Universal Spaces In The Topology And Topological Dynamics
In mathematics, a universal space is a certain metric space that contains all metric spaces whose dimension is bounded by some fixed constant. A similar definition exists in topological dynamics. Definition Given a class \textstyle \mathcal of topological spaces, \textstyle \mathbb\in\mathcal is universal for \textstyle \mathcal if each member of \textstyle \mathcal embeds in \textstyle \mathbb. Menger stated and proved the case \textstyle d=1 of the following theorem. The theorem in full generality was proven by Nöbeling. Theorem: The \textstyle (2d+1)dimensional cube \textstyle ,1 is universal for the class of compact metric spaces whose Lebesgue covering dimension is less than \textstyle d. Nöbeling went further and proved: Theorem: The subspace of \textstyle ,1 consisting of set of points, at most \textstyle d of whose coordinates are rational, is universal for the class of separable metric spaces whose Lebesgue covering dimension is less than \textstyle d. The la ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mean Dimension
In mathematics, the mean (topological) dimension of a topological dynamical system is a nonnegative extended real number that is a measure of the complexity of the system. Mean dimension was first introduced in 1999 by Gromov. Shortly after it was developed and studied systematically by Lindenstrauss and Weiss. In particular they proved the following key fact: a system with finite topological entropy has zero mean dimension. For various topological dynamical systems with infinite topological entropy, the mean dimension can be calculated or at least bounded from below and above. This allows mean dimension to be used to distinguish between systems with infinite topological entropy. Mean dimension is also related to the problem of embedding topological dynamical systems in shift spaces (over Euclidean cubes). General definition A topological dynamical system consists of a compact Hausdorff topological space \textstyle X and a continuous selfmap \textstyle T:X\rightarrow X. Let \t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Topology
In mathematics, topology (from the Greek language, Greek words , and ) is concerned with the properties of a mathematical object, geometric object that are preserved under Continuous function, continuous Deformation theory, deformations, such as Stretch factor, stretching, Twist (mathematics), twisting, crumpling, and bending; that is, without closing holes, opening holes, tearing, gluing, or passing through itself. A topological space is a set (mathematics), set endowed with a structure, called a ''Topology (structure), topology'', which allows defining continuous deformation of subspaces, and, more generally, all kinds of continuity (mathematics), continuity. Euclidean spaces, and, more generally, metric spaces are examples of a topological space, as any distance or metric defines a topology. The deformations that are considered in topology are homeomorphisms and homotopy, homotopies. A property that is invariant under such deformations is a topological property. Basic exampl ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematical Terminology
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mean Dimension
In mathematics, the mean (topological) dimension of a topological dynamical system is a nonnegative extended real number that is a measure of the complexity of the system. Mean dimension was first introduced in 1999 by Gromov. Shortly after it was developed and studied systematically by Lindenstrauss and Weiss. In particular they proved the following key fact: a system with finite topological entropy has zero mean dimension. For various topological dynamical systems with infinite topological entropy, the mean dimension can be calculated or at least bounded from below and above. This allows mean dimension to be used to distinguish between systems with infinite topological entropy. Mean dimension is also related to the problem of embedding topological dynamical systems in shift spaces (over Euclidean cubes). General definition A topological dynamical system consists of a compact Hausdorff topological space \textstyle X and a continuous selfmap \textstyle T:X\rightarrow X. Let \t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Urysohn Universal Space
The Urysohn universal space is a certain metric space that contains all separable metric spaces in a particularly nice manner. This mathematics concept is due to Pavel Urysohn. Definition A metric space (''U'',''d'') is called ''Urysohn universal'' if it is separable and complete and has the following property: :given any finite metric space ''X'', any point ''x'' in ''X'', and any isometric embedding ''f'' : ''X''\ → ''U'', there exists an isometric embedding ''F'' : ''X'' → ''U'' that extends ''f'', i.e. such that ''F''(''y'') = ''f''(''y'') for all ''y'' in ''X''\. Properties If ''U'' is Urysohn universal and ''X'' is any separable metric space, then there exists an isometric embedding ''f'':''X'' → ''U''. (Other spaces share this property: for instance, the space ''l''∞ of all bounded real sequences with the supremum norm admits isometric embeddings of all separable metric spaces (" Fréchet embedding"), as does the space C ,1of all continuous functions ,1R, again ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Universal Property
