Modular Arithmetic
In mathematics, modular arithmetic is a system of arithmetic for integers, where numbers "wrap around" when reaching a certain value, called the modulus. The modern approach to modular arithmetic was developed by Carl Friedrich Gauss in his book ''Disquisitiones Arithmeticae'', published in 1801. A familiar use of modular arithmetic is in the 12hour clock, in which the day is divided into two 12hour periods. If the time is 7:00 now, then 8 hours later it will be 3:00. Simple addition would result in , but clocks "wrap around" every 12 hours. Because the hour number starts over at zero when it reaches 12, this is arithmetic ''modulo'' 12. In terms of the definition below, 15 is ''congruent'' to 3 modulo 12, so "15:00" on a 24hour clock is displayed "3:00" on a 12hour clock. Congruence Given an integer , called a modulus, two integers and are said to be congruent modulo , if is a divisor of their difference (that is, if there is an integer such that ). Congruence modulo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Clock Group
A clock or a timepiece is a device used to Measurement, measure and indicate time. The clock is one of the oldest Invention, human inventions, meeting the need to measure intervals of time shorter than the natural units such as the day, the lunar month and the year. Devices operating on several physical processes have been used over the Millennium, millennia. Some predecessors to the modern clock may be considered as "clocks" that are based on movement in nature: A sundial shows the time by displaying the position of a shadow on a flat surface. There is a range of duration timers, a wellknown example being the hourglass. Water clocks, along with the sundials, are possibly the oldest timemeasuring instruments. A major advance occurred with the invention of the verge escapement, which made possible the first mechanical clocks around 1300 in Europe, which kept time with oscillating timekeepers like balance wheels., pp. 103–104., p. 31. Traditionally, in horology, the te ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Euler's Totient Function
In number theory, Euler's totient function counts the positive integers up to a given integer that are relatively prime to . It is written using the Greek letter phi as \varphi(n) or \phi(n), and may also be called Euler's phi function. In other words, it is the number of integers in the range for which the greatest common divisor is equal to 1. The integers of this form are sometimes referred to as totatives of . For example, the totatives of are the six numbers 1, 2, 4, 5, 7 and 8. They are all relatively prime to 9, but the other three numbers in this range, 3, 6, and 9 are not, since and . Therefore, . As another example, since for the only integer in the range from 1 to is 1 itself, and . Euler's totient function is a multiplicative function, meaning that if two numbers and are relatively prime, then . This function gives the order of the multiplicative group of integers modulo (the group of units of the ring \Z/n\Z). It is also used for defining the RSA e ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Equivalence Class
In mathematics, when the elements of some set S have a notion of equivalence (formalized as an equivalence relation), then one may naturally split the set S into equivalence classes. These equivalence classes are constructed so that elements a and b belong to the same equivalence class if, and only if, they are equivalent. Formally, given a set S and an equivalence relation \,\sim\, on S, the of an element a in S, denoted by is the set \ of elements which are equivalent to a. It may be proven, from the defining properties of equivalence relations, that the equivalence classes form a partition of S. This partition—the set of equivalence classes—is sometimes called the quotient set or the quotient space of S by \,\sim\,, and is denoted by S / \sim. When the set S has some structure (such as a group operation or a topology) and the equivalence relation \,\sim\, is compatible with this structure, the quotient set often inherits a similar structure from its parent set. Examp ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Euler's Criterion
