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1876
1876
was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1876th year of the Common Era
Common Era
(CE) and Anno Domini
Anno Domini
(AD) designations, the 876th year of the 2nd millennium, the 76th year of the 19th century, and the 7th year of the 1870s
1870s
decade. As of the start of 1876, the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Contents

1 Events

1.1 January–March 1.2 April–June 1.3 July – September 1.4 October–December 1.5 Date unknown

2 Births

2.1 January–March 2.2 April–June 2.3 July–September 2.4 October–December 2.5 Date Unknown

3 Deaths

3.1 January–June 3.2 July–December 3.3 Date Unknown

4 References

Events[edit] January–March[edit]

January 1

The Reichsbank
Reichsbank
opens in Berlin. The Bass Brewery
Bass Brewery
Red Triangle becomes the world's first registered trademark symbol.[1]

February 2
February 2
– The National League
National League
of Professional Base Ball Clubs is formed at a meeting in Chicago; it replaces the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players. Morgan Bulkeley
Morgan Bulkeley
of the Hartford Dark Blues is selected as the league's first president. February 2
February 2
Third Carlist War
Third Carlist War
– Battle of Montejurra: The new commander General Fernando Primo de Rivera
Fernando Primo de Rivera
marches on the remaining Carlist
Carlist
stronghold at Estella, where he meets a force of about 1,600 men under General Carlos Calderón, at nearby Montejurra. After a courageous and costly defence, Calderón is forced to withdraw. February 14 Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell
applies for a patent for the telephone, as does Elisha Gray. February 19 – Third Carlist
Carlist
War: Government troops under General Primo de Rivera drive through the weak Carlist
Carlist
forces protecting Estella, and take the city by storm. February 22 Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins University
is founded in Baltimore. February 24 – The first stage production of the verse-play Peer Gynt by Henrik Ibsen
Henrik Ibsen
premieres, with incidental music by Edvard Grieg, in Oslo
Oslo
(then called Christiania), Norway. February 26 – The Japanese force the Korean government to sign the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876
Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876
(having brought a fleet to Incheon, the port of modern-day Seoul), opening three ports to Japanese trade and forcing Korea's Joseon dynasty
Joseon dynasty
to cease considering itself a tributary of China. On China's urging, Korea also signs treaties with the European powers, in an effort to counterbalance Japan. February 28 – Third Carlist
Carlist
War: The Carlist
Carlist
forces do not succeed, and the promises are never fulfilled. The Carlist
Carlist
pretender Carlos, Duke of Madrid, goes into exile in France, bringing the conflict to an end after four years. February– March
March
The Harvard Lampoon
The Harvard Lampoon
humor magazine is founded in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Spring – Thousands of Plains Indians
Plains Indians
in the United States travel to an encampment of the Sioux
Sioux
chief Sitting Bull
Sitting Bull
in the region of the Little Bighorn River, creating the last great gathering of native peoples on the Great Plains.[2] March
March
– American librarian Melvil Dewey
Melvil Dewey
first publishes the Dewey Decimal Classification system.[3] March
March
7 – Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell
is granted a United States patent for the telephone.[4] March
March
10 – Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell
makes the first successful telephone call, saying "Mr. Watson, come here, I want to see you". March
March
20 – Through constitutional reform taking legal effect, Louis De Geer becomes the first Prime Minister of Sweden.

April–June[edit]

April 16 – The April Uprising
April Uprising
in Bulgaria
Bulgaria
occurs. April 17 Friends Academy is founded by Gideon Frost at Locust Valley, New York. May
May
April Uprising
April Uprising
(Bulgaria): Batak massacre
Batak massacre
– Bulgarians in Batak are massacred by Ottoman troops. The number of victims ranges from 3,000 to 5,000, depending on the source. May
May
1

The Royal Titles Act 1876
Royal Titles Act 1876
confers the title Empress of India
Empress of India
upon Queen Victoria. The Settle–Carlisle Railway
Settle–Carlisle Railway
in England is opened to passenger traffic (it opened to goods traffic in 1875).

