1876 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian
calendar and a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian
calendar, the 1876th year of the
Common Era (CE) and
Anno Domini (AD)
designations, the 876th year of the 2nd millennium, the 76th year
of the 19th century, and the 7th year of the
1870s decade. As of
the start of 1876, the
Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the
Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
1.3 July – September
1.5 Date unknown
2.5 Date Unknown
3.3 Date Unknown
Reichsbank opens in Berlin.
Bass Brewery Red Triangle becomes the world's first registered
February 2 – The
National League of Professional Base Ball Clubs is
formed at a meeting in Chicago; it replaces the National Association
of Professional Base Ball Players.
Morgan Bulkeley of the Hartford
Dark Blues is selected as the league's first president.
February 2 –
Third Carlist War
Third Carlist War – Battle of Montejurra: The new
Fernando Primo de Rivera
Fernando Primo de Rivera marches on the remaining
Carlist stronghold at Estella, where he meets a force of about 1,600
men under General Carlos Calderón, at nearby Montejurra. After a
courageous and costly defence, Calderón is forced to withdraw.
February 14 –
Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell applies for a patent for the
telephone, as does Elisha Gray.
February 19 – Third
Carlist War: Government troops under General
Primo de Rivera drive through the weak
Carlist forces protecting
Estella, and take the city by storm.
February 22 –
Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins University is founded in Baltimore.
February 24 – The first stage production of the verse-play Peer Gynt
Henrik Ibsen premieres, with incidental music by Edvard Grieg, in
Oslo (then called Christiania), Norway.
February 26 – The Japanese force the Korean government to sign the
Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876
Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876 (having brought a fleet to Incheon, the
port of modern-day Seoul), opening three ports to Japanese trade and
Joseon dynasty to cease considering itself a tributary
of China. On China's urging, Korea also signs treaties with the
European powers, in an effort to counterbalance Japan.
February 28 – Third
Carlist War: The
Carlist forces do not succeed,
and the promises are never fulfilled. The
Carlist pretender Carlos,
Duke of Madrid, goes into exile in France, bringing the conflict to an
end after four years.
The Harvard Lampoon
The Harvard Lampoon humor magazine is founded in
Spring – Thousands of
Plains Indians in the United States travel to
an encampment of the
Sitting Bull in the region of the
Little Bighorn River, creating the last great gathering of native
peoples on the Great Plains.
March – American librarian
Melvil Dewey first publishes the Dewey
Decimal Classification system.
March 7 –
Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell is granted a United States patent
for the telephone.
March 10 –
Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell makes the first successful
telephone call, saying "Mr. Watson, come here, I want to see you".
March 20 – Through constitutional reform taking legal effect, Louis
De Geer becomes the first Prime Minister of Sweden.
April 16 – The
April Uprising in
April 17 –
Friends Academy is founded by Gideon Frost at Locust
Valley, New York.
April Uprising (Bulgaria):
Batak massacre – Bulgarians in
Batak are massacred by Ottoman troops. The number of victims ranges
from 3,000 to 5,000, depending on the source.
Royal Titles Act 1876
Royal Titles Act 1876 confers the title
Empress of India
Empress of India upon
Settle–Carlisle Railway in England is opened to passenger
traffic (it opened to goods traffic in 1875).
May 10 – The
Centennial Exposition begins in Philadelphia.
May 11/12 –
Berlin Memorandum: Germany, Russia and Austria-Hungary
propose an armistice between
Turkey and its insurgents.
May 16 – British Prime Minister
Benjamin Disraeli rejects the Berlin
May 17 –
Nikolaus Otto files his patent for the four-stroke cycle
internal combustion engine.
May 18 –
Wyatt Earp starts work in Dodge City, Kansas, serving under
Marshal Larry Deger.
June 4 – The
Transcontinental Express arrives in
San Francisco via
the First Transcontinental Railroad, 83 hours and 39 minutes after
having left New York City.