In number theory, Euler's criterion is a formula for determining whether an integer is a quadratic residue modulo a prime. Precisely, Let ''p'' be an odd prime and ''a'' be an integer coprime to ''p''. Then : a^ \equiv \begin \;\;\,1\pmod& \textx \texta\equiv x^2 \pmod,\\ 1\pmod& \text \end Euler's criterion can be concisely reformulated using the Legendre symbol: : \left(\frac\right) \equiv a^ \pmod p. The criterion first appeared in a 1748 paper by Leonhard Euler.L Euler, Novi commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Imperialis Petropolitanae, 8, 17601, 74; Opusc Anal. 1, 1772, 121; Comm. Arith, 1, 274, 487 Proof The proof uses the fact that the residue classes modulo a prime number are a field. See the article prime field for more details. Because the modulus is prime, Lagrange's theorem applies: a polynomial of degree can only have at most roots. In particular, has at most 2 solutions for each . This immediately implies that besides 0 there are at least distinct q ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Quadratic Residue
In number theory, an integer ''q'' is called a quadratic residue modulo ''n'' if it is congruent to a perfect square modulo ''n''; i.e., if there exists an integer ''x'' such that: :x^2\equiv q \pmod. Otherwise, ''q'' is called a quadratic nonresidue modulo ''n''. Originally an abstract mathematical concept from the branch of number theory known as modular arithmetic, quadratic residues are now used in applications ranging from acoustical engineering to cryptography and the factoring of large numbers. History, conventions, and elementary facts Fermat, Euler, Lagrange, Legendre, and other number theorists of the 17th and 18th centuries established theorems and formed conjectures about quadratic residues, but the first systematic treatment is § IV of Gauss's ''Disquisitiones Arithmeticae'' (1801). Article 95 introduces the terminology "quadratic residue" and "quadratic nonresidue", and states that if the context makes it clear, the adjective "quadratic" may be dropped. For ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Primitive Root Modulo N
In modular arithmetic, a number is a primitive root modulo if every number coprime to is congruent to a power of modulo . That is, is a ''primitive root modulo'' if for every integer coprime to , there is some integer for which ≡ (mod ). Such a value is called the index or discrete logarithm of to the base modulo . So is a ''primitive root modulo'' if and only if is a generator of the multiplicative group of integers modulo . Gauss defined primitive roots in Article 57 of the ''Disquisitiones Arithmeticae'' (1801), where he credited Euler with coining the term. In Article 56 he stated that Lambert and Euler knew of them, but he was the first to rigorously demonstrate that primitive roots exist for a prime . In fact, the ''Disquisitiones'' contains two proofs: The one in Article 54 is a nonconstructive existence proof, while the proof in Article 55 is constructive. Elementary example The number 3 is a primitive root modulo 7 because :: \ ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Lagrange's Theorem (number Theory)
In number theory, Lagrange's theorem is a statement named after JosephLouis Lagrange about how frequently a polynomial over the integers may evaluate to a multiple of a fixed prime. More precisely, it states that if ''p'' is a prime number, x \in \mathbb/p\mathbb, and \textstyle f(x) \in \mathbb /math> is a polynomial with integer coefficients, then either: * every coefficient of is divisible by ''p'', or * has at most solutions where is the degree of . If the modulus is not prime, then it is possible for there to be more than solutions. A proof of Lagrange's theorem The two key ideas are the following. Let be the polynomial obtained from by taking the coefficients . Now: # is divisible by if and only if ; and # has no more than roots. More rigorously, start by noting that if and only if each coefficient of is divisible by . Assume ; its degree is thus welldefined. It is easy to see . To prove (1), first note that we can compute either directly, i.e. by plugging ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Chinese Remainder Theorem
In mathematics, the Chinese remainder theorem states that if one knows the remainders of the Euclidean division of an integer ''n'' by several integers, then one can determine uniquely the remainder of the division of ''n'' by the product of these integers, under the condition that the divisors are pairwise coprime (no two divisors share a common factor other than 1). For example, if we know that the remainder of ''n'' divided by 3 is 2, the remainder of ''n'' divided by 5 is 3, and the remainder of ''n'' divided by 7 is 2, then without knowing the value of ''n'', we can determine that the remainder of ''n'' divided by 105 (the product of 3, 5, and 7) is 23. Importantly, this tells us that if ''n'' is a natural number less than 105, then 23 is the only possible value of ''n''. The earliest known statement of the theorem is by the Chinese mathematician Suntzu in the '' Suntzu Suanching'' in the 3rd century CE. The Chinese remainder theorem is widely used for computing with lar ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Wilson's Theorem
