Whitney Embedding Theorem
In mathematics, particularly in differential topology, there are two Whitney embedding theorems, named after Hassler Whitney: *The strong Whitney embedding theorem states that any differentiable manifold, smooth real numbers, real dimension (mathematics), dimensional manifold (required also to be Hausdorff space, Hausdorff and secondcountable) can be smooth map, smoothly embedding, embedded in the real coordinate space, real space (), if . This is the best linear bound on the smallestdimensional Euclidean space that all dimensional manifolds embed in, as the real projective spaces of dimension cannot be embedded into real space if is a power of two (as can be seen from a characteristic class argument, also due to Whitney). *The weak Whitney embedding theorem states that any continuous function from an dimensional manifold to an dimensional manifold may be approximated by a smooth embedding provided . Whitney similarly proved that such a map could be approximated by an imm ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Transversality (mathematics)
In mathematics, transversality is a notion that describes how spaces can intersect; transversality can be seen as the "opposite" of tangency, and plays a role in general position. It formalizes the idea of a generic intersection in differential topology. It is defined by considering the linearizations of the intersecting spaces at the points of intersection. Definition Two submanifolds of a given finitedimensional smooth manifold are said to intersect transversally if at every point of intersection, their separate tangent spaces at that point together generate the tangent space of the ambient manifold at that point. Manifolds that do not intersect are vacuously transverse. If the manifolds are of complementary dimension (i.e., their dimensions add up to the dimension of the ambient space), the condition means that the tangent space to the ambient manifold is the direct sum of the two smaller tangent spaces. If an intersection is transverse, then the intersection will be a su ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

André Haefliger
André Haefliger (born 22 May 1929 in Nyon, Switzerland) is a Swiss mathematician who works primarily on topology. Education and career Haefliger went to school in Nyon and then attended his final years at Collège Calvin in Geneva. He studied mathematics at the University of Lausanne from 1948 to 1952. He worked for two years as a teaching assistant at École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne and then moved to University of Strasbourg, where he received his Ph.D. degree in 1958. His thesis was entitled "''Structures feuilletées et cohomologie à valeurs dans un faisceau de groupoïdes''" and was written under the supervision of Charles Ehresmann. He got a research fellowship for one year in Paris, where he participated in the seminar of Henri Cartan, and then from 1959 to 1961 he worked at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. Since 1962 he has been a full professor at the University of Geneva until his retirement in 1996. In 1966 Haefliger was invit ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Klein Bottle
In topology, a branch of mathematics, the Klein bottle () is an example of a nonorientable surface; it is a twodimensional manifold against which a system for determining a normal vector cannot be consistently defined. Informally, it is a onesided surface which, if traveled upon, could be followed back to the point of origin while flipping the traveler upside down. Other related nonorientable objects include the Möbius strip and the real projective plane. While a Möbius strip is a surface with boundary, a Klein bottle has no boundary. For comparison, a sphere is an orientable surface with no boundary. The concept of a Klein bottle was first described in 1882 by the German mathematician Felix Klein. Construction The following square is a fundamental polygon of the Klein bottle. The idea is to 'glue' together the corresponding red and blue edges with the arrows matching, as in the diagrams below. Note that this is an "abstract" gluing in the sense that trying to realize ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Circle
A circle is a shape consisting of all points in a plane that are at a given distance from a given point, the centre. Equivalently, it is the curve traced out by a point that moves in a plane so that its distance from a given point is constant. The distance between any point of the circle and the centre is called the radius. Usually, the radius is required to be a positive number. A circle with r=0 (a single point) is a degenerate case. This article is about circles in Euclidean geometry, and, in particular, the Euclidean plane, except where otherwise noted. Specifically, a circle is a simple closed curve that divides the plane into two regions: an interior and an exterior. In everyday use, the term "circle" may be used interchangeably to refer to either the boundary of the figure, or to the whole figure including its interior; in strict technical usage, the circle is only the boundary and the whole figure is called a '' disc''. A circle may also be defined as a special ki ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

History Of Manifolds And Varieties