May
May
10 – The Centennial Exposition
Centennial Exposition
begins in Philadelphia. May
May
11/12 – Berlin
Berlin
Memorandum: Germany, Russia and Austria-Hungary propose an armistice between Turkey
Turkey
and its insurgents. May
May
16 – British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli
Benjamin Disraeli
rejects the Berlin Memorandum. May
May
17 – Nikolaus Otto
Nikolaus Otto
files his patent for the four-stroke cycle internal combustion engine.[5] May
May
18 – Wyatt Earp
Wyatt Earp
starts work in Dodge City, Kansas, serving under Marshal
Marshal
Larry Deger. June 4 – The Transcontinental Express arrives in San Francisco
San Francisco
via the First Transcontinental Railroad, 83 hours and 39 minutes after having left New York City. June 17 – American Indian Wars: Battle of the Rosebud. 1,500 Sioux and Cheyenne, led by Crazy Horse, beat back General George Crook's forces at Rosebud Creek in Montana Territory. June 25/26 – American Indian Wars: Battle of the Little Bighorn. 300 men of the U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment
U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment
under Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer are wiped out by 5,000 Lakota, Cheyenne
Cheyenne
and Arapaho, led by Sitting Bull
Sitting Bull
and Crazy Horse.

July – September[edit]

Punch cartoon from June 17. Russia preparing to let slip the "Dogs of War", its imminent engagement in the growing Balkan conflict between Slavic states and Turkey, while policeman John Bull
John Bull
(Britain) warns Russia to take care. The Slavic states of Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro
Montenegro
would declare war on Turkey
Turkey
two weeks later.

July 1 Serbia
Serbia
declares war on the Ottoman Empire. July 2 Montenegro
Montenegro
declares war on the Ottoman Empire. July 4 United States Declaration of Independence
United States Declaration of Independence
centennial celebrated. July 8 – Reichstadt Agreement: Russia and Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
agree on partitioning the Balkan Peninsula. July 13 – The prosecution of Arthur Tooth, an Anglican
Anglican
clergyman, for using ritualist practices begins. August 1 Colorado
Colorado
is admitted as the 38th U.S. state. August 8
August 8
Thomas Edison
Thomas Edison
receives a patent for his mimeograph. August 13 Richard Wagner
Richard Wagner
inaugurates the Bayreuth Festival. August 31 – Murad V, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, is deposed and succeeded by his brother Abdul Hamid II. September 5 – Gladstone publishes his Bulgarian Horrors pamphlet. September 7 – In Northfield, Minnesota, Jesse James
Jesse James
and the James–Younger Gang
James–Younger Gang
attempt to rob the town's bank, but are surrounded by an angry mob and nearly wiped out. September 10 Benjamin Disraeli
Benjamin Disraeli
and Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
pass a law stating that Labrador dogs are no longer allowed in the city of London and its surrounding boroughs, due to labourers becoming extremely distracted by their presence.[citation needed] September 12 King Leopold II
King Leopold II
of Belgium hosts the Brussels Geographic Conference, on the subject of colonizing and exploring central Africa. By the event's conclusion, a new international body named the International African Association
International African Association
(indirect forerunner of the modern Congo state) is established.

October–December[edit]

October 4 – Texas A&M University opens for classes. October 6 – The American Library Association
American Library Association
is founded in Philadelphia. October 31
October 31
– The great 1876 Bengal cyclone strikes the coast of modern-day Bangladesh, killing 200,000. November 1 – The British Colony of New Zealand
Colony of New Zealand
dissolves its 9 provinces, and replaces them with 63 counties. November 2 – A giant squid, 6.1 meters long, washes ashore at Thimble Tickle Bay in Newfoundland. November 4 – The long-awaited First Symphony of Johannes Brahms
Johannes Brahms
has its première at Karlsruhe, under the baton of Otto Dessoff. November 7 – U.S. presidential election, 1876: After long and heated disputes, Rutherford B. Hayes
Rutherford B. Hayes
is eventually declared the winner over Samuel Jones Tilden. A failed grave robbery of the Lincoln Tomb
Lincoln Tomb
takes place on the same night. November 10 – The Centennial Exposition
Centennial Exposition
ends in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. November 23 – Corrupt Tammany Hall
Tammany Hall
leader William Marcy Tweed (better known as Boss Tweed) is delivered to authorities in New York City, after being captured in Spain. November 25 – American Indian Wars: Dull Knife Fight
Dull Knife Fight
– In retaliation for the dramatic American defeat at the Battle of the Little Bighorn, United States Army
United States Army
troops under General Ranald S. Mackenzie sack Chief Dull Knife's sleeping Cheyenne
Cheyenne
village at the headwaters of the Powder River (the soldiers destroy all of the villagers' winter food and clothing, and then slash their ponies' throats). November 29 Porfirio Díaz
Porfirio Díaz
becomes President of Mexico. December – The first American edition of Mark Twain's The Adventures of Tom Sawyer is published by the American Publishing Company; a British edition has appeared in early June in London with the first review appearing on June 24 in a British magazine. December 2 – Chugai Economic Daily, as predecessor of Nikkei Economic Daily (Nihon Keizai Shinbun), is first issued in Tokyo, Japan.[6] December 5 – The Brooklyn Theatre fire
Brooklyn Theatre fire
kills at least 278, possibly more than 300. December 6 – The first cremation in the United States takes place, in a crematory built by Francis Julius LeMoyne
Francis Julius LeMoyne
at North Franklin Township, Washington County, Pennsylvania. December 23 Constantinople Conference
Constantinople Conference
opens. December 29 – The Ashtabula River railroad disaster
Ashtabula River railroad disaster
occurs in Ohio when a bridge collapses leaving 92 dead.

