives Division of Fair Administration, Construction, Maintenance, Participation, and Public Relations.[97] Gordon, John Steele, "The World's Fair: It was a disaster from the beginning," American Heritage Magazine, October 2006, Volume 57, Issue 5.

Notes[edit]

^ a b c d e f "Flushing Meadows Corona Park: World's Fair
World's Fair
Playground". nycgovparks.org. Retrieved 2017-04-18.  ^ a b c d " IBM
IBM
Pavilion NY World's Fair". EamesOffice.com. 2015. Retrieved 2017-04-18.  ^ Archdiocese History Archived November 29, 2007, at the Wayback Machine., Archdiocese of New York. Retrieved November 5, 2007. ^ Gordon, John Steele (October 2006). ""The World's Fair: It was a disaster from the beginning". American Heritage. ^ Arnold, Martin (13 January 1965). "FAIR INCREASING ADMISSION TO $2.50; 50-Cent Raise Does Not Apply to Children's Rates -- Longer Run Possible". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 April 2016.  ^ Freeman, Ira Henry (August 10, 1959). " World's Fair
World's Fair
Planned Here in '64 at Half Billion Cost". The New York Times.  Reprint This articles includes a full list of the original members of the Fair committee, mostly corporate and union leaders. ^ a b c d e f g h Caro, Robert (1974). The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-394-48076-3.  ^ Benjamin, Philip (August 12, 1959). "Moses Lists Work Required for Fair; Sees 85 Millions as Needed to Prepare Subway and Roads in Flushing". The New York Times.  ^ "Endorsement". nysl.nysed.gov. October 13, 2017.  ^ " West Berlin
West Berlin
Pavilion by Hans Wehrhahn".  ^ "Pavilions & Attractions - Pavilion of Paris
Paris
- Page One". Archived from the original on May 4, 2009. Retrieved April 8, 2009.  ^ "Pavilions & Attractions - Berlin - Page One". Archived from the original on May 4, 2009. Retrieved April 8, 2009.  ^ "Pavilions & Attractions - Belgian Village - Page One". Nywf64.com. Retrieved August 21, 2010.  ^ "Pavilions & Attractions - Switzerland - Page Two". Nywf64.com. Retrieved August 21, 2010.  ^ "Pavilions & Attractions - Fiesta - Page One". Nywf64.com. Retrieved August 21, 2010.  ^ "Small Nations". seanmunger.com. October 13, 2017.  ^ "Pavilions & Attractions - Spain
Spain
- Page One". Nywf64.com. Archived from the original on May 4, 2009. Retrieved April 8, 2009.  ^ "Pavilions & Attractions - Vatican - Page One". Nywf64.com. Retrieved August 21, 2010.  ^ "Pavilions & Attractions - Japan
Japan
- Page One". Nywf64.com. August 16, 1964. Retrieved August 21, 2010.  ^ "Pavilions & Attractions - Mexico
Mexico
- Page One". Nywf64.com. Retrieved August 21, 2010.  ^ "Pavilions & Attractions - Sweden
Sweden
- Page One". Nywf64.com. August 30, 1964. Retrieved August 21, 2010.  ^ "Pavilions & Attractions - Austria
Austria
- Page One". Nywf64.com. Retrieved August 21, 2010.  ^ "Pavilions & Attractions - Denmark
Denmark
- Page One". Nywf64.com. May 9, 1965. Retrieved August 21, 2010.  ^ "Pavilions & Attractions - Thailand
Thailand
- Page One". Nywf64.com. Retrieved August 21, 2010.  ^ "Pavilions & Attractions - Philippines
Philippines
- Page One". Nywf64.com. Retrieved August 21, 2010.  ^ "Pavilions & Attractions - Greece
Greece
- Page One". Nywf64.com. Retrieved August 21, 2010.  ^ "Pavilions & Attractions - Pakistan
Pakistan
- Page One". Nywf64.com. August 15, 1965. Retrieved August 21, 2010.  ^ "The Indonesia
Indonesia
Controversy at the New York World's Fair
World's Fair
1964-1965". Nywf64.com. Retrieved October 6, 2013.  ^ see photo at http://www.worldsfairphotos.com/nywf64/aerial-ride.htm for the "Bel-Gem" Brussels Waffle
Waffle
