Weierstrass Function
In mathematics, the Weierstrass function is an example of a realvalued function (mathematics), function that is continuous function, continuous everywhere but Differentiable function, differentiable nowhere. It is an example of a fractal curve. It is named after its discoverer Karl Weierstrass. The Weierstrass function has historically served the role of a pathological (mathematics), pathological function, being the first published example (1872) specifically concocted to challenge the notion that every continuous function is differentiable except on a set of isolated points. Weierstrass's demonstration that continuity did not imply almosteverywhere differentiability upended mathematics, overturning several proofs that relied on geometric intuition and vague definitions of smoothness. These types of functions were denounced by contemporaries: Henri Poincaré famously described them as "monsters" and called Weierstrass' work "an outrage against common sense", while Charles Herm ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Weierstrass Elliptic Function
In mathematics, the Weierstrass elliptic functions are elliptic functions that take a particularly simple form. They are named for Karl Weierstrass. This class of functions are also referred to as ℘functions and they are usually denoted by the symbol ℘, a uniquely fancy script ''p''. They play an important role in the theory of elliptic functions. A ℘function together with its derivative can be used to parameterize elliptic curves and they generate the field of elliptic functions with respect to a given period lattice. Symbol for Weierstrass \wpfunction Definition Let \omega_1,\omega_2\in\mathbb be two complex numbers that are linearly independent over \mathbb and let \Lambda:=\mathbb\omega_1+\mathbb\omega_2:=\ be the lattice generated by those numbers. Then the \wpfunction is defined as follows: \weierp(z,\omega_1,\omega_2):=\weierp(z,\Lambda) := \frac + \sum_\left(\frac 1  \frac 1 \right). This series converges locally uniformly absolutely in \mathb ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Fourier Series
A Fourier series () is a summation of harmonically related sinusoidal functions, also known as components or harmonics. The result of the summation is a periodic function whose functional form is determined by the choices of cycle length (or ''period''), the number of components, and their amplitudes and phase parameters. With appropriate choices, one cycle (or ''period'') of the summation can be made to approximate an arbitrary function in that interval (or the entire function if it too is periodic). The number of components is theoretically infinite, in which case the other parameters can be chosen to cause the series to converge to almost any ''well behaved'' periodic function (see Pathological and Dirichlet–Jordan test). The components of a particular function are determined by ''analysis'' techniques described in this article. Sometimes the components are known first, and the unknown function is ''synthesized'' by a Fourier series. Such is the case of a discreteti ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Triangle Wave
A triangular wave or triangle wave is a nonsinusoidal waveform named for its triangular shape. It is a periodic, piecewise linear, continuous real function. Like a square wave, the triangle wave contains only odd harmonics. However, the higher harmonics rolloff, roll off much faster than in a square wave (proportional to the inverse square of the harmonic number as opposed to just the inverse). Definitions Definition A triangle wave of period ''p'' that spans the range [0,1] is defined as: x(t)= 2 \left, \frac  \left \lfloor \frac + \frac \right \rfloor \ where \lfloor\,\ \rfloor is the Floor and ceiling functions, floor function. This can be seen to be the absolute value of a shifted sawtooth wave. For a triangle wave spanning the range the expression becomes: x(t)= 2 \left , 2 \left ( \frac  \left \lfloor + \right \rfloor \right) \right ,  1. A more general equation for a triangle wave with amplitude a and period p using the modulo operation and absol ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Real Analysis
In mathematics, the branch of real analysis studies the behavior of real numbers, sequences and series of real numbers, and real functions. Some particular properties of realvalued sequences and functions that real analysis studies include convergence, limits, continuity, smoothness, differentiability and integrability. Real analysis is distinguished from complex analysis, which deals with the study of complex numbers and their functions. Scope Construction of the real numbers The theorems of real analysis rely on the properties of the real number system, which must be established. The real number system consists of an uncountable set (\mathbb), together with two binary operations denoted and , and an order denoted . The operations make the real numbers a field, and, along with the order, an ordered field. The real number system is the unique ''complete ordered field'', in the sense that any other complete ordered field is isomorphic to it. Intuitively, completeness means ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Hausdorff Dimension
In mathematics, Hausdorff dimension is a measure of ''roughness'', or more specifically, fractal dimension, that was first introduced in 1918 by mathematician Felix Hausdorff. For instance, the Hausdorff dimension of a single point is zero, of a line segment is 1, of a square is 2, and of a cube is 3. That is, for sets of points that define a smooth shape or a shape that has a small number of corners—the shapes of traditional geometry and science—the Hausdorff dimension is an integer agreeing with the usual sense of dimension, also known as the topological dimension. However, formulas have also been developed that allow calculation of the dimension of other less simple objects, where, solely on the basis of their properties of scaling and selfsimilarity, one is led to the conclusion that particular objects—including fractals—have noninteger Hausdorff dimensions. Because of the significant technical advances made by Abram Samoilovitch Besicovitch allowing computation of di ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Fractals