June 17 – American Indian Wars: Battle of the Rosebud. 1,500 Sioux
and Cheyenne, led by Crazy Horse, beat back General George Crook's
forces at Rosebud Creek in Montana Territory.
June 25/26 – American Indian Wars: Battle of the Little Bighorn. 300
men of the
U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment
U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment under Lieutenant Colonel George
Armstrong Custer are wiped out by 5,000 Lakota,
Cheyenne and Arapaho,
Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse.
July – September
Punch cartoon from June 17. Russia preparing to let slip the "Dogs of
War", its imminent engagement in the growing Balkan conflict between
Slavic states and Turkey, while policeman
John Bull (Britain) warns
Russia to take care. The Slavic states of
declare war on
Turkey two weeks later.
July 1 –
Serbia declares war on the Ottoman Empire.
July 2 –
Montenegro declares war on the Ottoman Empire.
July 4 –
United States Declaration of Independence
United States Declaration of Independence centennial
July 8 – Reichstadt Agreement: Russia and
Austria-Hungary agree on
partitioning the Balkan Peninsula.
July 13 – The prosecution of Arthur Tooth, an
for using ritualist practices begins.
August 1 –
Colorado is admitted as the 38th U.S. state.
August 8 –
Thomas Edison receives a patent for his mimeograph.
August 13 –
Richard Wagner inaugurates the Bayreuth Festival.
August 31 – Murad V, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, is deposed and
succeeded by his brother Abdul Hamid II.
September 5 – Gladstone publishes his Bulgarian Horrors pamphlet.
September 7 – In Northfield, Minnesota,
Jesse James and the
James–Younger Gang attempt to rob the town's bank, but are
surrounded by an angry mob and nearly wiped out.
September 10 –
Benjamin Disraeli and
Queen Victoria pass a law
stating that Labrador dogs are no longer allowed in the city of London
and its surrounding boroughs, due to labourers becoming extremely
distracted by their presence.
September 12 –
King Leopold II
King Leopold II of Belgium hosts the Brussels
Geographic Conference, on the subject of colonizing and exploring
central Africa. By the event's conclusion, a new international body
International African Association
International African Association (indirect forerunner of
the modern Congo state) is established.
October 4 – Texas A&M University opens for classes.
October 6 – The
American Library Association
American Library Association is founded in
October 31 – The great
1876 Bengal cyclone strikes the coast of
modern-day Bangladesh, killing 200,000.
November 1 – The British
Colony of New Zealand
Colony of New Zealand dissolves its 9
provinces, and replaces them with 63 counties.
November 2 – A giant squid, 6.1 meters long, washes ashore at
Thimble Tickle Bay in Newfoundland.
November 4 – The long-awaited First Symphony of
Johannes Brahms has
its première at Karlsruhe, under the baton of Otto Dessoff.
November 7 – U.S. presidential election, 1876: After long and heated
Rutherford B. Hayes
Rutherford B. Hayes is eventually declared the winner over
Samuel Jones Tilden. A failed grave robbery of the
Lincoln Tomb takes
place on the same night.
November 10 – The
Centennial Exposition ends in Philadelphia,
November 23 – Corrupt
Tammany Hall leader William Marcy Tweed
(better known as Boss Tweed) is delivered to authorities in New York
City, after being captured in Spain.
November 25 – American Indian Wars:
Dull Knife Fight
Dull Knife Fight – In
retaliation for the dramatic American defeat at the Battle of the
United States Army
United States Army troops under General Ranald S.
Mackenzie sack Chief Dull Knife's sleeping
Cheyenne village at the
headwaters of the Powder River (the soldiers destroy all of the
villagers' winter food and clothing, and then slash their ponies'
November 29 –
Porfirio Díaz becomes President of Mexico.
December – The first American edition of Mark Twain's The Adventures
of Tom Sawyer is published by the American Publishing Company; a
British edition has appeared in early June in London with the first
review appearing on June 24 in a British magazine.
