Bird Pollination
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Bird Pollination
Ornithophily or bird pollination is the pollination Pollination is the transfer of pollen from an Stamen, anther of a plant to the stigma (botany), stigma of a plant, later enabling fertilisation and the production of seeds, most often by an animal or by Anemophily, wind. Pollinating agents can ... of flowering plants by bird Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class (biology), class Aves (), characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the Oviparity, laying of Eggshell, hard-shelled eggs, a high Metabolism, metabolic rate, a fou ...s. This sometimes (but not always) coevolution In biology, coevolution occurs when two or more species reciprocally affect each other's evolution through the process of natural selection. The term sometimes is used for two traits in the same species affecting each other's evolution, as well ...ary association is derived from insect pollination (entomophily Entomophily or insect pollination is a for ...
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Phaethornis Longirostris
The long-billed hermit (''Phaethornis longirostris'') is a bird in the family Trochilidae, the hummingbirds. It is found from central Mexico south through Central America, Colombia and Ecuador into Peru. Taxonomy and systematics It has often been considered conspecific with what is now the long-tailed hermit, ''P. superciliosus'', which is found east of the Andes. The two populations were called the western and eastern long-tailed hermits; the "eastern" was dropped after the split into two species and the renaming of the western population.Remsen, J. V., Jr., J. I. Areta, E. Bonaccorso, S. Claramunt, A. Jaramillo, D. F. Lane, J. F. Pacheco, M. B. Robbins, F. G. Stiles, and K. J. Zimmer. Version 24 August 2021. A classification of the bird species of South America. American Ornithological Society. https://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm retrieved August 24, 2021 The South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society, the Internatio ...
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Loranthaceae
Loranthaceae, commonly known as the showy mistletoes, is a family Family (from la, familia) is a Social group, group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or Affinity (law), affinity (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of the family is to maintain the well-being of its ... of flowering plants. It consists of about 75 genera and 1,000 species of woody plants, many of them hemiparasites. The three terrestrial species are '' Nuytsia floribunda'' (the Western Australian Christmas tree), '' Atkinsonia ligustrina'' (from the Blue Mountains of Australia), and '' Gaiadendron punctatum'' (from Central/South America.) Loranthaceae are primarily xylem parasites, but their haustoria may sometimes tap the phloem, while '' Tristerix aphyllus'' is almost holoparasitic. For a more complete description of the Australian Loranthaceae, seFlora of Australia online, for the Malesian Loranthaceae seFlora of Malesia Originally, Loranthaceae contain ...
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Meliphagidae
The honeyeaters are a large and diverse family (biology), family, Meliphagidae, of small to medium-sized birds. The family includes the Epthianura, Australian chats, myzomelas, friarbirds, wattlebirds, Manorina, miners and melidectes. They are most common in Australia and New Guinea, and found also in New Zealand, the Pacific islands as far east as Samoa and Tonga, and the islands to the north and west of New Guinea known as Wallacea. Bali, on the other side of the Wallace Line, has a single species. In total there are List of honeyeaters, 186 species in 55 genus, genera, roughly half of them native to Australia, many of the remainder occupying New Guinea. With their closest relatives, the Maluridae (Australian fairy-wrens), Pardalotidae (pardalotes), and Acanthizidae (thornbills, Australian warblers, scrubwrens, etc.), they comprise the superfamily Meliphagoidea and originated early in the evolutionary history of the oscine passerine radiation. Although honeyeaters look and beh ...
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Nectariniidae
Sunbirds and spiderhunters make up the family (biology), family Nectariniidae of passerine birds. They are small, slender passerines from the Old World, usually with downward-curved bills. Many are brightly coloured, often with iridescent feathers, particularly in the males. Many species also have especially long tail feathers. Their range extends through most of Africa to the Middle East, South Asia, South-east Asia and southern China, to Indonesia, New Guinea and northern Australia. Species diversity is highest in equatorial regions. There are 145 species in 16 genus, genera. Most sunbirds feed largely on nectar, but will also eat insects and spiders, especially when feeding their young. Flowers that prevent access to their nectar because of their shape (for example, very long and narrow flowers) are simply punctured at the base near the nectaries, from which the birds sip the nectar. Fruit is also part of the diet of some species. Their Bird flight, flight is fast and direct, ...
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Trochilidae
Hummingbirds are birds native to the Americas and comprise the Family (biology), biological family Trochilidae. With about 361 species and 113 genus, genera, they occur from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, but the vast majority of the species are found in the tropics around the equator. They are small birds, with most species measuring in length. The smallest extant taxon, extant hummingbird species is the bee hummingbird, which weighs less than . The largest hummingbird species is the giant hummingbird, weighing . They are specialized for feeding on flower nectar, but all species also consume flying insects or spiders. Hummingbirds split from their Sister taxon, sister group, the Swift (bird), swifts and treeswifts, around 42 million years ago. The common ancestor of extant hummingbirds is estimated to have lived 22 million years ago in South America. They are known as hummingbirds because of the humming sound created by their beating Bird's wing, wings, which flap at high freq ...