Date unknown[edit]

The Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–79, which will claim 30 million lives and become the 5th worst famine in recorded history, begins after the droughts of the previous year. Tanzimat
Tanzimat
ends in the Ottoman Empire. Heinz Tomato Ketchup
Heinz Tomato Ketchup
is introduced. Adolphus Busch's brewery, Anheuser-Busch
Anheuser-Busch
in St. Louis, Missouri, first markets Budweiser, a pale lager, as a nationally sold beer. Charles Wells opens his brewery, based in Bedford, England. In Düsseldorf, German company Henkel
Henkel
is founded. Lyford House, by Richardson Bay, Tiburon, California, is constructed. Construction of Spandau Prison
Spandau Prison
in Berlin
Berlin
is completed. Samurai
Samurai
are banned from carrying swords in Japan, and their stipends are replaced by a one-time grant of income-bearing bonds. The Conchological Society of Great Britain & Ireland is founded. Lars Magnus Ericsson
Lars Magnus Ericsson
and Carl Johan Andersson start a small mechanical workshop in Stockholm, Sweden, dealing with telegraphy equipment, which grows into the worldwide company Ericsson. Heinrich Schliemann
Heinrich Schliemann
begins excavation at Mycenae. Stockport Lacrosse
Lacrosse
Club, thought to be the oldest existing lacrosse club in the world, is founded at Cale Green Cricket Club in Davenport (they still play there in the 21st century).

Births[edit] January–March[edit]

Konrad Adenauer

Otto Diels

Pope Pius XII

Óscar R. Benavides

January 5 – Konrad Adenauer, Chancellor of Germany (d. 1967) January 8 – Arturs Alberings, Prime Minister of Latvia (d. 1934) January 12

Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari, Italian composer (d. 1948) Jack London, American author (d. 1916)

January 20 – Józef Hofmann, Polish pianist (d. 1967) January 22 – Bess Houdini, wife, stage partner of Harry Houdini
Harry Houdini
(d. 1943) January 23 – Otto Diels, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1954) January 29 – Havergal Brian, British composer (d. 1972) February
February
8 – Paula Modersohn-Becker, German painter (d. 1907) February
February
12 – Thubten Gyatso, 13th Dalai Lama
Thubten Gyatso, 13th Dalai Lama
(d. 1933) February
February
16

Mack Swain, American actor (d. 1935) G. M. Trevelyan, British historian (d. 1962)

February 19 – Constantin Brâncuși, Romanian sculptor (d. 1957) March
March
1 – Henri de Baillet-Latour, Belgian International Olympic Committee president (d. 1942) March
March
2 – Pope Pius XII
Pope Pius XII
(d. 1958) March
March
3 – Georges Guillain, French neurologist (d. 1961) March
March
4

Léon-Paul Fargue, French poet (d. 1947) Theodore Hardeen, Hunargian magician and stunt performer, founder of the Magician's Guild (d. 1945)

March
March
10 – Ernst Tandefelt, Finnish nobleman, assassin of Minister Ritavuori (d. 1948) March
March
11 – Carl Ruggles, American composer (d. 1971) March
March
15 – Óscar R. Benavides, 67th and 76th President of Peru
President of Peru
(d. 1945) March
March
21 – Walter Tewksbury, American athlete (d. 1968) March
March
26 – Prince William of Wied, sovereign Prince of Albania (d. 1945) March
March
31 – Borisav "Bora" Stanković, Serbian writer (d. 1927)

