Subring
In mathematics, a subring of ''R'' is a subset of a ring that is itself a ring when binary operations of addition and multiplication on ''R'' are restricted to the subset, and which shares the same multiplicative identity as ''R''. For those who define rings without requiring the existence of a multiplicative identity, a subring of ''R'' is just a subset of ''R'' that is a ring for the operations of ''R'' (this does imply it contains the additive identity of ''R''). The latter gives a strictly weaker condition, even for rings that do have a multiplicative identity, so that for instance all ideals become subrings (and they may have a multiplicative identity that differs from the one of ''R''). With definition requiring a multiplicative identity (which is used in this article), the only ideal of ''R'' that is a subring of ''R'' is ''R'' itself. Definition A subring of a ring is a subset ''S'' of ''R'' that preserves the structure of the ring, i.e. a ring with . Equivalently, it ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ring (mathematics)
In mathematics, rings are algebraic structures that generalize fields: multiplication need not be commutative and multiplicative inverses need not exist. In other words, a ''ring'' is a set equipped with two binary operations satisfying properties analogous to those of addition and multiplication of integers. Ring elements may be numbers such as integers or complex numbers, but they may also be nonnumerical objects such as polynomials, square matrices, functions, and power series. Formally, a ''ring'' is an abelian group whose operation is called ''addition'', with a second binary operation called ''multiplication'' that is associative, is distributive over the addition operation, and has a multiplicative identity element. (Some authors use the term " " with a missing i to refer to the more general structure that omits this last requirement; see .) Whether a ring is commutative (that is, whether the order in which two elements are multiplied might change the result) has ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Integral Extension
In commutative algebra, an element ''b'' of a commutative ring ''B'' is said to be integral over ''A'', a subring of ''B'', if there are ''n'' ≥ 1 and ''a''''j'' in ''A'' such that :b^n + a_ b^ + \cdots + a_1 b + a_0 = 0. That is to say, ''b'' is a root of a monic polynomial over ''A''. The set of elements of ''B'' that are integral over ''A'' is called the integral closure of ''A'' in ''B''. It is a subring of ''B'' containing ''A''. If every element of ''B'' is integral over ''A'', then we say that ''B'' is integral over ''A'', or equivalently ''B'' is an integral extension of ''A''. If ''A'', ''B'' are fields, then the notions of "integral over" and of an "integral extension" are precisely " algebraic over" and "algebraic extensions" in field theory (since the root of any polynomial is the root of a monic polynomial). The case of greatest interest in number theory is that of complex numbers integral over Z (e.g., \sqrt or 1+i); in this context, the integral elements are usua ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Quaternion
In mathematics, the quaternion number system extends the complex numbers. Quaternions were first described by the Irish mathematician William Rowan Hamilton in 1843 and applied to mechanics in threedimensional space. Hamilton defined a quaternion as the quotient of two '' directed lines'' in a threedimensional space, or, equivalently, as the quotient of two vectors. Multiplication of quaternions is noncommutative. Quaternions are generally represented in the form :a + b\ \mathbf i + c\ \mathbf j +d\ \mathbf k where , and are real numbers; and , and are the ''basic quaternions''. Quaternions are used in pure mathematics, but also have practical uses in applied mathematics, particularly for calculations involving threedimensional rotations, such as in threedimensional computer graphics, computer vision, and crystallographic texture analysis. They can be used alongside other methods of rotation, such as Euler angles and rotation matrices, or as an alternative to them ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Matrix Ring
In abstract algebra, a matrix ring is a set of matrices with entries in a ring ''R'' that form a ring under matrix addition and matrix multiplication . The set of all matrices with entries in ''R'' is a matrix ring denoted M''n''(''R'')Lang, ''Undergraduate algebra'', Springer, 2005; V.§3. (alternative notations: Mat''n''(''R'') and ). Some sets of infinite matrices form infinite matrix rings. Any subring of a matrix ring is a matrix ring. Over a rng, one can form matrix rngs. When ''R'' is a commutative ring, the matrix ring M''n''(''R'') is an associative algebra over ''R'', and may be called a matrix algebra. In this setting, if ''M'' is a matrix and ''r'' is in ''R'', then the matrix ''rM'' is the matrix ''M'' with each of its entries multiplied by ''r''. Examples * The set of all matrices over ''R'', denoted M''n''(''R''). This is sometimes called the "full ring of ''n''by''n'' matrices". * The set of all upper triangular matrices over ''R''. * The set of all l ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Integer
An integer is the number zero (), a positive natural number (, , , etc.) or a negative integer with a minus sign (−1, −2, −3, etc.). The negative numbers are the additive inverses of the corresponding positive numbers. In the language of mathematics, the set of integers is often denoted by the boldface or blackboard bold \mathbb. The set of natural numbers \mathbb is a subset of \mathbb, which in turn is a subset of the set of all rational numbers \mathbb, itself a subset of the real numbers \mathbb. Like the natural numbers, \mathbb is countably infinite. An integer may be regarded as a real number that can be written without a fractional component. For example, 21, 4, 0, and −2048 are integers, while 9.75, , and are not. The integers form the smallest group and the smallest ring containing the natural numbers. In algebraic number theory, the integers are sometimes qualified as rational integers to distinguish them from the more general algebraic integers ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Characteristic (algebra)