The study of manifolds combines many important areas of mathematics: it generalizes concepts such as curves and surfaces as well as ideas from linear algebra and topology. Certain special classes of manifolds also have additional algebraic structure; they may behave like groups, for instance. In that case, they are called Lie Groups. Alternatively, they may be described by polynomial equations, in which case they are called algebraic varieties, and if they additionally carry a group structure, they are called algebraic groups. Nomenclature The term "manifold" comes from German ''Mannigfaltigkeit,'' by Bernhard Riemann. In English, "manifold" refers to spaces with a differentiable or topological structure, while "variety" refers to spaces with an algebraic structure, as in algebraic varieties. In Romance languages, manifold is translated as "variety" – such spaces with a differentiable structure are literally translated as "analytic varieties", while spaces with an algebraic ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Surgery Theory
In mathematics, specifically in geometric topology, surgery theory is a collection of techniques used to produce one finitedimensional manifold from another in a 'controlled' way, introduced by . Milnor called this technique ''surgery'', while Andrew Wallace called it spherical modification. The "surgery" on a differentiable manifold ''M'' of dimension n=p+q+1, could be described as removing an imbedded sphere of dimension ''p'' from ''M''. Originally developed for differentiable (or, smooth) manifolds, surgery techniques also apply to piecewise linear (PL) and topological manifolds. Surgery refers to cutting out parts of the manifold and replacing it with a part of another manifold, matching up along the cut or boundary. This is closely related to, but not identical with, handlebody decompositions. More technically, the idea is to start with a wellunderstood manifold ''M'' and perform surgery on it to produce a manifold ''M''′ having some desired property, in such a way th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Smooth Structure
In mathematics, a smooth structure on a manifold allows for an unambiguous notion of smooth function. In particular, a smooth structure allows one to perform mathematical analysis on the manifold. Definition A smooth structure on a manifold M is a collection of smoothly equivalent smooth atlases. Here, a smooth atlas for a topological manifold M is an atlas for M such that each transition function is a smooth map, and two smooth atlases for M are smoothly equivalent provided their union is again a smooth atlas for M. This gives a natural equivalence relation on the set of smooth atlases. A smooth manifold is a topological manifold M together with a smooth structure on M. Maximal smooth atlases By taking the union of all atlases belonging to a smooth structure, we obtain a maximal smooth atlas. This atlas contains every chart that is compatible with the smooth structure. There is a natural onetoone correspondence between smooth structures and maximal smooth atlases. Th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Poincaré Conjecture
In the mathematics, mathematical field of geometric topology, the Poincaré conjecture (, , ) is a theorem about the Characterization (mathematics), characterization of the 3sphere, which is the hypersphere that bounds the unit ball in fourdimensional space. Originally conjectured by Henri Poincaré in 1904, the Grigori Perelman's theorem concerns spaces that locally look like ordinary Euclidean space, threedimensional space but which are finite in extent. Poincaré hypothesized that if such a space has the additional property that each path (topology), loop in the space can be continuously tightened to a point, then it is necessarily a 3sphere, threedimensional sphere. Attempts to resolve the conjecture drove much progress in the field of geometric topology during the 20th century. The Perelman's proof built upon Richard S. Hamilton's ideas of using the Ricci flow to solve the problem. By developing a number of breakthrough new techniques and results in the theory of Ricci ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Hcobordism Theorem
In geometric topology and differential topology, an (''n'' + 1)dimensional cobordism ''W'' between ''n''dimensional manifolds ''M'' and ''N'' is an ''h''cobordism (the ''h'' stands for homotopy equivalence) if the inclusion maps : M \hookrightarrow W \quad\mbox\quad N \hookrightarrow W are homotopy equivalences. The ''h''cobordism theorem gives sufficient conditions for an ''h''cobordism to be trivial, i.e., to be Cisomorphic to the cylinder ''M'' × , 1 Here C refers to any of the categories of smooth, piecewise linear, or topological manifolds. The theorem was first proved by Stephen Smale for which he received the Fields Medal and is a fundamental result in the theory of highdimensional manifolds. For a start, it almost immediately proves the generalized Poincaré conjecture. Background Before Smale proved this theorem, mathematicians became stuck while trying to understand manifolds of dimension 3 or 4, and assumed that the higherdimensional cases were e ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Stephen Smale
Stephen Smale (born July 15, 1930) is an American mathematician, known for his research in topology, dynamical systems and mathematical economics. He was awarded the Fields Medal in 1966 and spent more than three decades on the mathematics faculty of the University of California, Berkeley (1960–1961 and 1964–1995), where he currently is Professor Emeritus, with research interests in algorithms, numerical analysis and global analysis. Education and career Smale was born in Flint, Michigan and entered the University of Michigan in 1948. Initially, he was a good student, placing into an honors calculus sequence taught by Bob Thrall and earning himself A's. However, his sophomore and junior years were marred with mediocre grades, mostly Bs, Cs and even an F in nuclear physics. However, with some luck, Smale was accepted as a graduate student at the University of Michigan's mathematics department. Yet again, Smale performed poorly in his first years, earning a C average as a g ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 