sign ^ The New York Times. September 29, 1964. p. 21. ^ The New York Times. May 31, 1964. p. R1. ^ The New York Times. September 12, 1964. p. 21. ^ The New York Times. October 16, 1964. p. 31. ^ http://www.worldsfairphotos.com/nywf64/seven-up.htm ^ http://www.nywf64.com/sevup05.shtml ^ http://www.westland.net/ny64fair/map-docs/sevenup.htm ^ Phillips, Mccandlish (April 22, 1965). "Lo, a Magic City Awakens and Wizard Rejoices..." The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 26, 2017. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ Alden, Robert (April 4, 1965). "The Fair Resumes Today With Many New Exhibits..." The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 26, 2017. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ Jones, Theodore (April 4, 1965). "Ethiopia Marathon Star Here for Fair". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 26, 2017. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ Stanton, Jeffrey (2006). "Showcasing Technology at the 1964–1965 New York World's Fair". ^ a b "Long-Shuttered N.Y. State Pavilion In Queens
Queens
To Reopen For 3 Hours Next Month," CBS New York, March 25, 2014 ^ a b Leuthner, Stuart. "Small World". American Heritage. American Heritage Publishing Company. Retrieved May 1, 2012.  ^ Cotter, Bill; Young, Bill (July 21, 2008). The 1964–1965 New York World's Fair: Creation and Legacy. Arcadia Publishing. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-7385-5745-8. Retrieved June 9, 2012.  ^ a b Samuel, Lawrence R. (August 1, 2010). The End of the Innocence: The 1964–1965 New York World's Fair. Syracuse University Press. pp. 27, 34, 48, 74, 130, 164. ISBN 978-0-8156-0956-8. Retrieved June 9, 2012.  ^ Lisanti, Tom (March 2003). Drive-In Dream Girls: A Galaxy of B-Movie Starlets of the Sixties. Mcfarland & Co Inc Pub. pp. 40, 270. ISBN 978-0-7864-1575-5. Retrieved June 9, 2012.  ^ Ebony. Johnson Publishing Company. June 1964. p. 170. Retrieved June 9, 2012.  ^ Jet. Johnson Publishing Company. May 28, 1964. p. 56. Retrieved June 9, 2012.  ^ Jet. Johnson Publishing Company. May 7, 1964. p. 15. Retrieved June 9, 2012.  ^ "America Be Seated out of World Fair". Washington Afro-American. May 12, 1964. Retrieved June 9, 2012.  ^ "Have You Seen 'America, Be Seated'". The Morning Record. April 10, 1964. Retrieved June 9, 2012.  ^ " Jazz
Jazz
Club at World's Fair". Billboard. March 21, 1964. Retrieved June 9, 2012.  ^ "Louisiana". Retrieved June 9, 2012.  ^ "Bourbon Street ... at nywf64.com". Nywf64.com. Retrieved June 11, 2012.  ^ http://blog.barbican.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/eamesibm_gall2.jpg ^ IBM
IBM
Labs (April 5, 2012). "Free iPad App from IBM
IBM
Reinvents Iconic '60s Era Exhibit on History of Mathematics". IBM
IBM
Research. IBM Corporation. Retrieved July 19, 2013.  ^ "Sinclair ... at nywf64.com". nywf64.com. Retrieved 5 August 2014.  ^ "Sinclair's New York World's Fair
World's Fair
(1964-65) "Dinoland" Pavilion". Sinclair Oil Corporation. Archived from the original on August 8, 2014. Retrieved 5 August 2014.  ^ a b (1) "Sinclair at the New York World's Fair". 1960s. Sinclair Oil Corporation. Archived from the original on May 5, 2016. Retrieved 5 July 2016.  (2) " Dinosaur
Dinosaur
Fever – Sinclair's Icon". Petroleum History Almanac. Washington, D.C.: American Oil & Gas Historical Society. 2016. Archived from the original on 10 April 2016. Retrieved 2 July 2016.  (3) "Sinclair Dinoland: New York World's Fair
World's Fair
1964-65". Science Leads the Way. Frank J. Leskovitz. 2016. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 2 Jul 2016.  ^ Ford Meets Disney at the Magic Skyway - Blog - The Henry Ford ^ 1964 New York World's Fair
World's Fair
1965 - Attractions - Chunky Candy - Page One ^ Parable (1964) - IMDb ^ a b "The films of Rolf Forsberg". Arts and Faith. Retrieved August 21, 2010.  ^ "Man in the 5th Dimension" Archived May 25, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.. The 70mm