December 2 – Chugai Economic Daily, as predecessor of Nikkei
Economic Daily (Nihon Keizai Shinbun), is first issued in Tokyo,
December 5 – The
Brooklyn Theatre fire
Brooklyn Theatre fire kills at least 278, possibly
more than 300.
December 6 – The first cremation in the United States takes place,
in a crematory built by
Francis Julius LeMoyne
Francis Julius LeMoyne at North Franklin
Township, Washington County, Pennsylvania.
December 23 –
Constantinople Conference opens.
December 29 – The
Ashtabula River railroad disaster
Ashtabula River railroad disaster occurs in Ohio
when a bridge collapses leaving 92 dead.
The Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–79, which will claim 30 million
lives and become the 5th worst famine in recorded history, begins
after the droughts of the previous year.
Tanzimat ends in the Ottoman Empire.
Heinz Tomato Ketchup
Heinz Tomato Ketchup is introduced.
Adolphus Busch's brewery,
Anheuser-Busch in St. Louis, Missouri, first
markets Budweiser, a pale lager, as a nationally sold beer.
Charles Wells opens his brewery, based in Bedford, England.
In Düsseldorf, German company
Henkel is founded.
Lyford House, by Richardson Bay, Tiburon, California, is constructed.
Spandau Prison in
Berlin is completed.
Samurai are banned from carrying swords in Japan, and their stipends
are replaced by a one-time grant of income-bearing bonds.
The Conchological Society of Great Britain & Ireland is founded.
Lars Magnus Ericsson
Lars Magnus Ericsson and Carl Johan Andersson start a small mechanical
workshop in Stockholm, Sweden, dealing with telegraphy equipment,
which grows into the worldwide company Ericsson.
Heinrich Schliemann begins excavation at Mycenae.
Lacrosse Club, thought to be the oldest existing lacrosse
club in the world, is founded at Cale Green Cricket Club in Davenport
(they still play there in the 21st century).
Pope Pius XII
Óscar R. Benavides
January 5 – Konrad Adenauer, Chancellor of Germany (d. 1967)
January 8 – Arturs Alberings, Prime Minister of Latvia (d. 1934)
Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari, Italian composer (d. 1948)
Jack London, American author (d. 1916)
January 20 – Józef Hofmann, Polish pianist (d. 1967)
January 22 – Bess Houdini, wife, stage partner of
Harry Houdini (d.
January 23 – Otto Diels, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d.
January 29 – Havergal Brian, British composer (d. 1972)
February 8 – Paula Modersohn-Becker, German painter (d. 1907)
February 12 –
Thubten Gyatso, 13th Dalai Lama
Thubten Gyatso, 13th Dalai Lama (d. 1933)
Mack Swain, American actor (d. 1935)
G. M. Trevelyan, British historian (d. 1962)
February 19 – Constantin Brâncuși, Romanian sculptor (d. 1957)
March 1 – Henri de Baillet-Latour, Belgian International Olympic
Committee president (d. 1942)
March 2 –
Pope Pius XII
Pope Pius XII (d. 1958)
March 3 – Georges Guillain, French neurologist (d. 1961)
Léon-Paul Fargue, French poet (d. 1947)
Theodore Hardeen, Hunargian magician and stunt performer, founder of
the Magician's Guild (d. 1945)
March 10 – Ernst Tandefelt, Finnish nobleman, assassin of Minister
Ritavuori (d. 1948)
March 11 – Carl Ruggles, American composer (d. 1971)
March 15 – Óscar R. Benavides, 67th and 76th
President of Peru
President of Peru (d.
March 21 – Walter Tewksbury, American athlete (d. 1968)
March 26 – Prince William of Wied, sovereign Prince of Albania (d.
