Trade Guilds Of South India
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Trade Guilds Of South India
Southern Indian trade guilds were formed by merchants in order to organise and expand their trading activities. Trade guilds became channels through which Indian culture was exported to other lands. From the 11th century to the 13th century, South Indian trade in Southeast-Asia was dominated by the Cholas; and it replaced the Pallava influence of the previous centuries. Early guilds Before the rise of the Cholas, inscriptions from Java, Indonesia, mention only the Kalingas as foreign visitors from the eastern coast of India. In 1021 CE an inscription added Dravidas to the list of maritime powers, and they were then replaced by the Colikas (Cholas), in the year 1053 AD. The Kalinga traders (of modern Odisha and Northeastern Andhra) brought red coloured stone decorative objects for trade. Kalinga was also an important source of cotton textiles to Southeast Asia at an early date. In the Tamil Sangam classic, ''Chirupanattuppadai'' (line 96), there is a mention of blue ''Kalingam''. Fin ...
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Cholas
The Chola dynasty was a Tamil thalassocratic empire of southern India and one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the history of the world. The earliest datable references to the Chola are from inscriptions dated to the 3rd century BCE during the reign of Ashoka of the Maurya Empire. As one of the Three Crowned Kings of Tamilakam, along with the Chera and Pandya, the dynasty continued to govern over varying territories until the 13th century CE. The Chola Empire was at its peak under the Medieval Cholas in the mid-9th century CE. The heartland of the Cholas was the fertile valley of the Kaveri River. They ruled a significantly larger area at the height of their power from the later half of the 9th century till the beginning of the 13th century. They unified peninsular India south of the Tungabhadra River, and held the territory as one state for three centuries between 907 and 1215 CE. K. A. Nilakanta Sastri, ''A History of South India'', p 157 Under Rajaraja I and his ...
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Pahlavi Scripts
Pahlavi is a particular, exclusively written form of various Middle Iranian languages. The essential characteristics of Pahlavi are: *the use of a specific Aramaic-derived script; *the incidence of Aramaic words used as heterograms (called '' hozwārishn'', "archaisms"). Pahlavi compositions have been found for the dialects/ethnolects of Parthia, Persis, Sogdiana, Scythia, and Khotan. Independent of the variant for which the Pahlavi system was used, the written form of that language only qualifies as Pahlavi when it has the characteristics noted above. Pahlavi is then an admixture of: *written Imperial Aramaic, from which Pahlavi derives its script, logograms, and some of its vocabulary. *spoken Middle Iranian, from which Pahlavi derives its terminations, symbol rules, and most of its vocabulary. Pahlavi may thus be defined as a system of writing applied to (but not unique for) a specific language group, but with critical features alien to that language group. It has the cha ...
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Marketplace
A marketplace or market place is a location where people regularly gather for the purchase and sale of provisions, livestock, and other goods. In different parts of the world, a marketplace may be described as a '' souk'' (from the Arabic), '' bazaar'' (from the Persian), a fixed '' mercado'' ( Spanish), or itinerant ''tianguis'' (Mexico), or ''palengke'' (Philippines). Some markets operate daily and are said to be ''permanent'' markets while others are held once a week or on less frequent specified days such as festival days and are said to be ''periodic markets.'' The form that a market adopts depends on its locality's population, culture, ambient and geographic conditions. The term ''market'' covers many types of trading, as market squares, market halls and food halls, and their different varieties. Thus marketplaces can be both outdoors and indoors, and in the modern world, online marketplaces. Markets have existed for as long as humans have engaged in trade. The earlies ...
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Hanseatic League
The Hanseatic League (; gml, Hanse, , ; german: label=Modern German, Deutsche Hanse) was a medieval commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Central and Northern Europe. Growing from a few North German towns in the late 12th century, the League ultimately encompassed nearly 200 settlements across seven modern-day countries; at its height between the 13th and 15th centuries, it stretched from the Netherlands in the west to Russia in the east, and from Estonia in the north to Kraków, Poland in the south. The League originated from various loose associations of German traders and towns formed to advance mutual commercial interests, such as protection against piracy and banditry. These arrangements gradually coalesced into the Hanseatic League, whose traders enjoyed duty-free treatment, protection, and diplomatic privileges in affiliated communities and their trade routes. Hanseatic Cities gradually developed a common legal system governing ...
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Guildhall Museum (other)
Guildhall Museum can refer any of the Guild halls in England now used as museums, including *Boston Guildhall * Carlisle Guildhall *Leicester Guildhall The Guildhall in Leicester, England, is a timber framed building, with the earliest part dating from c. 1390. The Guildhall once acted as the town hall for the city until the current one was commissioned in 1876. It is located in the old walle ... * London Guildhall (museum from 1826 to 1974) * Rochester Guildhall {{disambig ...
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Guild
A guild ( ) is an association of artisans and merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area. The earliest types of guild formed as organizations of tradesmen belonging to a professional association. They sometimes depended on grants of letters patent from a monarch or other ruler to enforce the flow of trade to their self-employed members, and to retain ownership of tools and the supply of materials, but were mostly regulated by the city government. A lasting legacy of traditional guilds are the guildhalls constructed and used as guild meeting-places. Guild members found guilty of cheating the public would be fined or banned from the guild. Typically the key "privilege" was that only guild members were allowed to sell their goods or practice their skill within the city. There might be controls on minimum or maximum prices, hours of trading, numbers of apprentices, and many other things. These rules reduced free competition, but sometimes maintained ...
