Supervised Visitation
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Supervised Visitation
Supervised visitation allows parents in high conflict or high risk situations access to their children in a safe and supervised environment. The noncustodial parent has access to the child only when supervised by another adult. Supervised visitation is used to protect children from potentially dangerous situations while allowing parental access and providing support for the parent child relationship. Legal status Most countries recognize a parent's right to children, called Contact (law), visitation, residence, or Contact (law), contact. Most courts, including American and European, will allow the parent who does not have primary custody (the noncustodial parent) to have specified visitation and access to the child. In America the parents must establish a parenting plan setting out specific details. If the parents are not able to agree, the court may order specific possession and access or may appoint a parenting coordinator to assist the parents. The United States recogni ...
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Noncustodial Parent
A noncustodial parent is a parent who does not have child custody, physical custody of his or her minor child as the result of a court order. When the child lives with only one parent, in a sole custody arrangement, then the parent with which the child lives is the ''custodial parent'' while the other parent is the ''non-custodial parent''. The non-custodial parent may have Contact (law), contact or visitation rights. In a shared parenting arrangement, where the child lives an equal or approximately equal amount of time with the mother and father, both are custodial parents and neither is a non-custodial parent. A "child-custody determination" is a judgment, decree, or other order of a court providing for the legal custody, physical custody, or visitation with respect to a child. A custody determination can be made through a permanent or temporary order, or as part of an initial custody determination or later modification of a prior custody order. A custody determination may be made ...
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Contact (law)
In family law, contact, visitation and access are synonym terms that denotes the time that a child spends with the noncustodial parent, according to an agreed or court specified parenting schedule.Cambridge DictionaryVisitation/ref> The visitation term is not used in a shared parenting arrangement where the mother and father have joint physical custody.Jennifer Wolf, Types of custody and visitation, Very Well Family, January 27, 2019. Unsupervised visitation is the most common type, when the parent may take the child to his or her home or enjoy any outing with the child. In supervised visitation, another adult must be present, and there is sometimes a court order to occur at a predetermined supervised child contact centre. Virtual visitation uses video-conferencing technology to allow contact when a child lives far away from the parent. Concept In most jurisdictions the nature of a couple's relationship is established when a child is born to that relationship. In law, there ma ...
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Parenting Plan
A parenting plan is a child custody plan that is negotiated by parents, and which may be included in a marital separation agreement or final decree of divorce. Especially when a separation is acrimonious to begin with, specific agreements about who will discharge these responsibilities and when and how they are to be discharged can reduce the need for litigation. Avoiding litigation spares parties not only the financial and emotional costs of litigation but the uncertainty of how favorable or unfavorable a court's after-the-fact decision will be. Moreover, the agreement itself can authorize the employment of dispute-resolution methods, such as arbitration and mediation, that may be less costly than litigation. Drafting a parenting plan A well-drafted parenting plan addresses both the custodial rights and responsibilities of parents who share custody of a minor child or children, and the logistical and other procedures for carrying out its substantive requirements. Parents can ag ...
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Parenting Coordinator
Parenting coordinator (PC) is a relatively new practice used in some US states to manage ongoing issues in high-conflict child custody and visitation cases by professional psychologist or a lawyer assigned by the Court. There are 10 states as of May 2011 that have passed legislation regarding parenting coordinators: Colorado (since 2005), Idaho (2002), Louisiana (2007), New Hampshire (2009), North Carolina (2005), Oklahoma (2001), Oregon (2002), Texas (2005), and Florida (2009). Legislation has been pending in Massachusetts for many years without significant progress. In September 2014, the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court addressed the issue of whether the trial judge had the power to appoint a parenting coordinator without consent of both parties and to give the parenting coordinator binding authority to decide all matters brought before her.https://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=2856180519464028219&q=bower+v.+bournay-bower&hl=en&as_sdt=40000006&as_vis=1 The Massachuset ...