March 31 – Borisav "Bora" Stanković, Serbian writer (d. 1927)
April 1 – Peter Strasser, German naval officer, airship commander
April 3 – Margaret Anglin, Canadian stage actress (d. 1958)
April 4 – Maurice de Vlaminck, French painter, poet (d. 1958)
April 9 – Ettore Bastico, Italian field marshal (d. 1972)
April 11 – Paul Henry, Irish artist (d. 1958)
Torine Torines, Swedish mechanic (d. 1944)
April 14 – Sir Murray Bisset, South African cricketer, Governor of
Southern Rhodesia (d. 1931)
April 22 – Róbert Bárány, Hungarian physician, recipient of the
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1936)
April 23 – Mary Ellicott Arnold, American social activist, writer
April 24 – Erich Raeder, German admiral (d. 1960)
Ivan Cankar, Slovenian writer (d. 1918)
Shigeru Honjō, Japanese general (d. 1945)
May 18 – Hermann Müller, Chancellor of Germany (d. 1931)
May 27 – Sir William Stanier, English steam locomotive engineer
(London, Midland and Scottish Railway) (d. 1965)
June 4 – Clara Blandick, American actress (d. 1962)
Tony Jackson, American jazz musician (d. 1920)
Isaac Heinemann, German-born Israeli scholar, professor of classical
literature (d. 1957)
June 13 – William Sealy Gosset, English chemist (d. 1937)
June 19 – Sir Nigel Gresley, English steam locomotive engineer
(Flying Scotsman & Mallard) (d. 1941)
June 21 – Swami Kalyandev, Indian supercentenarian (d. 2004)
June 22 – Madeleine Vionnet, French fashion designer (d. 1975)
July 2 – Wilhelm Cuno, Chancellor of Germany (d. 1933)
July 8 – Alexandros Papanastasiou, 2-time Prime Minister of Greece
Max Jacob, French poet (d. 1944)
Alphaeus Philemon Cole, American portrait painter, engraver, and
etcher (d. 1988)
July 13 –
Archduchess Maria Annunciata of Austria
Archduchess Maria Annunciata of Austria (d. 1961)
Victor van Strydonck de Burkel, Belgian general (d. 1961)
Alfred Stock, German chemist (d. 1946)
Ignaz Seipel, 4th Chancellor of Austria (d. 1932)
Joseph Fielding Smith, president of The Church of Jesus Christ of
Latter-day Saints (d. 1972)
July 29 – Maria Ouspenskaya, Russian actress, acting teacher (d.
August 7 – Mata Hari, Dutch exotic dancer, spy (d. 1917)
August 15 – Stylianos Gonatas, Prime Minister of Greece (d. 1966)
Eric Drummond, 16th Earl of Perth, British politician (d. 1951)
Henri Winkelman, Dutch general (d. 1952)
August 25 – Eglantyne Jebb, English co-founder of the Save the
Children Fund, champion of children's human rights (d. 1928)
September 1 – Harriet Shaw Weaver, English political activist (d.
September 5 – Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb, German field marshal (d.
September 6 – John James Rickard Macleod, Scottish-born physician
and physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1935)
September 7 – Francesco Buhagiar, 2nd Prime Minister of Malta (d.
September 13 – Sherwood Anderson, American writer (d. 1941)
September 15 – Bruno Walter, German conductor (d. 1962)
September 16 – Marvin Hart, American boxer (d. 1931)
September 18 – James Scullin, 9th Prime Minister of Australia (d.
September 22 – André Tardieu, 3-time Prime Minister of France (d.
Moshe Zvi Segal, Israeli linguist, Talmudic scholar, and Israel Prize
recipient (d. 1968)
Brudenell White, Australian general (d. 1940)
Syed Ghulam Bhik Nairang, Indian/Pakistani Muslim leader, poet (d.
Edith Abbott, American social worker, educator, and author (d. 1957)
September 29 – Charlie Llewellyn, first non-white South African Test
cricketer (d. 1964)
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus
October 2 – Arnold Peter Møller, Danish shipping magnate (d. 1965)
October 7 – Louis Tancred, South African cricketer (d. 1934)
October 13 – Rube Waddell, American baseball player (d. 1914)
October 21 – Sir Fraser Russell,
Governor of Southern Rhodesia
Governor of Southern Rhodesia (d.
