Associative Algebra
In mathematics, an associative algebra ''A'' is an algebraic structure with compatible operations of addition, multiplication (assumed to be associative), and a scalar multiplication by elements in some field ''K''. The addition and multiplication operations together give ''A'' the structure of a ring; the addition and scalar multiplication operations together give ''A'' the structure of a vector space over ''K''. In this article we will also use the term ''K''algebra to mean an associative algebra over the field ''K''. A standard first example of a ''K''algebra is a ring of square matrices over a field ''K'', with the usual matrix multiplication. A commutative algebra is an associative algebra that has a commutative multiplication, or, equivalently, an associative algebra that is also a commutative ring. In this article associative algebras are assumed to have a multiplicative identity, denoted 1; they are sometimes called unital associative algebras for clarification. I ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Algebra (ring Theory)
In mathematics, an algebra over a field (often simply called an algebra) is a vector space equipped with a bilinear map, bilinear product (mathematics), product. Thus, an algebra is an algebraic structure consisting of a set (mathematics), set together with operations of multiplication and addition and scalar multiplication by elements of a field (mathematics), field and satisfying the axioms implied by "vector space" and "bilinear". The multiplication operation in an algebra may or may not be associative, leading to the notions of associative algebras and nonassociative algebras. Given an integer ''n'', the ring (mathematics), ring of real matrix, real square matrix, square matrices of order ''n'' is an example of an associative algebra over the field of real numbers under matrix addition and matrix multiplication since matrix multiplication is associative. Threedimensional Euclidean space with multiplication given by the vector cross product is an example of a nonassociative a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Multiplicative Identity
In mathematics, an identity element, or neutral element, of a binary operation operating on a set is an element of the set that leaves unchanged every element of the set when the operation is applied. This concept is used in algebraic structures such as groups and rings. The term ''identity element'' is often shortened to ''identity'' (as in the case of additive identity and multiplicative identity) when there is no possibility of confusion, but the identity implicitly depends on the binary operation it is associated with. Definitions Let be a set equipped with a binary operation ∗. Then an element of is called a if for all in , and a if for all in . If is both a left identity and a right identity, then it is called a , or simply an . An identity with respect to addition is called an (often denoted as 0) and an identity with respect to multiplication is called a (often denoted as 1). These need not be ordinary additi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Noncommutative Algebraic Geometry
Noncommutative algebraic geometry is a branch of mathematics, and more specifically a direction in noncommutative geometry, that studies the geometric properties of formal duals of noncommutative algebraic objects such as rings as well as geometric objects derived from them (e.g. by gluing along localizations or taking noncommutative stack quotients). For example, noncommutative algebraic geometry is supposed to extend a notion of an algebraic scheme by suitable gluing of spectra of noncommutative rings; depending on how literally and how generally this aim (and a notion of spectrum) is understood in noncommutative setting, this has been achieved in various level of success. The noncommutative ring generalizes here a commutative ring of regular functions on a commutative scheme. Functions on usual spaces in the traditional (commutative) algebraic geometry have a product defined by pointwise multiplication; as the values of these functions commute, the functions also commute: '' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Affine Scheme
In commutative algebra, the prime spectrum (or simply the spectrum) of a ring ''R'' is the set of all prime ideals of ''R'', and is usually denoted by \operatorname; in algebraic geometry it is simultaneously a topological space equipped with the sheaf of rings \mathcal. Zariski topology For any ideal ''I'' of ''R'', define V_I to be the set of prime ideals containing ''I''. We can put a topology on \operatorname(R) by defining the collection of closed sets to be :\. This topology is called the Zariski topology. A basis for the Zariski topology can be constructed as follows. For ''f'' ∈ ''R'', define ''D''''f'' to be the set of prime ideals of ''R'' not containing ''f''. Then each ''D''''f'' is an open subset of \operatorname(R), and \ is a basis for the Zariski topology. \operatorname(R) is a compact space, but almost never Hausdorff: in fact, the maximal ideals in ''R'' are precisely the closed points in this topology. By the same reasoning, it is not, in general, a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Prime Spectrum
In commutative algebra, the prime spectrum (or simply the spectrum) of a ring ''R'' is the set of all prime ideals of ''R'', and is usually denoted by \operatorname; in algebraic geometry it is simultaneously a topological space equipped with the sheaf of rings \mathcal. Zariski topology For any ideal ''I'' of ''R'', define V_I to be the set of prime ideals containing ''I''. We can put a topology on \operatorname(R) by defining the collection of closed sets to be :\. This topology is called the Zariski topology. A basis for the Zariski topology can be constructed as follows. For ''f'' ∈ ''R'', define ''D''''f'' to be the set of prime ideals of ''R'' not containing ''f''. Then each ''D''''f'' is an open subset of \operatorname(R), and \ is a basis for the Zariski topology. \operatorname(R) is a compact space, but almost never Hausdorff: in fact, the maximal ideals in ''R'' are precisely the closed points in this topology. By the same reasoning, it is not, in general, a T ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Coslice Category
