Outliers
In statistics, an outlier is a data point that differs significantly from other observations. An outlier may be due to a variability in the measurement, an indication of novel data, or it may be the result of experimental error; the latter are sometimes excluded from the data set. An outlier can be an indication of exciting possibility, but can also cause serious problems in statistical analyses. Outliers can occur by chance in any distribution, but they can indicate novel behaviour or structures in the dataset, measurement error, or that the population has a heavytailed distribution. In the case of measurement error, one wishes to discard them or use statistics that are robust to outliers, while in the case of heavytailed distributions, they indicate that the distribution has high skewness and that one should be very cautious in using tools or intuitions that assume a normal distribution. A frequent cause of outliers is a mixture of two distributions, which may be two dist ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Robust Statistics
Robust statistics are statistics with good performance for data drawn from a wide range of probability distributions, especially for distributions that are not normal. Robust statistical methods have been developed for many common problems, such as estimating location, scale, and regression parameters. One motivation is to produce statistical methods that are not unduly affected by outliers. Another motivation is to provide methods with good performance when there are small departures from a parametric distribution. For example, robust methods work well for mixtures of two normal distributions with different standard deviations; under this model, nonrobust methods like a ttest work poorly. Introduction Robust statistics seek to provide methods that emulate popular statistical methods, but which are not unduly affected by outliers or other small departures from model assumptions. In statistics, classical estimation methods rely heavily on assumptions which are often ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Degrees Celsius
The degree Celsius is the unit of temperature on the Celsius scale (originally known as the centigrade scale outside Sweden), one of two temperature scales used in the International System of Units (SI), the other being the Kelvin scale. The degree Celsius (symbol: °C) can refer to a specific temperature on the Celsius scale or a unit to indicate a difference or range between two temperatures. It is named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701–1744), who developed a similar temperature scale in 1742. Before being renamed in 1948 to honour Anders Celsius, the unit was called ''centigrade'', from the Latin ''centum'', which means 100, and ''gradus'', which means steps. Most major countries use this scale; the other major scale, Fahrenheit, is still used in the United States, some island territories, and Liberia. The Kelvin scale is of use in the sciences, with representing absolute zero. Since 1743 the Celsius scale has been based on 0 °C for the freezing ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Normal Probability Plot
The normal probability plot is a graphical technique to identify substantive departures from normality. This includes identifying outliers, skewness, kurtosis, a need for transformations, and mixtures. Normal probability plots are made of raw data, residuals from model fits, and estimated parameters. In a normal probability plot (also called a "normal plot"), the sorted data are plotted vs. values selected to make the resulting image look close to a straight line if the data are approximately normally distributed. Deviations from a straight line suggest departures from normality. The plotting can be manually performed by using a special graph paper, called ''normal probability paper''. With modern computers normal plots are commonly made with software. The normal probability plot is a special case of the Q–Q probability plot for a normal distribution. The theoretical quantiles are generally chosen to approximate either the mean or the median of the corresponding ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

King Effect
In statistics, economics, and econophysics, the king effect is the phenomenon in which the top one or two members of a ranked set show up as clear outliers. These top one or two members are unexpectedly large because they do not conform to the statistical distribution or rankdistribution which the remainder of the set obeys. Distributions typically followed include the powerlaw distribution, that is a basis for the stretched exponential function,"The individual success of musicians, like that of physicists, follows a stretch exponential" J.A. Davies and [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Binomial Distribution
In probability theory and statistics, the binomial distribution with parameters ''n'' and ''p'' is the discrete probability distribution of the number of successes in a sequence of ''n'' independent experiments, each asking a yes–no question, and each with its own Booleanvalued outcome: ''success'' (with probability ''p'') or ''failure'' (with probability q=1p). A single success/failure experiment is also called a Bernoulli trial or Bernoulli experiment, and a sequence of outcomes is called a Bernoulli process; for a single trial, i.e., ''n'' = 1, the binomial distribution is a Bernoulli distribution. The binomial distribution is the basis for the popular binomial test of statistical significance. The binomial distribution is frequently used to model the number of successes in a sample of size ''n'' drawn with replacement from a population of size ''N''. If the sampling is carried out without replacement, the draws are not independent and so the resulting ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Statistical Significance
