Signature (logic)
In logic, especially mathematical logic, a signature lists and describes the nonlogical symbols of a formal language. In universal algebra, a signature lists the operations that characterize an algebraic structure. In model theory, signatures are used for both purposes. They are rarely made explicit in more philosophical treatments of logic. Definition Formally, a (singlesorted) signature can be defined as a 4tuple , where ''S''func and ''S''rel are disjoint sets not containing any other basic logical symbols, called respectively * ''function symbols'' (examples: +, ×, 0, 1), * ''relation symbols'' or ''predicates'' (examples: ≤, ∈), * ''constant symbols'' (examples: 0, 1), and a function ar: ''S''func \cup ''S''rel → \mathbb N which assigns a natural number called ''arity'' to every function or relation symbol. A function or relation symbol is called ''n''ary if its arity is ''n''. Some authors define a nullary (0ary) function symbol as ''constant s ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Logic
Logic is the study of correct reasoning. It includes both formal and informal logic. Formal logic is the science of deductively valid inferences or of logical truths. It is a formal science investigating how conclusions follow from premises in a topicneutral way. When used as a countable noun, the term "a logic" refers to a logical formal system that articulates a proof system. Formal logic contrasts with informal logic, which is associated with informal fallacies, critical thinking, and argumentation theory. While there is no general agreement on how formal and informal logic are to be distinguished, one prominent approach associates their difference with whether the studied arguments are expressed in formal or informal languages. Logic plays a central role in multiple fields, such as philosophy, mathematics, computer science, and linguistics. Logic studies arguments, which consist of a set of premises together with a conclusion. Premises and conclusions are usually un ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Alephnaught
In mathematics, particularly in set theory, the aleph numbers are a sequence of numbers used to represent the cardinality (or size) of infinite sets that can be wellordered. They were introduced by the mathematician Georg Cantor and are named after the symbol he used to denote them, the Hebrew letter aleph (\,\aleph\,). The cardinality of the natural numbers is \,\aleph_0\, (read ''alephnought'' or ''alephzero''; the term ''alephnull'' is also sometimes used), the next larger cardinality of a wellorderable set is alephone \,\aleph_1\;, then \,\aleph_2\, and so on. Continuing in this manner, it is possible to define a cardinal number \,\aleph_\alpha\, for every ordinal number \,\alpha\;, as described below. The concept and notation are due to Georg Cantor, who defined the notion of cardinality and realized that infinite sets can have different cardinalities. The aleph numbers differ from the infinity (\,\infty\,) commonly found in algebra and calculus, in that the alephs m ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Wilfred Hodges
Wilfrid Augustine Hodges, FBA (born 27 May 1941) is a British mathematician and logician known for his work in model theory. Life Hodges attended New College, Oxford (1959–65), where he received degrees in both '' Literae Humaniores'' and (Christianic) Theology. In 1970 he was awarded a doctorate for a thesis in Logic. He lectured in both Philosophy and Mathematics at Bedford College, University of London. He has held visiting appointments in the department of philosophy at the University of California and in the department of mathematics at University of Colorado. Hodges was Professor of Mathematics at Queen Mary College, University of London from 1987 to 2006 and is the author of books on logic. Honors and awards Hodges was President of the British Logic Colloquium, of the European Association for Logic, Language and Information and of the Division of Logic, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science. In 2009 he was elected a Fellow of the British Academy. Writing style Hodge ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press is the university press of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by Henry VIII of England, King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the oldest university press A university press is an academic publishing house specializing in monographs and scholarly journals. Most are nonprofit organizations and an integral component of a large research university. They publish work that has been reviewed by schola ... in the world. It is also the King's Printer. Cambridge University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge and is both an academic and educational publisher. It became part of Cambridge University Press & Assessment, following a merger with Cambridge Assessment in 2021. With a global sales presence, publishing hubs, and offices in more than 40 Country, countries, it publishes over 50,000 titles by authors from over 100 countries. Its publishing includes more than 380 academic journals, monographs, reference works, school and uni ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Springer Science+Business Media
Springer Science+Business Media, commonly known as Springer, is a German multinational publishing company of books, ebooks and peerreviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing. Originally founded in 1842 in Berlin, it expanded internationally in the 1960s, and through mergers in the 1990s and a sale to venture capitalists it fused with Wolters Kluwer and eventually became part of Springer Nature in 2015. Springer has major offices in Berlin, Heidelberg, Dordrecht, and New York City. History Julius Springer founded SpringerVerlag in Berlin in 1842 and his son Ferdinand Springer grew it from a small firm of 4 employees into Germany's then second largest academic publisher with 65 staff in 1872.Chronology ". Springer Science+Business Media. In 1964, Springer expanded its business internationally, o ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Term Algebra
In universal algebra and mathematical logic, a term algebra is a freely generated algebraic structure over a given signature. For example, in a signature consisting of a single binary operation, the term algebra over a set ''X'' of variables is exactly the free magma generated by ''X''. Other synonyms for the notion include absolutely free algebra and anarchic algebra. From a category theory perspective, a term algebra is the initial object for the category of all ''X''generated algebras of the same signature, and this object, unique up to isomorphism, is called an initial algebra; it generates by homomorphic projection all algebras in the category. A similar notion is that of a Herbrand universe in logic, usually used under this name in logic programming, which is (absolutely freely) defined starting from the set of constants and function symbols in a set of clauses. That is, the Herbrand universe consists of all ground terms: terms that have no variables in them. An atomic for ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cartesian Product