In mathematics, specifically category theory, an overcategory (and undercategory) is a distinguished class of categories used in multiple contexts, such as with covering spaces (espace etale). They were introduced as a mechanism for keeping track of data surrounding a fixed object X in some category \mathcal. There is a dual notion of undercategory, which is defined similarly. Definition Let \mathcal be a category and X a fixed object of \mathcalpg 59. The overcategory (also called a slice category) \mathcal/X is an associated category whose objects are pairs (A, \pi) where \pi:A \to X is a morphism in \mathcal. Then, a morphism between objects f:(A, \pi) \to (A', \pi') is given by a morphism f:A \to A' in the category \mathcal such that the following diagram commutes\begin A & \xrightarrow & A' \\ \pi\downarrow \text & \text &\text \downarrow \pi' \\ X & = & X \endThere is a dual notion called the undercategory (also called a coslice category) X/\mathcal whose objects are pai ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Structure Map
In mathematics, a canonical map, also called a natural map, is a map or morphism between objects that arises naturally from the definition or the construction of the objects. Often, it is a map which preserves the widest amount of structure. A choice of a canonical map sometimes depends on a convention (e.g., a sign convention). A closely related notion is a structure map or structure morphism; the map or morphism that comes with the given structure on the object. These are also sometimes called canonical maps. A canonical isomorphism is a canonical map that is also an isomorphism (i.e., invertible). In some contexts, it might be necessary to address an issue of ''choices'' of canonical maps or canonical isomorphisms; for a typical example, see prestack. For a discussion of the problem of defining a canonical map see Kevin Buzzard's talk at the 2022 Grothendieck conference. Examples *If ''N'' is a normal subgroup of a group ''G'', then there is a canonical surjective group homo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Center Of A Ring
In algebra, the center of a ring ''R'' is the subring consisting of the elements ''x'' such that ''xy = yx'' for all elements ''y'' in ''R''. It is a commutative ring and is denoted as Z(R); "Z" stands for the German word ''Zentrum'', meaning "center". If ''R'' is a ring, then ''R'' is an associative algebra over its center. Conversely, if ''R'' is an associative algebra over a commutative subring ''S'', then ''S'' is a subring of the center of ''R'', and if ''S'' happens to be the center of ''R'', then the algebra ''R'' is called a central algebra. Examples *The center of a commutative ring ''R'' is ''R'' itself. *The center of a skewfield is a field. *The center of the (full) matrix ring with entries in a commutative ring ''R'' consists of ''R''scalar multiples of the identity matrix. *Let ''F'' be a field extension of a field ''k'', and ''R'' an algebra over ''k''. Then Z\left(R \otimes_k F\right) = Z(R) \otimes_k F. *The center of the universal enveloping algebra of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Tensor Product Of Modules
In mathematics, the tensor product of modules is a construction that allows arguments about bilinear maps (e.g. multiplication) to be carried out in terms of linear maps. The module construction is analogous to the construction of the tensor product of vector spaces, but can be carried out for a pair of modules over a commutative ring resulting in a third module, and also for a pair of a rightmodule and a leftmodule over any ring, with result an abelian group. Tensor products are important in areas of abstract algebra, homological algebra, algebraic topology, algebraic geometry, operator algebras and noncommutative geometry. The universal property of the tensor product of vector spaces extends to more general situations in abstract algebra. It allows the study of bilinear or multilinear operations via linear operations. The tensor product of an algebra and a module can be used for extension of scalars. For a commutative ring, the tensor product of modules can be iterated to form ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Category Of Abelian Groups
In mathematics, the category Ab has the abelian groups as objects and group homomorphisms as morphisms. This is the prototype of an abelian category: indeed, every small abelian category can be embedded in Ab. Properties The zero object of Ab is the trivial group which consists only of its neutral element. The monomorphisms in Ab are the injective group homomorphisms, the epimorphisms are the surjective group homomorphisms, and the isomorphisms are the bijective group homomorphisms. Ab is a full subcategory of Grp, the category of ''all'' groups. The main difference between Ab and Grp is that the sum of two homomorphisms ''f'' and ''g'' between abelian groups is again a group homomorphism: :(''f''+''g'')(''x''+''y'') = ''f''(''x''+''y'') + ''g''(''x''+''y'') = ''f''(''x'') + ''f''(''y'') + ''g''(''x'') + ''g''(''y'') : = ''f''(''x'') + ''g''(''x'') + ''f''(''y'') + ''g''(''y'') = (''f''+''g'')(''x'') + (''f''+''g'')(''y'') The third e ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Monoidal Category
In mathematics, a monoidal category (or tensor category) is a category \mathbf C equipped with a bifunctor :\otimes : \mathbf \times \mathbf \to \mathbf that is associative up to a natural isomorphism, and an object ''I'' that is both a left and right identity for ⊗, again up to a natural isomorphism. The associated natural isomorphisms are subject to certain coherence conditions, which ensure that all the relevant diagrams commute. The ordinary tensor product makes vector spaces, abelian groups, ''R''modules, or ''R''algebras into monoidal categories. Monoidal categories can be seen as a generalization of these and other examples. Every (small) monoidal category may also be viewed as a "categorification" of an underlying monoid, namely the monoid whose elements are the isomorphism classes of the category's objects and whose binary operation is given by the category's tensor product. A rather different application, of which monoidal categories can be considered an abstractio ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Category Of Modules
In algebra, given a ring ''R'', the category of left modules over ''R'' is the category whose objects are all left modules over ''R'' and whose morphisms are all module homomorphisms between left ''R''modules. For example, when ''R'' is the ring of integers Z, it is the same thing as the category of abelian groups. The category of right modules is defined in a similar way. Note: Some authors use the term module category for the category of modules. This term can be ambiguous since it could also refer to a category with a monoidalcategory action. Properties The categories of left and right modules are abelian categories. These categories have enough projectives and enough injectives. Mitchell's embedding theorem states every abelian category arises as a full subcategory of the category of modules. Projective limits and inductive limits exist in the categories of left and right modules. Over a commutative ring, together with the tensor product of modules ⊗, the category of mo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 