In mathematics, the characteristic of a ring (mathematics), ring , often denoted , is defined to be the smallest number of times one must use the ring's identity element, multiplicative identity (1) in a sum to get the additive identity (0). If this sum never reaches the additive identity the ring is said to have characteristic zero. That is, is the smallest positive number such that: :\underbrace_ = 0 if such a number exists, and otherwise. Motivation The special definition of the characteristic zero is motivated by the equivalent definitions characterized in the next section, where the characteristic zero is not required to be considered separately. The characteristic may also be taken to be the exponent (group theory), exponent of the ring's additive group, that is, the smallest positive integer such that: :\underbrace_ = 0 for every element of the ring (again, if exists; otherwise zero). Some authors do not include the multiplicative identity element in their r ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Field Extension
In mathematics, particularly in algebra, a field extension is a pair of fields E\subseteq F, such that the operations of ''E'' are those of ''F'' restricted to ''E''. In this case, ''F'' is an extension field of ''E'' and ''E'' is a subfield of ''F''. For example, under the usual notions of addition and multiplication, the complex numbers are an extension field of the real numbers; the real numbers are a subfield of the complex numbers. Field extensions are fundamental in algebraic number theory, and in the study of polynomial roots through Galois theory, and are widely used in algebraic geometry. Subfield A subfield K of a field L is a subset K\subseteq L that is a field with respect to the field operations inherited from L. Equivalently, a subfield is a subset that contains 1, and is closed under the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and taking the inverse of a nonzero element of K. As , the latter definition implies K and L have the same zero eleme ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Generator (mathematics)
In mathematics and physics, the term generator or generating set may refer to any of a number of related concepts. The underlying concept in each case is that of a smaller set of objects, together with a set of operations that can be applied to it, that result in the creation of a larger collection of objects, called the generated set. The larger set is then said to be generated by the smaller set. It is commonly the case that the generating set has a simpler set of properties than the generated set, thus making it easier to discuss and examine. It is usually the case that properties of the generating set are in some way preserved by the act of generation; likewise, the properties of the generated set are often reflected in the generating set. List of generators A list of examples of generating sets follow. * Generating set or spanning set of a vector space: a set that spans the vector space * Generating set of a group: A subset of a group that is not contained in any subgro ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Polynomial
In mathematics, a polynomial is an expression consisting of indeterminates (also called variables) and coefficients, that involves only the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and positiveinteger powers of variables. An example of a polynomial of a single indeterminate is . An example with three indeterminates is . Polynomials appear in many areas of mathematics and science. For example, they are used to form polynomial equations, which encode a wide range of problems, from elementary word problems to complicated scientific problems; they are used to define polynomial functions, which appear in settings ranging from basic chemistry and physics to economics and social science; they are used in calculus and numerical analysis to approximate other functions. In advanced mathematics, polynomials are used to construct polynomial rings and algebraic varieties, which are central concepts in algebra and algebraic geometry. Etymology The word ''polynomial'' join ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Prime Ideal
In algebra, a prime ideal is a subset of a ring that shares many important properties of a prime number in the ring of integers. The prime ideals for the integers are the sets that contain all the multiples of a given prime number, together with the zero ideal. Primitive ideals are prime, and prime ideals are both primary and semiprime. Prime ideals for commutative rings An ideal of a commutative ring is prime if it has the following two properties: * If and are two elements of such that their product is an element of , then is in or is in , * is not the whole ring . This generalizes the following property of prime numbers, known as Euclid's lemma: if is a prime number and if divides a product of two integers, then divides or divides . We can therefore say :A positive integer is a prime number if and only if n\Z is a prime ideal in \Z. Examples * A simple example: In the ring R=\Z, the subset of even numbers is a prime ideal. * Given an integral domain R ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ideal (ring Theory)
In ring theory, a branch of abstract algebra, an ideal of a ring is a special subset of its elements. Ideals generalize certain subsets of the integers, such as the even numbers or the multiples of 3. Addition and subtraction of even numbers preserves evenness, and multiplying an even number by any integer (even or odd) results in an even number; these closure and absorption properties are the defining properties of an ideal. An ideal can be used to construct a quotient ring in a way similar to how, in group theory, a normal subgroup can be used to construct a quotient group. Among the integers, the ideals correspond oneforone with the nonnegative integers: in this ring, every ideal is a principal ideal consisting of the multiples of a single nonnegative number. However, in other rings, the ideals may not correspond directly to the ring elements, and certain properties of integers, when generalized to rings, attach more naturally to the ideals than to the elements of the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Nilpotent
In mathematics, an element x of a ring R is called nilpotent if there exists some positive integer n, called the index (or sometimes the degree), such that x^n=0. The term was introduced by Benjamin Peirce in the context of his work on the classification of algebras. Examples *This definition can be applied in particular to square matrices. The matrix :: A = \begin 0 & 1 & 0\\ 0 & 0 & 1\\ 0 & 0 & 0 \end :is nilpotent because A^3=0. See nilpotent matrix for more. * In the factor ring \Z/9\Z, the equivalence class of 3 is nilpotent because 32 is congruent to 0 modulo 9. * Assume that two elements a and b in a ring R satisfy ab=0. Then the element c=ba is nilpotent as \beginc^2&=(ba)^2\\ &=b(ab)a\\ &=0.\\ \end An example with matrices (for ''a'', ''b''):A = \begin 0 & 1\\ 0 & 1 \end, \;\; B =\begin 0 & 1\\ 0 & 0 \end. Here AB=0 and BA=B. *By definition, any element of a nilsemigroup is nilpotent. Properties No nilpotent element c ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 