Field Extension
In mathematics, particularly in algebra, a field extension is a pair of fields E\subseteq F, such that the operations of ''E'' are those of ''F'' restricted to ''E''. In this case, ''F'' is an extension field of ''E'' and ''E'' is a subfield of ''F''. For example, under the usual notions of addition and multiplication, the complex numbers are an extension field of the real numbers; the real numbers are a subfield of the complex numbers. Field extensions are fundamental in algebraic number theory, and in the study of polynomial roots through Galois theory, and are widely used in algebraic geometry. Subfield A subfield K of a field L is a subset K\subseteq L that is a field with respect to the field operations inherited from L. Equivalently, a subfield is a subset that contains 1, and is closed under the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and taking the inverse of a nonzero element of K. As , the latter definition implies K and L have the same zero eleme ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Isomorphism
In mathematics, an isomorphism is a structurepreserving mapping between two structures of the same type that can be reversed by an inverse mapping. Two mathematical structures are isomorphic if an isomorphism exists between them. The word isomorphism is derived from the Ancient Greek: ἴσος ''isos'' "equal", and μορφή ''morphe'' "form" or "shape". The interest in isomorphisms lies in the fact that two isomorphic objects have the same properties (excluding further information such as additional structure or names of objects). Thus isomorphic structures cannot be distinguished from the point of view of structure only, and may be identified. In mathematical jargon, one says that two objects are . An automorphism is an isomorphism from a structure to itself. An isomorphism between two structures is a canonical isomorphism (a canonical map that is an isomorphism) if there is only one isomorphism between the two structures (as it is the case for solutions of a univer ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Injective Function
In mathematics, an injective function (also known as injection, or onetoone function) is a function that maps distinct elements of its domain to distinct elements; that is, implies . (Equivalently, implies in the equivalent contrapositive statement.) In other words, every element of the function's codomain is the image of one element of its domain. The term must not be confused with that refers to bijective functions, which are functions such that each element in the codomain is an image of exactly one element in the domain. A homomorphism between algebraic structures is a function that is compatible with the operations of the structures. For all common algebraic structures, and, in particular for vector spaces, an is also called a . However, in the more general context of category theory, the definition of a monomorphism differs from that of an injective homomorphism. This is thus a theorem that they are equivalent for algebraic structures; see for more details. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Quotient Group
A quotient group or factor group is a mathematical group obtained by aggregating similar elements of a larger group using an equivalence relation that preserves some of the group structure (the rest of the structure is "factored" out). For example, the cyclic group of addition modulo ''n'' can be obtained from the group of integers under addition by identifying elements that differ by a multiple of n and defining a group structure that operates on each such class (known as a congruence class) as a single entity. It is part of the mathematical field known as group theory. For a congruence relation on a group, the equivalence class of the identity element is always a normal subgroup of the original group, and the other equivalence classes are precisely the cosets of that normal subgroup. The resulting quotient is written G\,/\,N, where G is the original group and N is the normal subgroup. (This is pronounced G\bmod N, where \mbox is short for modulo.) Much of the importance o ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Quotient Ring
In ring theory, a branch of abstract algebra, a quotient ring, also known as factor ring, difference ring or residue class ring, is a construction quite similar to the quotient group in group theory and to the quotient space in linear algebra. It is a specific example of a quotient, as viewed from the general setting of universal algebra. Starting with a ring and a twosided ideal in , a new ring, the quotient ring , is constructed, whose elements are the cosets of in subject to special and operations. (Only the fraction slash "/" is used in quotient ring notation, not a horizontal fraction bar.) Quotient rings are distinct from the socalled "quotient field", or field of fractions, of an integral domain as well as from the more general "rings of quotients" obtained by localization. Formal quotient ring construction Given a ring and a twosided ideal in , we may define an equivalence relation on as follows: : if and only if is in . Using the ideal properties, it is ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Rational Fraction
In algebra, an algebraic fraction is a fraction whose numerator and denominator are algebraic expressions. Two examples of algebraic fractions are \frac and \frac. Algebraic fractions are subject to the same laws as arithmetic fractions. A rational fraction is an algebraic fraction whose numerator and denominator are both polynomials. Thus \frac is a rational fraction, but not \frac, because the numerator contains a square root function. Terminology In the algebraic fraction \tfrac, the dividend ''a'' is called the ''numerator'' and the divisor ''b'' is called the ''denominator''. The numerator and denominator are called the ''terms'' of the algebraic fraction. A ''complex fraction'' is a fraction whose numerator or denominator, or both, contains a fraction. A ''simple fraction'' contains no fraction either in its numerator or its denominator. A fraction is in ''lowest terms'' if the only factor common to the numerator and the denominator is 1. An expression which is not in fract ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Primitive Element Theorem