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Troxel V
Troxel is a surname. Notable people with the surname include: *Ed Troxel (1925–2001), American football coach *Gary Troxel, American singer, member of The Fleetwoods *Melanie Troxel Melanie Troxel is a drag racer who has raced in Top Fuel, Funny Car and Pro Modified. She is the only woman to have won races in both Top Fuel and Funny Car. She was named Individual Sportswoman of the Year 2006 by the Women's Sports Foundation a ..., American drag racer See also * Troxell {{surname ...
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United States Supreme Court
The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States. It has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all U.S. federal court cases, and over state court cases that involve a point of federal law. It also has original jurisdiction over a narrow range of cases, specifically "all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party." The court holds the power of judicial review, the ability to invalidate a statute for violating a provision of the Constitution. It is also able to strike down presidential directives for violating either the Constitution or statutory law. However, it may act only within the context of a case in an area of law over which it has jurisdiction. The court may decide cases having political overtones, but has ruled that it does not have power to decide non-justiciable political questions. Established by Article Three of the United States C ...
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International Parental Child Abduction
The term international child abduction is generally synonymous with international ''parental kidnapping,'' ''child snatching'', and ''child stealing.'' However, the more precise legal usage of ''international child abduction'' originates in private international law and refers to the illegal removal of children from their home by an acquaintance or family member to a foreign country. In this context, "illegal" is normally taken to mean "in breach of custodial rights" and "home" is defined as the child's habitual residence. As implied by the "breach of custodial rights," the phenomenon of international child abduction generally involves an illegal removal that creates a jurisdictional conflict of laws whereby multiple authorities and jurisdictions could conceivably arrive at seemingly reasonable and conflicting custodial decisions with geographically limited application. Such a result often strongly affects a child's access and connection to half their family and may cause the ...
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Child Abduction
Child abduction or child theft is the unauthorized removal of a Minor (law), minor (a child under the age of Age of majority, legal adulthood) from the Child custody, custody of the child's Parent, natural parents or Legal guardian, legally appointed guardians. The term ''child abduction'' includes two legal and social categories which differ by their perpetrating contexts: abduction by members of the child's family or abduction by strangers: * Parental child abduction is the unauthorized custody of a child by a family relative (usually one or both parents) without parental agreement and contrary to family law ruling, which may have removed the child from the care, access and contact of the other parent and family side. Occurring around parental Legal separation, separation or divorce, such parental or familial child abduction may include parental alienation, a form of child abuse seeking to disconnect a child from targeted parent and denigrated side of family. This is, by far, ...
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Child Contact Centre
A contact centre is a neutral place where children of separated families can enjoy contact with their non-resident parents and sometimes other family members, in a comfortable and safe environment. Child contact services are classified into two distinct categories, supported and supervised (which handle cases with safeguarding issues). Its primary role is to support and promote contact between those parents, grandparents, guardians and children that do not have a Residence Order (non-resident parent). Use of a contact centre may be ordered by a family court in cases where: *contact is being resumed after a break and there are concerns raised by the resident parent. *when there are allegations by either party of **domestic violence or spousal abuse **child abuse either; sexual abuse, emotional abuse or physical abuse **neglect *where there is parental alienation present or where one of the parties involved in the dispute has an implacable hostility toward another. *where this has ...
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Angel House
In various theistic religious traditions an angel is a supernatural spiritual being who serves God. Abrahamic religions often depict angels as benevolent celestial intermediaries between God (or Heaven) and humanity. Other roles include protectors and guides for humans, and servants of God. Abrahamic religions describe angelic hierarchies, which vary by religion and sect. Some angels have specific names (such as Gabriel or Michael) or titles (such as seraph or archangel). Those expelled from Heaven are called fallen angels, distinct from the heavenly host. Angels in art are usually shaped like humans of extraordinary beauty. They are often identified in Christian artwork with bird wings, halos, and divine light. Etymology The word ''angel'' arrives in modern English from Old English ''engel'' (with a hard ''g'') and the Old French ''angele''. Both of these derive from Late Latin ''angelus'', which in turn was borrowed from Late Greek ''angelos'' (literally "messenge ...
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