Universal Algebra
Universal algebra (sometimes called general algebra) is the field of mathematics that studies algebraic structures themselves, not examples ("models") of algebraic structures. For instance, rather than take particular groups as the object of study, in universal algebra one takes the class of groups as an object of study. Basic idea In universal algebra, an algebra (or algebraic structure) is a set ''A'' together with a collection of operations on ''A''. An ''n'' ary operation on ''A'' is a function that takes ''n'' elements of ''A'' and returns a single element of ''A''. Thus, a 0ary operation (or ''nullary operation'') can be represented simply as an element of ''A'', or a '' constant'', often denoted by a letter like ''a''. A 1ary operation (or ''unary operation'') is simply a function from ''A'' to ''A'', often denoted by a symbol placed in front of its argument, like ~''x''. A 2ary operation (or ''binary operation'') is often denoted by a symbol placed between its argum ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Identity (mathematics)
In mathematics, an identity is an equality relating one mathematical expression ''A'' to another mathematical expression ''B'', such that ''A'' and ''B'' (which might contain some variables) produce the same value for all values of the variables within a certain range of validity. In other words, ''A'' = ''B'' is an identity if ''A'' and ''B'' define the same functions, and an identity is an equality between functions that are differently defined. For example, (a+b)^2 = a^2 + 2ab + b^2 and \cos^2\theta + \sin^2\theta =1 are identities. Identities are sometimes indicated by the triple bar symbol instead of , the equals sign. Common identities Algebraic identities Certain identities, such as a+0=a and a+(a)=0, form the basis of algebra, while other identities, such as (a+b)^2 = a^2 + 2ab +b^2 and a^2  b^2 = (a+b)(ab), can be useful in simplifying algebraic expressions and expanding them. Trigonometric identities Geometrically, trigonometric ide ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ordered Group
In abstract algebra, a partially ordered group is a group (''G'', +) equipped with a partial order "≤" that is ''translationinvariant''; in other words, "≤" has the property that, for all ''a'', ''b'', and ''g'' in ''G'', if ''a'' ≤ ''b'' then ''a'' + ''g'' ≤ ''b'' + ''g'' and ''g'' +'' a'' ≤ ''g'' +'' b''. An element ''x'' of ''G'' is called positive if 0 ≤ ''x''. The set of elements 0 ≤ ''x'' is often denoted with ''G''+, and is called the positive cone of ''G''. By translation invariance, we have ''a'' ≤ ''b'' if and only if 0 ≤ ''a'' + ''b''. So we can reduce the partial order to a monadic property: if and only if For the general group ''G'', the existence of a positive cone specifies an order on ''G''. A group ''G'' is a partially orderable group if and only if there exists a subset ''H'' (which is ''G''+) of ''G'' such that: * 0 ∈ ''H'' * if ''a'' ∈ ''H'' and ''b'' ∈ ''H'' then ''a'' + ''b'' ∈ ''H'' * if ''a'' ∈ ''H'' then ''x'' + ''a'' + '' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Signature (logic)
In logic, especially mathematical logic, a signature lists and describes the nonlogical symbols of a formal language. In universal algebra, a signature lists the operations that characterize an algebraic structure. In model theory, signatures are used for both purposes. They are rarely made explicit in more philosophical treatments of logic. Definition Formally, a (singlesorted) signature can be defined as a 4tuple , where ''S''func and ''S''rel are disjoint sets not containing any other basic logical symbols, called respectively * ''function symbols'' (examples: +, ×, 0, 1), * ''relation symbols'' or ''predicates'' (examples: ≤, ∈), * ''constant symbols'' (examples: 0, 1), and a function ar: ''S''func \cup ''S''rel → \mathbb N which assigns a natural number called ''arity'' to every function or relation symbol. A function or relation symbol is called ''n''ary if its arity is ''n''. Some authors define a nullary (0ary) function symbol as ''constant s ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Model Theory
In mathematical logic, model theory is the study of the relationship between formal theories (a collection of sentences in a formal language expressing statements about a mathematical structure), and their models (those structures in which the statements of the theory hold). The aspects investigated include the number and size of models of a theory, the relationship of different models to each other, and their interaction with the formal language itself. In particular, model theorists also investigate the sets that can be defined in a model of a theory, and the relationship of such definable sets to each other. As a separate discipline, model theory goes back to Alfred Tarski, who first used the term "Theory of Models" in publication in 1954. Since the 1970s, the subject has been shaped decisively by Saharon Shelah's stability theory. Compared to other areas of mathematical logic such as proof theory, model theory is often less concerned with formal rigour and closer in spirit ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Order Theory
Order theory is a branch of mathematics that investigates the intuitive notion of order using binary relations. It provides a formal framework for describing statements such as "this is less than that" or "this precedes that". This article introduces the field and provides basic definitions. A list of ordertheoretic terms can be found in the order theory glossary. Background and motivation Orders are everywhere in mathematics and related fields like computer science. The first order often discussed in primary school is the standard order on the natural numbers e.g. "2 is less than 3", "10 is greater than 5", or "Does Tom have fewer cookies than Sally?". This intuitive concept can be extended to orders on other sets of numbers, such as the integers and the reals. The idea of being greater than or less than another number is one of the basic intuitions of number systems (compare with numeral systems) in general (although one usually is also interested in the actual difference ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Inequality (mathematics)