In mathematics, a fractal is a geometric shape containing detailed structure at arbitrarily small scales, usually having a fractal dimension strictly exceeding the topological dimension. Many fractals appear similar at various scales, as illustrated in successive magnifications of the Mandelbrot set. This exhibition of similar patterns at increasingly smaller scales is called selfsimilarity, also known as expanding symmetry or unfolding symmetry; if this replication is exactly the same at every scale, as in the Menger sponge, the shape is called Affine geometry, affine selfsimilar. Fractal geometry lies within the mathematical branch of measure theory. One way that fractals are different from finite geometric figures is how they Scaling (geometry), scale. Doubling the edge lengths of a filled polygon multiplies its area by four, which is two (the ratio of the new to the old side length) raised to the power of two (the conventional dimension of the filled polygon). Likewise, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Rademacher's Theorem
In mathematical analysis, Rademacher's theorem, named after Hans Rademacher, states the following: If is an open subset of and is Lipschitz continuous, then is differentiable almost everywhere in ; that is, the points in at which is ''not'' differentiable form a set of Lebesgue measure zero. Differentiability here refers to infinitesimal approximability by a linear map, which in particular asserts the existence of the coordinatewise partial derivatives. Sketch of proof The onedimensional case of Rademacher's theorem is a standard result in introductory texts on measuretheoretic analysis. In this context, it is natural to prove the more general statement that any singlevariable function of bounded variation is differentiable almost everywhere. (This onedimensional generalization of Rademacher's theorem fails to extend to higher dimensions.) One of the standard proofs of the general Rademacher theorem was found by Charles Morrey. In the following, let denote a Lipschitzc ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Lebesgue Null Set
In mathematical analysis, a null set N \subset \mathbb is a measurable set that has measure zero. This can be characterized as a set that can be covered by a countable union of intervals of arbitrarily small total length. The notion of null set should not be confused with the empty set as defined in set theory. Although the empty set has Lebesgue measure zero, there are also nonempty sets which are null. For example, any nonempty countable set of real numbers has Lebesgue measure zero and therefore is null. More generally, on a given measure space M = (X, \Sigma, \mu) a null set is a set S\in\Sigma such that \mu(S) = 0. Example Every finite or countably infinite subset of the real numbers is a null set. For example, the set of natural numbers and the set of rational numbers are both countably infinite and therefore are null sets when considered as subsets of the real numbers. The Cantor set is an example of an uncountable null set. Definition Suppose A is a subset o ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Lipschitz Functions
In mathematical analysis, Lipschitz continuity, named after German mathematician Rudolf Lipschitz, is a strong form of uniform continuity for functions. Intuitively, a Lipschitz continuous function is limited in how fast it can change: there exists a real number such that, for every pair of points on the graph of this function, the absolute value of the slope of the line connecting them is not greater than this real number; the smallest such bound is called the ''Lipschitz constant'' of the function (or '' modulus of uniform continuity''). For instance, every function that has bounded first derivatives is Lipschitz continuous. In the theory of differential equations, Lipschitz continuity is the central condition of the Picard–Lindelöf theorem which guarantees the existence and uniqueness of the solution to an initial value problem. A special type of Lipschitz continuity, called contraction, is used in the Banach fixedpoint theorem. We have the following chain of strict incl ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Carl Friedrich Gauss
Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (; german: Gauß ; la, Carolus Fridericus Gauss; 30 April 177723 February 1855) was a German mathematician and physicist who made significant contributions to many fields in mathematics and science. Sometimes referred to as the ''Princeps mathematicorum'' () and "the greatest mathematician since antiquity", Gauss had an exceptional influence in many fields of mathematics and science, and he is ranked among history's most influential mathematicians. Also available at Retrieved 23 February 2014. Comprehensive biographical article. Biography Early years Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss was born on 30 April 1777 in Brunswick (Braunschweig), in the Duchy of BrunswickWolfenbüttel (now part of Lower Saxony, Germany), to poor, workingclass parents. His mother was illiterate and never recorded the date of his birth, remembering only that he had been born on a Wednesday, eight days before the Feast of the Ascension (which occurs 39 days after Easter). Ga ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Uniform Continuity
In mathematics, a real function f of real numbers is said to be uniformly continuous if there is a positive real number \delta such that function values over any function domain interval of the size \delta are as close to each other as we want. In other words, for a uniformly continuous real function of real numbers, if we want function value differences to be less than any positive real number \epsilon, then there is a positive real number \delta such that , f(x)  f(y), 0 there exists a real number \delta > 0 such that for every x,y \in X with d_1(x,y) 0 such that for every x,y \in X , , x  y, 0 \; \forall x \in X \; \forall y \in X : \, d_1(x,y) 0 , \forall x \in X , and \forall y \in X ) are used. * Alternatively, f is said to be uniformly continuous if there is a function of all positive real numbers \varepsilon, \delta(\varepsilon) representing the maximum positive real number, such that for every x,y \in X if d_1(x,y) 0 such that for every y \in X wit ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Uniform Limit Theorem
In mathematics, the uniform limit theorem states that the uniform limit of any sequence of continuous functions is continuous. Statement More precisely, let ''X'' be a topological space, let ''Y'' be a metric space, and let ƒ''n'' : ''X'' → ''Y'' be a sequence of functions converging uniformly to a function ƒ : ''X'' → ''Y''. According to the uniform limit theorem, if each of the functions ƒ''n'' is continuous, then the limit ƒ must be continuous as well. This theorem does not hold if uniform convergence is replaced by pointwise convergence. For example, let ƒ''n'' : , 1nbsp;→ R be the sequence of functions ƒ''n''(''x'') = ''xn''. Then each function ƒ''n'' is continuous, but the sequence converges pointwise to the discontinuous function ƒ that is zero on , 1) but has ƒ(1) = 1. Another example is shown in the adjacent image. In term ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 