70mm
Newsletter. ^ "Legacy of the Mormon
Mormon
Pavilion - Ensign October 1989". Lds.org. Retrieved April 4, 2012. ^ 1964 Special
Special
Award. nyfcc.com Retrieved February 27, 2017. ^ [1][permanent dead link] oscars.org awards database. Retrieved February 27, 2017 ^ The History of Disney's Audio Animatronics - Disney Blog at Magical Kingdoms ^ Morison, Elting E. (December 1983). "What Went Wrong with Disney's Worlds Fair". American Heritage. American Heritage Publishing Company. Retrieved May 1, 2012.  ^ "But Where's the Fun? Lost in a $7 Million Fiasco" Life. August 7, 1964. pp. 85–87. ^ "Adults Only" Archived March 25, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Time ^ Alden, Robert (March 16, 1965). "Ford Fair Exhibit to Add Entrance; Will Let Visitors in Product Area but Not on Ride". The New York Times. Retrieved June 9, 2012.  ^ The State Pavilion was featured in an episode of McCloud and as part of the setting for Men in Black. ^ "National Register of Historic Places". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. June 25, 2010.  ^ "The Queens
Queens
Museum – New York City Building". Queens
Queens
Museum. Archived from the original on January 15, 2012. Retrieved February 1, 2012.  ^ Emke, Dave (2011-01-26). "Trying To Regroup: Ski Center Owners Look To Future After Fire Destroys Lodge". The Post-Journal. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved 2014-02-16.  ^ Patton, Phil (April 11, 2014). "When Cars Ruled the World's Fair". New York Times. Retrieved 2014-04-12.  ^ O'Neil, Tim (June 17, 2012). "A Look Back • Spanish Pavilion, toast of New York, flops in St. Louis but endures as hotel lobby". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved 2017-07-12.  ^ a b "The Golden Rondelle and the SC Johnson
SC Johnson
Films". SC Johnson: A Family Company. SC Johnson
SC Johnson
Co. Retrieved 17 November 2013.  ^ Bill Cotter, Bill Young, The 1964-1965 New York World's Fair: Creation and Legacy, Arcadia Publishing, 2008, p. 90. ^ "Our History". Saint Mary Mother of the Redeemer. Retrieved 1 July 2015.  ^ QST, September 2009, pp. 92–3, "Vintage Radio: Displaying Your Collection" ^ "1964 World's Fair
World's Fair
Sky Ride at Great Adventure". ^ a b Collins, Kate Irish (12 August 2016). "South Portland's Maine Mall area to get another hotel". The Forecaster. Retrieved 2017-05-06.  ^ " World's Fair
World's Fair
Building / Churchill Tribute". westland.net. Jeffrey Stanton. Retrieved May 21, 2012.  ^ Gray, Christopher (January 3, 1993). "Streetscapes: The Queens Aviary; A Great Outside Interior Space". The New York Times. Retrieved August 23, 2013.  ^ "Traveler's Insurance Pavilion". westland.net. Jeffrey Stanton. Retrieved May 21, 2012.  ^ "Virtual TRIUMPH OF MAN". mindspring.com. Tom Luthman. Retrieved May 21, 2012.  ^ "The Triumph of Man". oldcosi.com. Retrieved May 21, 2012.  ^ "Time Tunnel". oldcosi.com. Retrieved May 21, 2012.  ^ Queens
Queens
Museum. " World's Fair
World's Fair
Visible Storage On Long-Term View". queensmuseum.org. Retrieved 25 August 2016.  ^ "The 1964 World's Fair". Janson Media DVD Catalog. February 6, 2009. Archived from the original on September 7, 2013. Retrieved May 14, 2013.  ^ " World's Fair
World's Fair
Legacies - Page One". Nywf64.com. Retrieved August 21, 2010.  ^ "Flushing Meadows-Corona Park Today - Page One". Nywf64.com. Retrieved August 21, 2010.  ^ [2] ^ "Farewell to the Fair - Page Six". Nywf64.com. Retrieved August 1, 2010.  ^ Fisher, Amy (July 23, 2008). "Front Page www.qgazette.com Queens Gazette". www.qgazette.com. Retrieved August 21, 2010.  ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 27, 2009. Retrieved December 3, 2015. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1964 New York World's Fair.

