Stochastic
Stochastic (, ) refers to the property of being well described by a random probability distribution. Although stochasticity and randomness are distinct in that the former refers to a modeling approach and the latter refers to phenomena themselves, these two terms are often used synonymously. Furthermore, in probability theory, the formal concept of a ''stochastic process'' is also referred to as a ''random process''. Stochasticity is used in many different fields, including the natural sciences such as biology, chemistry, ecology, neuroscience, and physics, as well as technology and engineering fields such as image processing, signal processing, information theory, computer science, cryptography, and telecommunications. It is also used in finance, due to seemingly random changes in financial markets as well as in medicine, linguistics, music, media, colour theory, botany, manufacturing, and geomorphology. Etymology The word ''stochastic'' in English was originally used as a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Stochastic Process
In probability theory and related fields, a stochastic () or random process is a mathematical object usually defined as a family of random variables. Stochastic processes are widely used as mathematical models of systems and phenomena that appear to vary in a random manner. Examples include the growth of a bacterial population, an electrical current fluctuating due to thermal noise, or the movement of a gas molecule. Stochastic processes have applications in many disciplines such as biology, chemistry, ecology, neuroscience, physics, image processing, signal processing, control theory, information theory, computer science, cryptography and telecommunications. Furthermore, seemingly random changes in financial markets have motivated the extensive use of stochastic processes in finance. Applications and the study of phenomena have in turn inspired the proposal of new stochastic processes. Examples of such stochastic processes include the Wiener process or Brownian motion process, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Joseph Doob
Joseph Leo Doob (February 27, 1910 – June 7, 2004) was an American mathematician, specializing in analysis and probability theory. The theory of martingales was developed by Doob. Early life and education Doob was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, February 27, 1910, the son of a Jewish couple, Leo Doob and Mollie Doerfler Doob. The family moved to New York City before he was three years old. The parents felt that he was underachieving in grade school and placed him in the Ethical Culture School, from which he graduated in 1926. He then went on to Harvard where he received a BA in 1930, an MA in 1931, and a PhD (''Boundary Values of Analytic Functions'', advisor Joseph L. Walsh) in 1932. After postdoctoral research at Columbia and Princeton, he joined the Department of Mathematics of the University of Illinois in 1935 and served until his retirement in 1978. He was a member of the Urbana campus's Center for Advanced Study from its beginning in 1959. During the Second World War, he wo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Paul Bressloff
Paul C. Bressloff is an English American biophysicist and mathematical neuroscientist. As of 2022, Bressloff is currently a full professor in the Department of Mathematics at the University of Utah. Education Bressloff obtained an MA with First Class Honors from the University of Oxford in 1982, and obtained his Ph.D from the Department of Mathematics at King's College in 1988. His thesis was titled ''Quantum field theory of superstrings in the lightcone gauge.'' Research Bressloff has published extensively on a wide variety of applied and theoretical topics. As of 2022, he has an Hindex of 54, and he has published over threehundred and fifty articles, three textbooks, and has cowritten a nonfiction popular science book. He has advised more than twenty PhD recipients. Books Paul is the author of three textbooks in computational biology, two of which deal with stochastic processes in cellular biology Cell biology (also cellular biology or cytology) is a branch of b ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Technical Analysis
In finance, technical analysis is an analysis methodology for analysing and forecasting the direction of prices through the study of past market data, primarily price and volume. Behavioral economics and quantitative analysis use many of the same tools of technical analysis, which, being an aspect of active management, stands in contradiction to much of modern portfolio theory. The efficacy of both technical and fundamental analysis is disputed by the efficientmarket hypothesis, which states that stock market prices are essentially unpredictable, and research on whether technical analysis offers any benefit has produced mixed results. History The principles of technical analysis are derived from hundreds of years of financial market data. Some aspects of technical analysis began to appear in Amsterdambased merchant Joseph de la Vega's accounts of the Dutch financial markets in the 17th century. In Asia, technical analysis is said to be a method developed by Homma Munehisa duri ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

William Feller
William "Vilim" Feller (July 7, 1906 – January 14, 1970), born Vilibald Srećko Feller, was a CroatianAmerican mathematician specializing in probability theory. Early life and education Feller was born in Zagreb to Ida OemichenPerc, a CroatianAustrian Catholic, and Eugen Viktor Feller, son of a PolishJewish father (David Feller) and an Austrian mother (Elsa Holzer). Eugen Feller was a famous chemist and created ''Elsa fluid'' named after his mother. According to GianCarlo Rota, Eugen Feller's surname was a "Slavic tongue twister", which William changed at the age of twenty. This claim appears to be false. His forename, Vilibald, was chosen by his Catholic mother for the saint day of his birthday. Work Feller held a docent position at the University of Kiel beginning in 1928. Because he refused to sign a Nazi oath, he fled the Nazis and went to Copenhagen, Denmark in 1933. He also lectured in Sweden (Stockholm and Lund). As a refugee in Sweden, Feller reported being tro ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Signal Processing