April–June[edit]

April 1 – Peter Strasser, German naval officer, airship commander (d. 1918) April 3 – Margaret Anglin, Canadian stage actress (d. 1958) April 4 – Maurice de Vlaminck, French painter, poet (d. 1958) April 9 – Ettore Bastico, Italian field marshal (d. 1972) April 11 – Paul Henry, Irish artist (d. 1958)

Torine Torines, Swedish mechanic (d. 1944)

April 14 – Sir Murray Bisset, South African cricketer, Governor of Southern Rhodesia (d. 1931) April 22 – Róbert Bárány, Hungarian physician, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
(d. 1936) April 23 – Mary Ellicott Arnold, American social activist, writer (d. 1968) April 24 – Erich Raeder, German admiral (d. 1960) May
May
10

Ivan Cankar, Slovenian writer (d. 1918) Shigeru Honjō, Japanese general (d. 1945)

May
May
18 – Hermann Müller, Chancellor of Germany (d. 1931) May
May
27 – Sir William Stanier, English steam locomotive engineer (London, Midland and Scottish Railway) (d. 1965) June 4 – Clara Blandick, American actress (d. 1962) June 5

Tony Jackson, American jazz musician (d. 1920) Isaac Heinemann, German-born Israeli scholar, professor of classical literature (d. 1957)

June 13 – William Sealy Gosset, English chemist (d. 1937) June 19 – Sir Nigel Gresley, English steam locomotive engineer (Flying Scotsman & Mallard) (d. 1941) June 21 – Swami Kalyandev, Indian supercentenarian (d. 2004) June 22 – Madeleine Vionnet, French fashion designer (d. 1975)

July–September[edit]

Wilhelm Cuno

Mata Hari

James Scullin

July 2 – Wilhelm Cuno, Chancellor of Germany (d. 1933) July 8 – Alexandros Papanastasiou, 2-time Prime Minister of Greece (d. 1936) July 12

Max Jacob, French poet (d. 1944) Alphaeus Philemon Cole, American portrait painter, engraver, and etcher (d. 1988)

July 13 Archduchess Maria Annunciata of Austria
Archduchess Maria Annunciata of Austria
(d. 1961) July 16

Victor van Strydonck de Burkel, Belgian general (d. 1961) Alfred Stock, German chemist (d. 1946)

July 19

Ignaz Seipel, 4th Chancellor of Austria (d. 1932) Joseph Fielding Smith, president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (d. 1972)

July 29 – Maria Ouspenskaya, Russian actress, acting teacher (d. 1949) August 7 – Mata Hari, Dutch exotic dancer, spy (d. 1917) August 15 – Stylianos Gonatas, Prime Minister of Greece (d. 1966) August 17

Eric Drummond, 16th Earl of Perth, British politician (d. 1951) Henri Winkelman, Dutch general (d. 1952)

August 25 – Eglantyne Jebb, English co-founder of the Save the Children Fund, champion of children's human rights (d. 1928) September 1 – Harriet Shaw Weaver, English political activist (d. 1961) September 5 – Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb, German field marshal (d. 1956) September 6 – John James Rickard Macleod, Scottish-born physician and physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1935) September 7 – Francesco Buhagiar, 2nd Prime Minister of Malta (d. 1934) September 13 – Sherwood Anderson, American writer (d. 1941) September 15 – Bruno Walter, German conductor (d. 1962) September 16 – Marvin Hart, American boxer (d. 1931) September 18 – James Scullin, 9th Prime Minister of Australia (d. 1953) September 22 – André Tardieu, 3-time Prime Minister of France (d. 1945) September 23

Moshe Zvi Segal, Israeli linguist, Talmudic scholar, and Israel Prize recipient (d. 1968) Brudenell White, Australian general (d. 1940)

September 26

Syed Ghulam Bhik Nairang, Indian/Pakistani Muslim leader, poet (d. 1952) Edith Abbott, American social worker, educator, and author (d. 1957)

September 29 – Charlie Llewellyn, first non-white South African Test cricketer (d. 1964)

October–December[edit]

Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus

October 2 – Arnold Peter Møller, Danish shipping magnate (d. 1965) October 7 – Louis Tancred, South African cricketer (d. 1934) October 13 – Rube Waddell, American baseball player (d. 1914) October 21 – Sir Fraser Russell, Governor of Southern Rhodesia
Governor of Southern Rhodesia
(d. 1952) October 29 – Anton Boisen, American founder of the clinical pastoral education movement (d. 1965) November 2