In algebra and number theory, Wilson's theorem states that a natural number ''n'' > 1 is a prime number if and only if the product of all the positive integers less than ''n'' is one less than a multiple of ''n''. That is (using the notations of modular arithmetic), the factorial (n  1)! = 1 \times 2 \times 3 \times \cdots \times (n  1) satisfies :(n1)!\ \equiv\; 1 \pmod n exactly when ''n'' is a prime number. In other words, any number ''n'' is a prime number if, and only if, (''n'' − 1)! + 1 is divisible by ''n''. History This theorem was stated by Ibn alHaytham (c. 1000 AD), and, in the 18th century, by John Wilson. Edward Waring announced the theorem in 1770, although neither he nor his student Wilson could prove it. Lagrange gave the first proof in 1771. There is evidence that Leibniz was also aware of the result a century earlier, but he never published it. Example For each of the values of ''n'' from 2 to 30, the following table shows the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Euler's Theorem
In number theory, Euler's theorem (also known as the Fermat–Euler theorem or Euler's totient theorem) states that, if and are coprime positive integers, and \varphi(n) is Euler's totient function, then raised to the power \varphi(n) is congruent to modulo ; that is :a^ \equiv 1 \pmod. In 1736, Leonhard Euler published a proof of Fermat's little theorem (stated by Fermat without proof), which is the restriction of Euler's theorem to the case where is a prime number. Subsequently, Euler presented other proofs of the theorem, culminating with his paper of 1763, in which he proved a generalization to the case where is not prime. The converse of Euler's theorem is also true: if the above congruence is true, then a and n must be coprime. The theorem is further generalized by Carmichael's theorem. The theorem may be used to easily reduce large powers modulo n. For example, consider finding the ones place decimal digit of 7^, i.e. 7^ \pmod. The integers 7 and 10 are coprime, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Fermat's Little Theorem
Fermat's little theorem states that if ''p'' is a prime number, then for any integer ''a'', the number a^p  a is an integer multiple of ''p''. In the notation of modular arithmetic, this is expressed as : a^p \equiv a \pmod p. For example, if = 2 and = 7, then 27 = 128, and 128 − 2 = 126 = 7 × 18 is an integer multiple of 7. If is not divisible by , that is if is coprime to , Fermat's little theorem is equivalent to the statement that is an integer multiple of , or in symbols: : a^ \equiv 1 \pmod p. For example, if = 2 and = 7, then 26 = 64, and 64 − 1 = 63 = 7 × 9 is thus a multiple of 7. Fermat's little theorem is the basis for the Fermat primality test and is one of the fundamental results of elementary number theory. The theorem is named after Pierre de Fermat, who stated it in 1640. It is called the "little theorem" to distinguish it from Fermat's Last Theorem.. History Pierre de Fermat first stated the theorem in a letter dated October ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Extended Euclidean Algorithm
In arithmetic and computer programming, the extended Euclidean algorithm is an extension to the Euclidean algorithm, and computes, in addition to the greatest common divisor (gcd) of integers ''a'' and ''b'', also the coefficients of Bézout's identity, which are integers ''x'' and ''y'' such that : ax + by = \gcd(a, b). This is a certifying algorithm, because the gcd is the only number that can simultaneously satisfy this equation and divide the inputs. It allows one to compute also, with almost no extra cost, the quotients of ''a'' and ''b'' by their greatest common divisor. also refers to a very similar algorithm for computing the polynomial greatest common divisor and the coefficients of Bézout's identity of two univariate polynomials. The extended Euclidean algorithm is particularly useful when ''a'' and ''b'' are coprime. With that provision, ''x'' is the modular multiplicative inverse of ''a'' modulo ''b'', and ''y'' is the modular multiplicative inverse of ''b'' modul ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 