Signal processing is an electrical engineering subfield that focuses on analyzing, modifying and synthesizing ''signals'', such as audio signal processing, sound, image processing, images, and scientific measurements. Signal processing techniques are used to optimize transmissions, Data storage, digital storage efficiency, correcting distorted signals, subjective video quality and to also detect or pinpoint components of interest in a measured signal. History According to Alan V. Oppenheim and Ronald W. Schafer, the principles of signal processing can be found in the classical numerical analysis techniques of the 17th century. They further state that the digital refinement of these techniques can be found in the digital control systems of the 1940s and 1950s. In 1948, Claude Shannon wrote the influential paper "A Mathematical Theory of Communication" which was published in the Bell System Technical Journal. The paper laid the groundwork for later development of information c ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Probability Distribution
In probability theory and statistics, a probability distribution is the mathematical function that gives the probabilities of occurrence of different possible outcomes for an experiment. It is a mathematical description of a random phenomenon in terms of its sample space and the probabilities of events (subsets of the sample space). For instance, if is used to denote the outcome of a coin toss ("the experiment"), then the probability distribution of would take the value 0.5 (1 in 2 or 1/2) for , and 0.5 for (assuming that the coin is fair). Examples of random phenomena include the weather conditions at some future date, the height of a randomly selected person, the fraction of male students in a school, the results of a survey to be conducted, etc. Introduction A probability distribution is a mathematical description of the probabilities of events, subsets of the sample space. The sample space, often denoted by \Omega, is the set of all possible outcomes of a random phe ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Andrey Kolmogorov
Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov ( rus, Андре́й Никола́евич Колмого́ров, p=ɐnˈdrʲej nʲɪkɐˈlajɪvʲɪtɕ kəlmɐˈɡorəf, a=RuAndrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov.ogg, 25 April 1903 – 20 October 1987) was a Soviet mathematician who contributed to the mathematics of probability theory, topology, intuitionistic logic, turbulence, classical mechanics, algorithmic information theory and computational complexity. Biography Early life Andrey Kolmogorov was born in Tambov, about 500 kilometers southsoutheast of Moscow, in 1903. His unmarried mother, Maria Y. Kolmogorova, died giving birth to him. Andrey was raised by two of his aunts in Tunoshna (near Yaroslavl) at the estate of his grandfather, a welltodo nobleman. Little is known about Andrey's father. He was supposedly named Nikolai Matveevich Kataev and had been an agronomist. Kataev had been exiled from St. Petersburg to the Yaroslavl province after his participation in the revolutionary movem ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Aleksandr Khinchin
Aleksandr Yakovlevich Khinchin (russian: Алекса́ндр Я́ковлевич Хи́нчин, french: Alexandre Khintchine; July 19, 1894 – November 18, 1959) was a Soviet mathematician and one of the most significant contributors to the Soviet school of probability theory. Life and career He was born in the village of Kondrovo, Kaluga Governorate, Russian Empire. While studying at Moscow State University, he became one of the first followers of the famous Luzin school. Khinchin graduated from the university in 1916 and six years later he became a full professor there, retaining that position until his death. Khinchin's early works focused on real analysis. Later he applied methods from the metric theory of functions to problems in probability theory and number theory. He became one of the founders of modern probability theory, discovering the law of the iterated logarithm in 1924, achieving important results in the field of limit theorems, giving a definition of a s ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Maurice Fréchet
Maurice may refer to: People *Saint Maurice (died 287), Roman legionary and Christian martyr *Maurice (emperor) or Flavius Mauricius Tiberius Augustus (539–602), Byzantine emperor *Maurice (bishop of London) (died 1107), Lord Chancellor and Lord Keeper of England *Maurice of Carnoet (1117–1191), Breton abbot and saint * Maurice, Count of Oldenburg (fl. 1169–1211) *Maurice of Inchaffray (14th century), Scottish cleric who became a bishop *Maurice, Elector of Saxony (1521–1553), German Saxon nobleman *Maurice, Duke of SaxeLauenburg (1551–1612) *Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange (1567–1625), stadtholder of the Netherlands *Maurice, Landgrave of HesseKassel or Maurice the Learned (1572–1632) *Maurice of Savoy (1593–1657), prince of Savoy and a cardinal *Maurice, Duke of SaxeZeitz (1619–1681) *Maurice of the Palatinate (1620–1652), Count Palatine of the Rhine *Maurice of the Netherlands (1843–1850), prince of OrangeNassau * Maurice Chevalier (1888–1972), F ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ladislaus Bortkiewicz
Ladislaus Josephovich Bortkiewicz (Russian Владислав Иосифович Борткевич, German ''Ladislaus von Bortkiewicz'' or ''Ladislaus von Bortkewitsch'') (7 August 1868 – 15 July 1931) was a Russian economist and statistician of Polish ancestry. He wrote a book showing how the Poisson distribution, a discrete probability distribution, can be useful in applied statistics, and he made contributions to mathematical economics. He lived most of his professional life in Germany, where he taught at Strassburg University (Privatdozent, 1895–1897) and Berlin University (1901–1931). Life and work Władysław Bortkiewicz was born in Saint Petersburg, Imperial Russia, to two ethnic Polish parents: Józef Bortkiewicz and Helena Bortkiewicz (née Rokicka). His father was a Polish nobleman who served in the Russian Imperial Army. Władysław graduated from the Law Faculty in 1890. In 1898 he published a book about the Poisson distribution, titled ''The Law of Small ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Jakob Bernoulli
Jacob Bernoulli (also known as James or Jacques; – 16 August 1705) was one of the many prominent mathematicians in the Bernoulli family. He was an early proponent of Leibnizian calculus and sided with Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz during the Leibniz–Newton calculus controversy. He is known for his numerous contributions to calculus, and along with his brother Johann, was one of the founders of the calculus of variations. He also discovered the fundamental mathematical constant . However, his most important contribution was in the field of probability, where he derived the first version of the law of large numbers in his work ''Ars Conjectandi''.Jacob (Jacques) Bernoulli [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 