Existence Theorem
In mathematics, an existence theorem is a theorem which asserts the existence of a certain object. It might be a statement which begins with the phrase " there exist(s)", or it might be a universal statement whose last quantifier is existential (e.g., "for all , , ... there exist(s) ..."). In the formal terms of symbolic logic, an existence theorem is a theorem with a prenex normal form involving the existential quantifier, even though in practice, such theorems are usually stated in standard mathematical language. For example, the statement that the sine function is continuous everywhere, or any theorem written in big O notation, can be considered as theorems which are existential by nature—since the quantification can be found in the definitions of the concepts used. A controversy that goes back to the early twentieth century concerns the issue of purely theoretic existence theorems, that is, theorems which depend on nonconstructive foundational material such as the axiom o ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Sqrt2 Is Irrational
In mathematics, a square root of a number is a number such that ; in other words, a number whose ''square'' (the result of multiplying the number by itself, or ⋅ ) is . For example, 4 and −4 are square roots of 16, because . Every nonnegative real number has a unique nonnegative square root, called the ''principal square root'', which is denoted by \sqrt, where the symbol \sqrt is called the ''radical sign'' or ''radix''. For example, to express the fact that the principal square root of 9 is 3, we write \sqrt = 3. The term (or number) whose square root is being considered is known as the ''radicand''. The radicand is the number or expression underneath the radical sign, in this case 9. For nonnegative , the principal square root can also be written in exponent notation, as . Every positive number has two square roots: \sqrt, which is positive, and \sqrt, which is negative. The two roots can be written more concisely using the ± sign as \plusmn\sqrt. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Constructivism (mathematics)
In the philosophy of mathematics, constructivism asserts that it is necessary to find (or "construct") a specific example of a mathematical object in order to prove that an example exists. Contrastingly, in classical mathematics, one can prove the existence of a mathematical object without "finding" that object explicitly, by assuming its nonexistence and then deriving a contradiction from that assumption. Such a proof by contradiction might be called nonconstructive, and a constructivist might reject it. The constructive viewpoint involves a verificational interpretation of the existential quantifier, which is at odds with its classical interpretation. There are many forms of constructivism. These include the program of intuitionism founded by Brouwer, the finitism of Hilbert and Bernays, the constructive recursive mathematics of Shanin and Markov, and Bishop's program of constructive analysis. Constructivism also includes the study of constructive set theories such a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Uniqueness Theorem
In mathematics, a uniqueness theorem, also called a unicity theorem, is a theorem asserting the uniqueness of an object satisfying certain conditions, or the equivalence of all objects satisfying the said conditions. Examples of uniqueness theorems include: * Alexandrov's uniqueness theorem of threedimensional polyhedra * Black hole uniqueness theorem * Cauchy–Kowalevski theorem is the main local existence and uniqueness theorem for analytic partial differential equations associated with Cauchy initial value problems. * Cauchy–Kowalevski–Kashiwara theorem is a wide generalization of the Cauchy–Kowalevski theorem for systems of linear partial differential equations with analytic coefficients. * Division theorem, the uniqueness of quotient and remainder under Euclidean division. * Fundamental theorem of arithmetic, the uniqueness of prime factorization. * Holmgren's uniqueness theorem for linear partial differential equations with real analytic coefficients. * Picard–L ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Constructivism (philosophy Of Mathematics)
In the philosophy of mathematics, constructivism asserts that it is necessary to find (or "construct") a specific example of a mathematical object in order to prove that an example exists. Contrastingly, in classical mathematics, one can prove the existence of a mathematical object without "finding" that object explicitly, by assuming its nonexistence and then deriving a contradiction from that assumption. Such a proof by contradiction might be called nonconstructive, and a constructivist might reject it. The constructive viewpoint involves a verificational interpretation of the existential quantifier, which is at odds with its classical interpretation. There are many forms of constructivism. These include the program of intuitionism founded by Brouwer, the finitism of Hilbert and Bernays, the constructive recursive mathematics of Shanin and Markov, and Bishop's program of constructive analysis. Constructivism also includes the study of constructive set theories such as CZF ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Type Theory
In mathematics, logic, and computer science, a type theory is the formal presentation of a specific type system, and in general type theory is the academic study of type systems. Some type theories serve as alternatives to set theory as a foundation of mathematics. Two influential type theories that were proposed as foundations are Alonzo Church's typed λcalculus and Per MartinLöf's intuitionistic type theory. Most computerized proofwriting systems use a type theory for their foundation. A common one is Thierry Coquand's Calculus of Inductive Constructions. History Type theory was created to avoid a paradox in a mathematical foundation based on naive set theory and formal logic. Russell's paradox, which was discovered by Bertrand Russell, existed because a set could be defined using "all possible sets", which included itself. Between 1902 and 1908, Bertrand Russell proposed various "theories of type" to fix the problem. By 1908 Russell arrived at a "ramified" ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Modulus Of Continuity