In mathematics, more specifically in category theory, a universal property is a property that characterizes up to an isomorphism the result of some constructions. Thus, universal properties can be used for defining some objects independently from the method chosen for constructing them. For example, the definitions of the integers from the natural numbers, of the rational numbers from the integers, of the real numbers from the rational numbers, and of polynomial rings from the field of their coefficients can all be done in terms of universal properties. In particular, the concept of universal property allows a simple proof that all constructions of real numbers are equivalent: it suffices to prove that they satisfy the same universal property. Technically, a universal property is defined in terms of categories and functors by mean of a universal morphism (see , below). Universal morphisms can also be thought more abstractly as initial or terminal objects of a comma category ( ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Israel Journal Of Mathematics
'' Israel Journal of Mathematics'' is a peerreviewed mathematics journal published by the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Magnes Press). Founded in 1963, as a continuation of the ''Bulletin of the Research Council of Israel'' (Section F), the journal publishes articles on all areas of mathematics. The journal is indexed by ''Mathematical Reviews'' and Zentralblatt MATH. Its 2009 MCQ was 0.70, and its 2009 impact factor The impact factor (IF) or journal impact factor (JIF) of an academic journal is a scientometric index calculated by Clarivate that reflects the yearly mean number of citations of articles published in the last two years in a given journal, as i ... was 0.754. External links * Mathematics journals Publications established in 1963 Englishlanguage journals Bimonthly journals Hebrew University of Jerusalem {{mathjournalstub ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Elon Lindenstrauss
Elon Lindenstrauss ( he, אילון לינדנשטראוס, born August 1, 1970) is an Israeli mathematician, and a winner of the 2010 Fields Medal. Since 2004, he has been a professor at Princeton University. In 2009, he was appointed to Professor at the Mathematics Institute at the Hebrew University. Biography Lindenstrauss was born into an IsraeliJewish family with German Jewish origins. He was also born into a mathematical family, the son of the mathematician Joram Lindenstrauss, the namesake of the Johnson–Lindenstrauss lemma, and computer scientist Naomi Lindenstrauss, both professors at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. His sister Ayelet Lindenstrauss is also a mathematician. He attended the Hebrew University Secondary School. In 1988 he was awarded a bronze medal at the International Mathematical Olympiad. He enlisted to the IDF's Talpiot program, and studied at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, where he earned his BSc in Mathematics and Physics in 1991 and his m ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Metric Space
In mathematics, a metric space is a set together with a notion of ''distance'' between its elements, usually called points. The distance is measured by a function called a metric or distance function. Metric spaces are the most general setting for studying many of the concepts of mathematical analysis and geometry. The most familiar example of a metric space is 3dimensional Euclidean space with its usual notion of distance. Other wellknown examples are a sphere equipped with the angular distance and the hyperbolic plane. A metric may correspond to a metaphorical, rather than physical, notion of distance: for example, the set of 100character Unicode strings can be equipped with the Hamming distance, which measures the number of characters that need to be changed to get from one string to another. Since they are very general, metric spaces are a tool used in many different branches of mathematics. Many types of mathematical objects have a natural notion of distance and t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Topological Dynamical System
In mathematics, topological dynamics is a branch of the theory of dynamical systems in which qualitative, asymptotic properties of dynamical systems are studied from the viewpoint of general topology. Scope The central object of study in topological dynamics is a topological dynamical system, i.e. a topological space, together with a continuous transformation, a continuous flow, or more generally, a semigroup of continuous transformations of that space. The origins of topological dynamics lie in the study of asymptotic properties of trajectories of systems of autonomous ordinary differential equations, in particular, the behavior of limit sets and various manifestations of "repetitiveness" of the motion, such as periodic trajectories, recurrence and minimality, stability, nonwandering points. George Birkhoff is considered to be the founder of the field. A structure theorem for minimal distal flows proved by Hillel Furstenberg in the early 1960s inspired much work on classificati ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Separable Space
In mathematics, a topological space is called separable if it contains a countable, dense subset; that is, there exists a sequence \_^ of elements of the space such that every nonempty open subset of the space contains at least one element of the sequence. Like the other axioms of countability, separability is a "limitation on size", not necessarily in terms of cardinality (though, in the presence of the Hausdorff axiom, this does turn out to be the case; see below) but in a more subtle topological sense. In particular, every continuous function on a separable space whose image is a subset of a Hausdorff space is determined by its values on the countable dense subset. Contrast separability with the related notion of second countability, which is in general stronger but equivalent on the class of metrizable spaces. First examples Any topological space that is itself finite or countably infinite is separable, for the whole space is a countable dense subset of itself. An importa ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 