In mathematics, specifically set theory, the Cartesian product of two sets ''A'' and ''B'', denoted ''A''×''B'', is the set of all ordered pairs where ''a'' is in ''A'' and ''b'' is in ''B''. In terms of setbuilder notation, that is : A\times B = \. A table can be created by taking the Cartesian product of a set of rows and a set of columns. If the Cartesian product is taken, the cells of the table contain ordered pairs of the form . One can similarly define the Cartesian product of ''n'' sets, also known as an ''n''fold Cartesian product, which can be represented by an ''n''dimensional array, where each element is an ''n''tuple. An ordered pair is a 2tuple or couple. More generally still, one can define the Cartesian product of an indexed family of sets. The Cartesian product is named after René Descartes, whose formulation of analytic geometry gave rise to the concept, which is further generalized in terms of direct product. Examples A deck of cards An ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Structure (mathematical Logic)
In universal algebra and in model theory, a structure consists of a set along with a collection of finitary operations and relations that are defined on it. Universal algebra studies structures that generalize the algebraic structures such as groups, rings, fields and vector spaces. The term universal algebra is used for structures with no relation symbols. Model theory has a different scope that encompasses more arbitrary theories, including foundational structures such as models of set theory. From the modeltheoretic point of view, structures are the objects used to define the semantics of firstorder logic. For a given theory in model theory, a structure is called a model if it satisfies the defining axioms of that theory, although it is sometimes disambiguated as a ''semantic model'' when one discusses the notion in the more general setting of mathematical models. Logicians sometimes refer to structures as " interpretations", whereas the term "interpretation" generally has ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Vector Space
In mathematics and physics, a vector space (also called a linear space) is a set whose elements, often called ''vectors'', may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers called '' scalars''. Scalars are often real numbers, but can be complex numbers or, more generally, elements of any field. The operations of vector addition and scalar multiplication must satisfy certain requirements, called ''vector axioms''. The terms real vector space and complex vector space are often used to specify the nature of the scalars: real coordinate space or complex coordinate space. Vector spaces generalize Euclidean vectors, which allow modeling of physical quantities, such as forces and velocity, that have not only a magnitude, but also a direction. The concept of vector spaces is fundamental for linear algebra, together with the concept of matrix, which allows computing in vector spaces. This provides a concise and synthetic way for manipulating and studying systems of linear eq ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Firstorder Logic
Firstorder logic—also known as predicate logic, quantificational logic, and firstorder predicate calculus—is a collection of formal systems used in mathematics, philosophy, linguistics, and computer science. Firstorder logic uses quantified variables over nonlogical objects, and allows the use of sentences that contain variables, so that rather than propositions such as "Socrates is a man", one can have expressions in the form "there exists x such that x is Socrates and x is a man", where "there exists''"'' is a quantifier, while ''x'' is a variable. This distinguishes it from propositional logic, which does not use quantifiers or relations; in this sense, propositional logic is the foundation of firstorder logic. A theory about a topic is usually a firstorder logic together with a specified domain of discourse (over which the quantified variables range), finitely many functions from that domain to itself, finitely many predicates defined on that domain, and a set of ax ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Propositional Logic
Propositional calculus is a branch of logic. It is also called propositional logic, statement logic, sentential calculus, sentential logic, or sometimes zerothorder logic. It deals with propositions (which can be true or false) and relations between propositions, including the construction of arguments based on them. Compound propositions are formed by connecting propositions by logical connectives. Propositions that contain no logical connectives are called atomic propositions. Unlike firstorder logic, propositional logic does not deal with nonlogical objects, predicates about them, or quantifiers. However, all the machinery of propositional logic is included in firstorder logic and higherorder logics. In this sense, propositional logic is the foundation of firstorder logic and higherorder logic. Explanation Logical connectives are found in natural languages. In English for example, some examples are "and" (conjunction), "or" (disjunction), "not" (negation) and "if" ( ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Abelian Group
In mathematics, an abelian group, also called a commutative group, is a group in which the result of applying the group operation to two group elements does not depend on the order in which they are written. That is, the group operation is commutative. With addition as an operation, the integers and the real numbers form abelian groups, and the concept of an abelian group may be viewed as a generalization of these examples. Abelian groups are named after early 19th century mathematician Niels Henrik Abel. The concept of an abelian group underlies many fundamental algebraic structures, such as fields, rings, vector spaces, and algebras. The theory of abelian groups is generally simpler than that of their nonabelian counterparts, and finite abelian groups are very well understood and fully classified. Definition An abelian group is a set A, together with an operation \cdot that combines any two elements a and b of A to form another element of A, denoted a \cdot b. The symbo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 