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Germania (guild)
(in Catalan; literally "brotherhoods") were guilds of artisans in the Kingdom of Valencia in Spain. Each ''germania'' () represented a single trade. The ''germanies'' are similar to the (also "brotherhoods", but in Castilian Spanish) of Castile, which were paramilitary law-enforcement militias. Similar to the ''hermandades'', the Germanies at times took up arms to defend Valencia against raids from the Barbary pirates, but this privilege was revoked and the ''Germanies'' suppressed after they revolted against the royal government of King Charles I of Spain. Revolt The ''germanies'' began to take power in Valencia in 1519 after an outbreak of the plague, and the situation degenerated to open warfare between the ''Germanies'' and the Crown by 1520. The previous king, Ferdinand of Aragon, had granted permission for the ''Germanies'' to take up arms shortly before his death, but the Valencian nobles had mostly quashed this possibility, fearing the ''Germanies'' would gain po ...
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Company Of Merchant Adventurers To New Lands
The Company of Merchant Adventurers to New Lands was an early joint stock association, which began with private exploration and enterprise, and was to have been incorporated by King Edward VI in 1553, but received its full royal charter in 1555. It led to the commencement of English trade with Russia, Persia and elsewhere, and became known informally, and later formally, as the Muscovy Company. First phase The Company was formed in London in about 1551 by Richard Chancellor, Sebastian Cabot and Sir Hugh Willoughby. Some 240 ''adventurers'' (investors) purchased shares at £25 each and a royal charter was prepared for their company under King Edward in 1553, making Sebastian Cabot its Governor. However the King died before the charter could receive the Seal. The circumstances are described at the opening of the Charter of 1566: "divers very good Subiects of this Realme of England in the latter end of the reigne of the late right high and mightie prince our Soueraigne Lord king E ...
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Company Of Merchant Adventurers Of London
The Company of Merchant Adventurers of London was a trading company founded in the City of London in the early 15th century. It brought together leading merchants in a regulated company in the nature of a guild. Its members' main business was exporting cloth, especially white (undyed) broadcloth, in exchange for a large range of foreign goods. It traded in northern European ports, competing with the Hanseatic League. It came to focus on Hamburg. Origin The company received its royal charter from King Henry IV in 1407, but its roots may go back to the Fraternity of St. Thomas of Canterbury. It claimed to have liberties existing as early as 1216. The Duke of Brabant granted privileges and in return promised no fees to trading merchants. The company was chiefly chartered to the English merchants at Antwerp in 1305. This body may have included the Staplers, who exported raw wool, as well as the Merchant Adventurers. Henry IV's charter was in favor of the English merchants dwelli ...
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Chola
The Chola dynasty was a Tamil thalassocratic empire of southern India and one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the history of the world. The earliest datable references to the Chola are from inscriptions dated to the 3rd century BCE during the reign of Ashoka of the Maurya Empire. As one of the Three Crowned Kings of Tamilakam, along with the Chera and Pandya, the dynasty continued to govern over varying territories until the 13th century CE. The Chola Empire was at its peak under the Medieval Cholas in the mid-9th century CE. The heartland of the Cholas was the fertile valley of the Kaveri River. They ruled a significantly larger area at the height of their power from the later half of the 9th century till the beginning of the 13th century. They unified peninsular India south of the Tungabhadra River, and held the territory as one state for three centuries between 907 and 1215 CE. K. A. Nilakanta Sastri, ''A History of South India'', p 157 Under Rajaraja I and his ...
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Kanakalatha Mukund
Kanakalatha Mukund (''née'' Narasimhan) is an Indian historian. Her areas of research were the mercantile history of south India and the history of women's traditional rights and occupations. Life and career Kanakalatha Narasimhan was born to Janaki Narasimhan and C.V. Narasimhan. Her father was a member of the Indian Civil Service and an Under-Secretary-General of the United Nations. She has a sister, Hemalatha. She graduated from Barnard College, New York City, in the class of 1962. In 1964, she married Jagannathan Mukund. Kanakalatha Mukund has a PhD in economics. She worked at the University of Bombay, Bhopal University, and at the Centre for Economic and Social Studies, Hyderabad till retirement. Her areas of research were the mercantile history of south India and the history of women's traditional rights and occupations. In her research on mercantile networks in Madras Chennai (, ), formerly known as Madras ( the official name until 1996), is the capital city o ...
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Nagarathar
The Nagarathar (also known as Nattukottai Chettiar) is a Tamil caste found native in Tamil Nadu, India. They are a mercantile community who are traditionally involved in commerce, banking and money lending. They use the title Chettiar and are traditionally concentrated in modern region Chettinad. They have since the 19th century been prominent entrepreneurs who funded and built several Hindu temples, schools, colleges and universities. Etymology The term ''Nagarathar'' literally means "town-dweller". Their title, Chettiar, is a generic term used by several mercantile groups which is derived from the ancient Tamil term ''etti'' (bestowed on merchants by the Tamil monarchs). Nagarathars are also known as ''Nattukottai Chettiar''. The term ''Nattukottai'' literally means "country-fort" in reference to their fort-like mansions. History Nattukottai Nagarathars were originally from Naganadu. This ancient land Naganadu is believed to be destroyed (either in an earthquake or ...
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