In mathematics, an inequality is a relation which makes a nonequal comparison between two numbers or other mathematical expressions. It is used most often to compare two numbers on the number line by their size. There are several different notations used to represent different kinds of inequalities: * The notation ''a'' ''b'' means that ''a'' is greater than ''b''. In either case, ''a'' is not equal to ''b''. These relations are known as strict inequalities, meaning that ''a'' is strictly less than or strictly greater than ''b''. Equivalence is excluded. In contrast to strict inequalities, there are two types of inequality relations that are not strict: * The notation ''a'' ≤ ''b'' or ''a'' ⩽ ''b'' means that ''a'' is less than or equal to ''b'' (or, equivalently, at most ''b'', or not greater than ''b''). * The notation ''a'' ≥ ''b'' or ''a'' ⩾ ''b'' means that ''a'' is greater than or equal to ''b'' (or, equivalently, at least ''b'', or not less than ''b''). The re ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Finitary Relation
In mathematics, a finitary relation over sets is a subset of the Cartesian product ; that is, it is a set of ''n''tuples consisting of elements ''x''''i'' in ''X''''i''. Typically, the relation describes a possible connection between the elements of an ''n''tuple. For example, the relation "''x'' is divisible by ''y'' and ''z''" consists of the set of 3tuples such that when substituted to ''x'', ''y'' and ''z'', respectively, make the sentence true. The nonnegative integer ''n'' giving the number of "places" in the relation is called the ''arity'', ''adicity'' or ''degree'' of the relation. A relation with ''n'' "places" is variously called an ''n''ary relation, an ''n''adic relation or a relation of degree ''n''. Relations with a finite number of places are called ''finitary relations'' (or simply ''relations'' if the context is clear). It is also possible to generalize the concept to ''infinitary relations'' with infinite sequences. An ''n''ary relation over sets is a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Logical Conjunction
In logic, mathematics and linguistics, And (\wedge) is the truthfunctional operator of logical conjunction; the ''and'' of a set of operands is true if and only if ''all'' of its operands are true. The logical connective that represents this operator is typically written as \wedge or . A \land B is true if and only if A is true and B is true, otherwise it is false. An operand of a conjunction is a conjunct. Beyond logic, the term "conjunction" also refers to similar concepts in other fields: * In natural language, the denotation of expressions such as English "and". * In programming languages, the shortcircuit and control structure. * In set theory, intersection. * In lattice theory, logical conjunction ( greatest lower bound). * In predicate logic, universal quantification. Notation And is usually denoted by an infix operator: in mathematics and logic, it is denoted by \wedge, or ; in electronics, ; and in programming languages, &, &&, or and. In Jan ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Logical Connective
In logic, a logical connective (also called a logical operator, sentential connective, or sentential operator) is a logical constant. They can be used to connect logical formulas. For instance in the syntax of propositional logic, the binary connective \lor can be used to join the two atomic formulas P and Q, rendering the complex formula P \lor Q . Common connectives include negation, disjunction, conjunction, and implication. In standard systems of classical logic, these connectives are interpreted as truth functions, though they receive a variety of alternative interpretations in nonclassical logics. Their classical interpretations are similar to the meanings of natural language expressions such as English "not", "or", "and", and "if", but not identical. Discrepancies between natural language connectives and those of classical logic have motivated nonclassical approaches to natural language meaning as well as approaches which pair a classical compositional semantics wi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Existential Quantification
In predicate logic, an existential quantification is a type of quantifier, a logical constant which is interpreted as "there exists", "there is at least one", or "for some". It is usually denoted by the logical operator symbol ∃, which, when used together with a predicate variable, is called an existential quantifier ("" or "" or "). Existential quantification is distinct from universal quantification ("for all"), which asserts that the property or relation holds for ''all'' members of the domain. Some sources use the term existentialization to refer to existential quantification. Basics Consider a formula that states that some natural number multiplied by itself is 25. : 0·0 = 25, or 1·1 = 25, or 2·2 = 25, or 3·3 = 25, ... This would seem to be a logical disjunction because of the repeated use of "or". However, the ellipses make this impossible to integrate and to interpret it as a disjunction in formal logic. Instead, the statement could be rephrased more formally as ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Universal Quantification
In mathematical logic, a universal quantification is a type of quantifier, a logical constant which is interpreted as "given any" or "for all". It expresses that a predicate can be satisfied by every member of a domain of discourse. In other words, it is the predication of a property or relation to every member of the domain. It asserts that a predicate within the scope of a universal quantifier is true of every value of a predicate variable. It is usually denoted by the turned A (∀) logical operator symbol, which, when used together with a predicate variable, is called a universal quantifier ("", "", or sometimes by "" alone). Universal quantification is distinct from ''existential'' quantification ("there exists"), which only asserts that the property or relation holds for at least one member of the domain. Quantification in general is covered in the article on quantification (logic). The universal quantifier is encoded as in Unicode, and as \forall in LaTeX and relate ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 