Alfred S. Alschuler, American architect (d. 1940) William Haywood, British architect (d. 1957)

November 3 – Rupert D'Oyly Carte, English hotelier, theatre owner and impresario (d. 1948) November 7

Adolf von Brauchitsch, German general (d. 1935) Culbert Olson, Governor of California (d. 1962) Charlie Townsend, English cricketer (d. 1958)

November 17 – August Sander, German photographer (d. 1964) November 23 – Manuel de Falla, Spanish composer (d. 1946) November 24 – Walter Burley Griffin, American architect (d. 1937) December 9 – Berton Churchill, Canadian actor (d. 1940) December 12 – Alvin Kraenzlein, American athlete (d. 1928) December 20 – Walter Sydney Adams, American astronomer (d. 1956) December 21 – Jack Lang, Australian politician (d. 1975) December 25

Muhammad Ali Jinnah, founder, first governor general of Pakistan
Pakistan
(d. 1948) Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1959)

December 29 – Pablo Casals, Catalan cellist (d. 1973)

Date Unknown[edit]

Petro Trad, 5th President and 14th Prime Minister of Lebanon (d. 1947) Abd Allah Siraj, Prime Minister of Jordan (d. 1949)

Deaths[edit] January–June[edit]

General George Armstrong Custer

January 10 – Gordon Granger, American General (b. 1822) January 15 – Eliza McCardle Johnson, First Lady of the United States (b. 1810) February
February
18 – Charlotte Cushman, American actress (b. 1816) February 24 – Joseph Jenkins Roberts, 2-time President of Liberia (b. 1809) March
March
29 – Karl Ferdinand Ranke, German educator (b. 1806) April 9 – Charles Goodyear, American politician (b. 1804) May
May
7 – William Buell Sprague, American clergyman, author (b. 1795) May
May
8 – Truganini, Tasmanian Aboriginal woman (b. c. 1812) May
May
24 – Henry Kingsley, English novelist (b. 1830) May
May
26 – František Palacký, Czech historian, politician (b. 1798) June 4 – Abdülaziz, 32nd Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(b. 1830) June 6 – Auguste Casimir-Perier, French diplomat (b. 1811) June 7 – Josephine of Leuchtenberg, Queen of Sweden
Sweden
and Norway
Norway
(b. 1807) June 8 – George Sand, French writer (b. 1804) June 21 – Antonio López de Santa Anna, President of Mexico
President of Mexico
(b. 1794) June 25 – General George Armstrong Custer, U.S. Army officer (in battle) (b. 1839) June 27 – Harriet Martineau, British social theorist, writer (b. 1802)

July–December[edit]

Wild Bill Hickok

July 1 – Mikhail Bakunin, Russian revolutionary, anarchist (b. 1814) August 2 – Wild Bill Hickok, American gunfighter, entertainer (b. 1837) September 5 – Manuel Blanco Encalada, Spanish-Chilean admiral and politician, 1st President of Chile (b. 1790) September 27 – Braxton Bragg, Confederate Civil War general (b. 1817) October 1 – James Lick, American land baron (b. 1796) November 16 – Karl Ernst von Baer, Estonian-German scientist, explorer (b. 1792) November 18 – Narcisse Virgilio Díaz, French painter (b. 1807) December 29 – Titus Salt, English woollen manufacturer, philanthropist (b. 1803) December 31 – Catherine Labouré, French visionary, saint (b. 1806)

Date Unknown[edit] Anna Volkova, Russian chemist (b. 1800) References[edit]

^ "United Kingdom Intellectual Property Office".  ^ Powers, Thomas. "How the Battle of Little Bighorn Was Won". Smithsonian Magazine.  ^ Dewey, Melvil (1876). A Classification and Subject Index for Cataloguing and Arranging the Books and Pamphlets of a Library. OCLC 78870163. Retrieved 2012-07-31.  ^ Patent
Patent
#174,466. ^ van Dulken, Stephen (2001). Inventing the 19th Century. London: British Library. pp. 104–5. ISBN 0-7123-0881-4.  ^ ja:日本経済新聞#沿革 (Japanese language). Retrieved 2017-10-03.

Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia ...for 1876
1876
(1885) online edition, comprehens

.