In mathematical analysis, a modulus of continuity is a function ω : , ∞→ , ∞used to measure quantitatively the uniform continuity of functions. So, a function ''f'' : ''I'' → R admits ω as a modulus of continuity if and only if :, f(x)f(y), \leq\omega(, xy, ), for all ''x'' and ''y'' in the domain of ''f''. Since moduli of continuity are required to be infinitesimal at 0, a function turns out to be uniformly continuous if and only if it admits a modulus of continuity. Moreover, relevance to the notion is given by the fact that sets of functions sharing the same modulus of continuity are exactly equicontinuous families. For instance, the modulus ω(''t'') := ''kt'' describes the k Lipschitz functions, the moduli ω(''t'') := ''kt''α describe the Hölder continuity, the modulus ω(''t'') := ''kt''(, log ''t'', +1) describes the almost Lipschitz class, and so on. In general, the role of ω is to fix some explicit functional dependence of ε on δ in the (ε, δ) definit ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Errett Bishop
Errett Albert Bishop (July 14, 1928 – April 14, 1983) was an American mathematician known for his work on analysis. He expanded constructive analysis in his 1967 ''Foundations of Constructive Analysis'', where he proved most of the important theorems in real analysis by constructive methods. Life Errett Bishop's father, Albert T. Bishop, graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point, ending his career as professor of mathematics at Wichita State University in Kansas. Although he died when Errett was less than 4 years old, he influenced Errett's eventual career by the math texts he left behind, which is how Errett discovered mathematics. Errett grew up in Newton, Kansas. Errett and his sister were apparent math prodigies. Bishop entered the University of Chicago in 1944, obtaining both the BS and MS in 1947. The doctoral studies he began in that year were interrupted by two years in the US Army, 1950–52, doing mathematical research at the National Bureau ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Constructive Mathematics
In the philosophy of mathematics, constructivism asserts that it is necessary to find (or "construct") a specific example of a mathematical object in order to prove that an example exists. Contrastingly, in classical mathematics, one can prove the existence of a mathematical object without "finding" that object explicitly, by assuming its nonexistence and then deriving a contradiction from that assumption. Such a proof by contradiction might be called nonconstructive, and a constructivist might reject it. The constructive viewpoint involves a verificational interpretation of the existential quantifier, which is at odds with its classical interpretation. There are many forms of constructivism. These include the program of intuitionism founded by Brouwer, the finitism of Hilbert and Bernays, the constructive recursive mathematics of Shanin and Markov, and Bishop's program of constructive analysis. Constructivism also includes the study of constructive set theories such as CZ ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Nash Equilibrium
In game theory, the Nash equilibrium, named after the mathematician John Nash, is the most common way to define the solution of a noncooperative game involving two or more players. In a Nash equilibrium, each player is assumed to know the equilibrium strategies of the other players, and no one has anything to gain by changing only one's own strategy. The principle of Nash equilibrium dates back to the time of Cournot, who in 1838 applied it to competing firms choosing outputs. If each player has chosen a strategy an action plan based on what has happened so far in the game and no one can increase one's own expected payoff by changing one's strategy while the other players keep their's unchanged, then the current set of strategy choices constitutes a Nash equilibrium. If two players Alice and Bob choose strategies A and B, (A, B) is a Nash equilibrium if Alice has no other strategy available that does better than A at maximizing her payoff in response to Bob choosing B, and Bo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

John Forbes Nash, Jr
John Forbes Nash Jr. (June 13, 1928 – May 23, 2015) was an American mathematician who made fundamental contributions to game theory, real algebraic geometry, differential geometry, and partial differential equations. Nash and fellow game theorists John Harsanyi and Reinhard Selten were awarded the 1994 Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel (popularly known as the Nobel Prize in Economics). In 2015, he and Louis Nirenberg were awarded the Abel Prize for their contributions to the field of partial differential equations. As a graduate student in the Mathematics Department at Princeton University, Nash introduced a number of concepts (including Nash equilibrium and the Nash bargaining solution) which are now considered central to game theory and its applications in various sciences. In the 1950s, Nash discovered and proved the Nash embedding theorems by solving a system of nonlinear partial differential equations arising in Riemannian geo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Intuitionistic Logic
Intuitionistic logic, sometimes more generally called constructive logic, refers to systems of symbolic logic that differ from the systems used for classical logic by more closely mirroring the notion of constructive proof. In particular, systems of intuitionistic logic do not assume the law of the excluded middle and double negation elimination, which are fundamental inference rules in classical logic. Formalized intuitionistic logic was originally developed by Arend Heyting to provide a formal basis for L. E. J. Brouwer's programme of intuitionism. From a prooftheoretic perspective, Heyting’s calculus is a restriction of classical logic in which the law of excluded middle and double negation elimination have been removed. Excluded middle and double negation elimination can still be proved for some propositions on a case by case basis, however, but do not hold universally as they do with classical logic. The standard explanation of intuitionistic logic is the BHK interpreta ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Algorithm
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm () is a finite sequence of rigorous instructions, typically used to solve a class of specific problems or to perform a computation. Algorithms are used as specifications for performing calculations and data processing. More advanced algorithms can perform automated deductions (referred to as automated reasoning) and use mathematical and logical tests to divert the code execution through various routes (referred to as automated decisionmaking). Using human characteristics as descriptors of machines in metaphorical ways was already practiced by Alan Turing with terms such as "memory", "search" and "stimulus". In contrast, a heuristic is an approach to problem solving that may not be fully specified or may not guarantee correct or optimal results, especially in problem domains where there is no welldefined correct or optimal result. As an effective method, an algorithm can be expressed within a finite amount of spac ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 