New York State Pavilion
New York State Pavilion
Project New York 1964–1965 World's Fair nywf64.com (1964/1965 New York World's Fair
World's Fair
Website) "Peace Through Understanding" – A New York World's Fair
World's Fair
Community and Electronic Bulletin Board "BBQ Productions" – An independent film production company that spent 15 years to produce a documentary film about The 1964/65 New York world's Fair Bygone LI 64 Worlds Fair Page 1964-'65 New York page on ExpoMuseum.com A Collection of Photos on flickr

Videos[edit]

Documentary film about the 1964 New York World's Fair Bring Back the New York World's Fair
World's Fair
1964 on YouTube Black-and-white newsreel of 1964 World's Fair
World's Fair
on YouTube The 1964–1965 New York World's Fair
World's Fair
Remembered on YouTube 1964–1965 New York World's Fair
World's Fair
– A look back slideshow on YouTube New York World's Fair
World's Fair
1964 1965 – New York State Pavilion
New York State Pavilion
on YouTube Color home movie of 1964 New York World's Fair
World's Fair
exhibits on YouTube Aerial view of the 1964 New York World's Fair
World's Fair
showing the pavilions on YouTube Internet Archive: New York World's Fair, 1964/03/02 Newsreel Internet Archive: To The Fair! (Part 1) (1965) Film about a trip to the 1964 New York World's Fair. Part 1 Internet Archive: To The Fair! (Part 2) (1965) Film about a trip to the 1964 New York World's Fair. Part 2 Internet Archive: 1964 New York World's Fair
World's Fair
Report (1961) Film about planning the fair with Robert Moses. Internet Archive: Out Of This World Film about a woman going to the General Motors
General Motors
Pavilion to see the Kitchen of Tomorrow.

v t e

List of world expositions

Bureau of International Expositions
Bureau of International Expositions
(BIE)

Retrospectively recognized expositions

London 1851 Paris
Paris
1855 London 1862 Paris
Paris
1867 Vienna 1873 Philadelphia 1876 Paris
Paris
1878 Melbourne 1880 Barcelona 1888 Paris
Paris
1889 Chicago 1893 Brussels 1897 Paris
Paris
1900 St. Louis 1904 Liège 1905 Milan 1906 Brussels 1910 Turin 1911 Ghent 1913 San Francisco 1915 Barcelona and Seville 1929 Chicago 1933

BIE recognized Universal expositions

Brussels 1935 Paris
Paris
1937 New York 1939–1940 Port-au-Prince 1949 Brussels 1958 Seattle
Seattle
1962 Montreal
Montreal
1967 Osaka 1970 Seville 1992 Hannover 2000 Shanghai 2010 Milan 2015 Dubai 2020 Expo 2025

BIE recognized specialized expositions

Stockholm 1936 Helsinki 1938 Liège 1939 París 1947 Stockholm 1949 Lyon 1949 Lille 1951 Jerusalem 1953 Rome 1953 Naples 1954 Turín 1955 Helsingborg 1955 Beit Dagan 1956 Berlín 1957 Turín 1961 Munich 1965 San Antonio 1968 Budapest 1971 Spokane 1974 Okinawa 1975 Plovdiv 1981 Knoxville 1982 New Orleans
New Orleans
1984 Plovdiv 1985 Tsukuba 1985 Vancouver 1986 Brisbane 1988 Plovdiv 1991 Genoa 1992 Taejŏn 1993 Lisbon 1998 Aichi 2005 Zaragoza 2008 Yeosu 2012 Astana 2017 Buenos Aires 2023