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Pollinium
A pollinium (plural pollinia) is a coherent mass of pollen grains in a plant that are the product of only one anther, but are transferred, during pollination, as a single unit. This is regularly seen in plants such as orchids and many species of milkweeds (Asclepiadoideae). Usage of the term differs: in some orchids two masses of pollen are well attached to one another, but in other orchids there are two halves (with two separate viscidia) each of which is sometimes referred to as a pollinium. Most orchids have waxy pollinia. These are connected to one or two elongate stipes, which in turn are attached to a sticky viscidium, a disc-shaped structure that sticks to a visiting insect. Some orchid genera have mealy pollinia. These are tapering into a caudicle (stalk), attached to the viscidium. They extend into the middle section of the column (botany), column. The pollinarium is a collective term that means either (1) the complete set of pollinia from all the anthers of a flower, as i ...
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Disa (plant)
''Disa'' is a genus of flowering plants in the Family (biology), family Orchidaceae. It comprises about 182 species. Most of the species are Indigenous (ecology), indigenous to tropical and southern Africa, with a few more in the Arabian Peninsula, Madagascar, and Réunion.Hans Peter Linder and Hubert Kurzweil. 1999. ''Orchids of Southern Africa''. 504 pages. A. A. Balkema. . ''Disa bracteata'' is naturalised in Western Australia, where the local name is "African weed-orchid." The genus ''Disa'' was Botanical name, named by Peter Jonas Bergius, P.J. Bergius in 1767.Peter Jonas Bergius. 1767. ''Descriptiones Plantarum ex Capite Bonae Spei'': 348. (See ''External links'' below). It was genus name, named after Disa, the heroine of a Sweden, Swedish legend.Umberto Quattrocchi. 2000. ''CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names'' volume II. CRC Press: Boca Raton; New York; Washington,DC;, USA. London, UK. (vol. II). (see ''External links'' below). Description The plants grow from a fleshy ...
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Heliconias
''Heliconia'', derived from the Ancient Greek language, Greek word (), is a genus of flowering plants in the monotypic family Heliconiaceae. Most of the ca 194 known species are native to the tropical Americas, but a few are indigenous to certain islands of the western Pacific and Maluku (province), Maluku. Many species of ''Heliconia'' are found in the tropical forests of these regions. Most species are listed as either vulnerable or data deficient by the IUCN Red List of threatened species. Several species are widely cultivated as ornamentals, and a few are naturalized in Florida, Gambia, and Thailand. Common names for the genus include lobster-claws, toucan beak, wild plantain, or false bird-of-paradise. The last term refers to their close similarity to the bird-of-paradise flowers (''Strelitzia''). Collectively, these plants are also simply referred to as "heliconias". Description These herbaceous plants range from 0.5 to nearly 4.5 m (1.5–15 ft) tall, depending ...
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Malachite Sunbird
The malachite sunbird (''Nectarinia famosa'') is a small nectarivorous bird found from the highlands of Ethiopia southwards to South Africa. They pollinate many flowering plants, particularly those with long corolla tubes, in the Fynbos. Taxonomy The sunbirds are a group of small Old World passerine Aves, birds, and are placed within the family Nectariniidae, which is found across Africa, the Middle East and into South-east Asia. Also called green sugarbird. The malachite sunbird has two subspecies. The nominate ''N. f. famosa ''occurs mainly in South Africa, Lesotho and western Eswatini, although its range just extends into southern Namibia and Zimbabwe. ''N. f. cupreonitens'' breeds in the highlands from Ethiopia south to northern Mozambique. Description The breeding male malachite sunbird, which has very long central tail feathers, is 25 cm long, and the shorter-tailed female 15 cm. The adult male is metallic green when breeding, with blackish-green wings with small ...
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Babiana Ringens
''Babiana ringens'', the rat's tail, is a flowering plant endemic to Cape Province of South Africa. The foliage is long and erect with an inflorescence consisting of a sterile main stalk adapted for ornithophily, pollination by birds. The plant bears bright red, tubular flowers on side branches close to the ground. It is a perennial that grows in nutrient-poor sandy soil and flowers during the winter rains. The main stalk acts as a perch for birds, enabling birds to land within reach of the plant's flowers. The adaptation of the stalk was first noticed by Rudolf Marloth The bird that is the main pollinator of the plant is the malachite sunbird (''Nectarinia famosa''). The male sunbird is twice as likely to perch on the stalk as the female and, on average, spends four times longer on a perch. The stalk does seem to play a role in pollination as plants without a stalk produced only half as many seeds and see less cross-pollination as plants with a stalk intact. Accessing the flowe ...
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Least Seedsnipe
The least seedsnipe (''Thinocorus rumicivorus'') is a xerophile, xerophilic species of bird in the Thinocoridae family. It breeds in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, and Peru. They are common across South America and have been recorded in Ecuador, the Falkland Islands, Uruguay, Brazil, and as far away as Antarctica.Favero, M., & Silva, M. P. (1998). First Record of the Least Seedsnipe Thinocorus rumicivorus in the Antarctic. Ornitologia Neotropical, 10, 107-109. The range of the least seedsnipe is estimated to be about 1,300,000 km2. Its natural habitats are temperate grassland, subtropical or tropical high-altitude grassland, and pastureland, but it can be found in habitats ranging from sandy beaches to the open steppe, and even some open deserts in northern Chile.Lane A. A. (1897) Field notes on the birds of Chili. Ibis 3, 297-3 17.Ehlers, R., and M. L. Morton (1982). Metabolic rate and evaporative water loss in the Least Seed-Snipe Thinocorus rumicivorus. Comparative Biochemist ...
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