In statistical hypothesis testing, a result has statistical significance when it is very unlikely to have occurred given the null hypothesis (simply by chance alone). More precisely, a study's defined significance level, denoted by \alpha, is the probability of the study rejecting the null hypothesis, given that the null hypothesis is true; and the ''p''value of a result, ''p'', is the probability of obtaining a result at least as extreme, given that the null hypothesis is true. The result is statistically significant, by the standards of the study, when p \le \alpha. The significance level for a study is chosen before data collection, and is typically set to 5% or much lower—depending on the field of study. In any experiment or observation that involves drawing a sample from a population, there is always the possibility that an observed effect would have occurred due to sampling error alone. But if the ''p''value of an observed effect is less than (or equal to) the significa ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Poisson Distribution
In probability theory and statistics, the Poisson distribution is a discrete probability distribution that expresses the probability of a given number of events occurring in a fixed interval of time or space if these events occur with a known constant mean rate and independently of the time since the last event. It is named after French mathematician Siméon Denis Poisson (; ). The Poisson distribution can also be used for the number of events in other specified interval types such as distance, area, or volume. For instance, a call center receives an average of 180 calls per hour, 24 hours a day. The calls are independent; receiving one does not change the probability of when the next one will arrive. The number of calls received during any minute has a Poisson probability distribution with mean 3: the most likely numbers are 2 and 3 but 1 and 4 are also likely and there is a small probability of it being as low as zero and a very small probability it could be 10. A ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Standard Deviation
In statistics, the standard deviation is a measure of the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of values. A low standard deviation indicates that the values tend to be close to the mean (also called the expected value) of the set, while a high standard deviation indicates that the values are spread out over a wider range. Standard deviation may be abbreviated SD, and is most commonly represented in mathematical texts and equations by the lower case Greek letter σ (sigma), for the population standard deviation, or the Latin letter '' s'', for the sample standard deviation. The standard deviation of a random variable, sample, statistical population, data set, or probability distribution is the square root of its variance. It is algebraically simpler, though in practice less robust, than the average absolute deviation. A useful property of the standard deviation is that, unlike the variance, it is expressed in the same unit as the data. The standard deviation of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Three Sigma Rule
3 is a number, numeral, and glyph. 3, three, or III may also refer to: * AD 3, the third year of the AD era * 3 BC, the third year before the AD era * March, the third month Books * '' Three of Them'' (Russian: ', literally, "three"), a 1901 novel by Maksim Gorky * ''Three'', a 1946 novel by William Sansom * ''Three'', a 1970 novel by Sylvia AshtonWarner * ''Three'' (novel), a 2003 suspense novel by Ted Dekker * ''Three'' (comics), a graphic novel by Kieron Gillen. * ''3'', a 2004 novel by Julie Hilden * ''Three'', a collection of three plays by Lillian Hellman * ''Three By Flannery O'Connor'', collection Flannery O'Connor bibliography Brands * 3 (telecommunications), a global telecommunications brand ** 3Arena, indoor amphitheatre in Ireland operating with the "3" brand ** 3 Hong Kong, telecommunications company operating in Hong Kong ** Three Australia, Australian telecommunications company ** Three Ireland, Irish telecommunications company ** Three UK, Briti ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Standard Deviation Diagram Micro
Standard may refer to: Symbols * Colours, standards and guidons, kinds of military signs * Standard (emblem), a type of a large symbol or emblem used for identification Norms, conventions or requirements * Standard (metrology), an object that bears a defined relationship to a unit of measure used for calibration of measuring devices * Standard (timber unit), an obsolete measure of timber used in trade * Breed standard (also called bench standard), in animal fancy and animal husbandry * BioCompute Standard, a standard for next generation sequencing * ''De facto'' standard, product or system with market dominance * Gold standard, a monetary system based on gold; also used metaphorically for the best of several options, against which the others are measured * Internet Standard, a specification ratified as an open standard by the Internet Engineering Task Force * Learning standards, standards applied to education content * Standard displacement, a naval term describing the w ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Central Tendency
In statistics, a central tendency (or measure of central tendency) is a central or typical value for a probability distribution.Weisberg H.F (1992) ''Central Tendency and Variability'', Sage University Paper Series on Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences, p.2 Colloquially, measures of central tendency are often called '' averages.'' The term ''central tendency'' dates from the late 1920s. The most common measures of central tendency are the arithmetic mean, the median, and the mode. A middle tendency can be calculated for either a finite set of values or for a theoretical distribution, such as the normal distribution. Occasionally authors use central tendency to denote "the tendency of quantitative data to cluster around some central value."Upton, G.; Cook, I. (2008) ''Oxford Dictionary of Statistics'', OUP (entry for "central tendency")Dodge, Y. (2003) ''The Oxford Dictionary of Statistical Terms'', OUP for International Statistical Institute. (entry for "centra ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 