BIE recognized horticultural exhibitions (AIPH)

Floriade 1960 Hamburg 1963 Vienna 1964 Paris
Paris
1969 Amsterdam 1972 Hamburg 1973 Vienna 1974 Montreal
Montreal
1980 Amsterdam 1982 Munich 1983 Liverpool 1984 Osaka 1990 Zoetermeer 1992 Stuttgart 1993 Kunming 1999 Haarlemmermeer 2002 Rostock 2003 Chiang Mai 2006–2007 Venlo 2012 Antalya 2016 Beijing 2019 Almere 2022 Łódź 2024

Cancelled exhibitions

Rome 1942 Chicago 1992 Vienna and Budapest 1995 Metro Manila 2002 Seine-Saint-Denis 2004

Not BIE recognized

Asia

Nanyang 1910 Hangzhou 1929 Nagoya 1937 Shenyang 2006

Europe

London 1756 Dublin 1853 Manchester 1857 Porto 1865 London 1871–1874 Lyon 1872 Vienna 1873 Amsterdam 1883 Liverpool 1886 London 1886 Copenhagen 1888 Glasgow 1888 Frankfurt 1891 Prague 1891 Lyon 1894 Oporto 1894 Berlin 1896 Glasgow 1901 Cork 1902 Hanoi 1902 London 1905 London 1906 Marseille 1906 Dublin 1907 London 1908 Zaragoza 1908 London 1910 Dresden 1911 London 1911 London 1912 Lyon 1914 Cologne 1914 London 1914 Kristiania 1914 Malmö 1914 Semarang 1914 London 1921 Marseille 1922 British Empire Exhibition
British Empire Exhibition
1924–1925 Antwerp 1930 Stockholm 1930 Paris
Paris
1931 Porto 1934 Glasgow 1938

North America

New York City 1826–1897 Bryant Park, New York City 1853 Atlanta
Atlanta
1881 Louisville 1883–87 New Orleans
New Orleans
1884 Atlanta
Atlanta
1887 San Francisco 1894 Atlanta
Atlanta
1895 Nashville 1897 Omaha 1898 Buffalo 1901 Charleston 1901–1902 Portland, Oregon 1905 Jamestown 1907 Seattle
Seattle
1909 Knoxville 1913 San Diego 1915–1917 Bronx 1918 Philadelphia 1926 San Diego 1935–1936 Dallas 1936 Cleveland 1936–1937 Dallas 1937 San Francisco 1939–1940 New York City 1964–1965

Oceania

Melbourne 1866 Sydney 1870 Melbourne 1875 Brisbane 1876 Sydney 1879 Dunedin 1889 Christchurch 1906 Auckland 1913–1914 Dunedin 1925 Wellington 1939–1940

South America

Buenos Aires 1910 Rio de Janeiro 1922

v t e

Flushing Meadows–Corona Park

Structures

Stadiums

Citi Field

Former: Shea Stadium

USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center

Arthur Ashe Stadium Louis Armstrong Stadium Former: Singer Bowl

Buildings

New York Hall of Science New York State Pavilion Queens
Queens
Museum Terrace on the Park

Outdoor attractions

Botanical Gardens Carousel Ice rink and swimming pool Marina Theatre in the Park Zoo Sculptures and relics

Rocket Thrower Unisphere Westinghouse Time Capsules

Transport

Mets–Willets Point (subway) Mets–Willets Point (LIRR)

Events

World's fairs

1939 1964

Hong Kong Dragon Boat Festival in New York

Geography

Flushing Bay Flushing River Adjacent neighborhoods

Corona Flushing Forest Hills Kew Gardens Kew Gardens Hills Queensboro

.