October 29 – Anton Boisen, American founder of the clinical pastoral
education movement (d. 1965)
Alfred S. Alschuler, American architect (d. 1940)
William Haywood, British architect (d. 1957)
November 3 – Rupert D'Oyly Carte, English hotelier, theatre owner
and impresario (d. 1948)
Adolf von Brauchitsch, German general (d. 1935)
Culbert Olson, Governor of California (d. 1962)
Charlie Townsend, English cricketer (d. 1958)
November 17 – August Sander, German photographer (d. 1964)
November 23 – Manuel de Falla, Spanish composer (d. 1946)
November 24 – Walter Burley Griffin, American architect (d. 1937)
December 9 – Berton Churchill, Canadian actor (d. 1940)
December 12 – Alvin Kraenzlein, American athlete (d. 1928)
December 20 – Walter Sydney Adams, American astronomer (d. 1956)
December 21 – Jack Lang, Australian politician (d. 1975)
Muhammad Ali Jinnah, founder, first governor general of
Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d.
December 29 – Pablo Casals, Catalan cellist (d. 1973)
Petro Trad, 5th President and 14th Prime Minister of Lebanon (d. 1947)
Abd Allah Siraj, Prime Minister of Jordan (d. 1949)
General George Armstrong Custer
January 10 – Gordon Granger, American General (b. 1822)
January 15 – Eliza McCardle Johnson, First Lady of the United States
February 18 – Charlotte Cushman, American actress (b. 1816)
February 24 – Joseph Jenkins Roberts, 2-time President of Liberia
March 29 – Karl Ferdinand Ranke, German educator (b. 1806)
April 9 – Charles Goodyear, American politician (b. 1804)
May 7 – William Buell Sprague, American clergyman, author (b. 1795)
May 8 – Truganini, Tasmanian Aboriginal woman (b. c. 1812)
May 24 – Henry Kingsley, English novelist (b. 1830)
May 26 – František Palacký, Czech historian, politician (b. 1798)
June 4 – Abdülaziz, 32nd Sultan of the
Ottoman Empire (b. 1830)
June 6 – Auguste Casimir-Perier, French diplomat (b. 1811)
June 7 – Josephine of Leuchtenberg, Queen of
June 8 – George Sand, French writer (b. 1804)
June 21 – Antonio López de Santa Anna,
President of Mexico
President of Mexico (b.
June 25 – General George Armstrong Custer, U.S. Army officer (in
battle) (b. 1839)
June 27 – Harriet Martineau, British social theorist, writer (b.
Wild Bill Hickok
July 1 – Mikhail Bakunin, Russian revolutionary, anarchist (b. 1814)
August 2 – Wild Bill Hickok, American gunfighter, entertainer (b.
September 5 – Manuel Blanco Encalada, Spanish-Chilean admiral and
politician, 1st President of Chile (b. 1790)
September 27 – Braxton Bragg, Confederate Civil War general (b.
October 1 – James Lick, American land baron (b. 1796)
November 16 – Karl Ernst von Baer, Estonian-German scientist,
explorer (b. 1792)
November 18 – Narcisse Virgilio Díaz, French painter (b. 1807)
December 29 – Titus Salt, English woollen manufacturer,
philanthropist (b. 1803)
December 31 – Catherine Labouré, French visionary, saint (b. 1806)
Anna Volkova, Russian chemist (b. 1800)
^ "United Kingdom Intellectual Property Office".
^ Powers, Thomas. "How the Battle of Little Bighorn Was Won".
^ Dewey, Melvil (1876). A Classification and Subject Index for
Cataloguing and Arranging the Books and Pamphlets of a Library.
OCLC 78870163. Retrieved 2012-07-31.
^ van Dulken, Stephen (2001). Inventing the 19th Century. London:
British Library. pp. 104–5. ISBN 0-7123-0881-4.
^ ja:日本経済新聞#沿革 (Japanese language). Retrieved
Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia ...for
1876 (1885) online edition,