In field theory, the primitive element theorem is a result characterizing the finite degree field extensions that can be generated by a single element. Such a generating element is called a primitive element of the field extension, and the extension is called a simple extension in this case. The theorem states that a finite extension is simple if and only if there are only finitely many intermediate fields. An older result, also often called "primitive element theorem", states that every finite separable extension is simple; it can be seen as a consequence of the former theorem. These theorems imply in particular that all algebraic number fields over the rational numbers, and all extensions in which both fields are finite, are simple. Terminology Let E/F be a '' field extension''. An element \alpha\in E is a ''primitive element'' for E/F if E=F(\alpha), i.e. if every element of E can be written as a rational function in \alpha with coefficients in F. If there exists such a pr ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Primitive Element (field Theory)
In field theory, a simple extension is a field extension which is generated by the adjunction of a single element. Simple extensions are well understood and can be completely classified. The primitive element theorem provides a characterization of the finite simple extensions. Definition A field extension is called a simple extension if there exists an element in ''L'' with :L = K(\theta). This means that every element of can be expressed as a rational fraction in , with coefficients in . There are two different sort of simple extensions. The element may be transcendental over , which means that it is not a root of any polynomial with coefficients in . In this case K(\theta) is isomorphic to the field of rational functions K(X). Otherwise, is algebraic over ; that is, is a root of a polynomial over . The monic polynomial F(X) of minimal degree , with as a root, is called the minimal polynomial of . Its degree equals the degree of the field extension, that is, the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Simple Extension
In field theory, a simple extension is a field extension which is generated by the adjunction of a single element. Simple extensions are well understood and can be completely classified. The primitive element theorem provides a characterization of the finite simple extensions. Definition A field extension is called a simple extension if there exists an element in ''L'' with :L = K(\theta). This means that every element of can be expressed as a rational fraction in , with coefficients in . There are two different sort of simple extensions. The element may be transcendental over , which means that it is not a root of any polynomial with coefficients in . In this case K(\theta) is isomorphic to the field of rational functions K(X). Otherwise, is algebraic over ; that is, is a root of a polynomial over . The monic polynomial F(X) of minimal degree , with as a root, is called the minimal polynomial of . Its degree equals the degree of the field extension, that is, the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Generating Set
In mathematics and physics, the term generator or generating set may refer to any of a number of related concepts. The underlying concept in each case is that of a smaller set of objects, together with a set of operations that can be applied to it, that result in the creation of a larger collection of objects, called the generated set. The larger set is then said to be generated by the smaller set. It is commonly the case that the generating set has a simpler set of properties than the generated set, thus making it easier to discuss and examine. It is usually the case that properties of the generating set are in some way preserved by the act of generation; likewise, the properties of the generated set are often reflected in the generating set. List of generators A list of examples of generating sets follow. * Generating set or spanning set of a vector space: a set that spans the vector space * Generating set of a group: A subset of a group that is not contained in any subgro ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Degree Of A Field Extension
In mathematics, more specifically field theory, the degree of a field extension is a rough measure of the "size" of the field extension. The concept plays an important role in many parts of mathematics, including algebra and number theory — indeed in any area where fields appear prominently. Definition and notation Suppose that ''E''/''F'' is a field extension. Then ''E'' may be considered as a vector space over ''F'' (the field of scalars). The dimension of this vector space is called the degree of the field extension, and it is denoted by :F The degree may be finite or infinite, the field being called a finite extension or infinite extension accordingly. An extension ''E''/''F'' is also sometimes said to be simply finite if it is a finite extension; this should not be confused with the fields themselves being finite fields (fields with finitely many elements). The degree should not be confused with the transcendence degree of a field; for example, the field Q(''X'') o ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Dimension (vector Space)
In mathematics, the dimension of a vector space ''V'' is the cardinality (i.e., the number of vectors) of a basis of ''V'' over its base field. p. 44, §2.36 It is sometimes called Hamel dimension (after Georg Hamel) or algebraic dimension to distinguish it from other types of dimension. For every vector space there exists a basis, and all bases of a vector space have equal cardinality; as a result, the dimension of a vector space is uniquely defined. We say V is if the dimension of V is finite, and if its dimension is infinite. The dimension of the vector space V over the field F can be written as \dim_F(V) or as : F read "dimension of V over F". When F can be inferred from context, \dim(V) is typically written. Examples The vector space \R^3 has \left\ as a standard basis, and therefore \dim_(\R^3) = 3. More generally, \dim_(\R^n) = n, and even more generally, \dim_(F^n) = n for any field F. The complex numbers \Complex are both a real and complex vector space; we have ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 