Subcategory
In mathematics, specifically category theory, a subcategory of a category ''C'' is a category ''S'' whose objects are objects in ''C'' and whose morphisms are morphisms in ''C'' with the same identities and composition of morphisms. Intuitively, a subcategory of ''C'' is a category obtained from ''C'' by "removing" some of its objects and arrows. Formal definition Let ''C'' be a category. A subcategory ''S'' of ''C'' is given by *a subcollection of objects of ''C'', denoted ob(''S''), *a subcollection of morphisms of ''C'', denoted hom(''S''). such that *for every ''X'' in ob(''S''), the identity morphism id''X'' is in hom(''S''), *for every morphism ''f'' : ''X'' → ''Y'' in hom(''S''), both the source ''X'' and the target ''Y'' are in ob(''S''), *for every pair of morphisms ''f'' and ''g'' in hom(''S'') the composite ''f'' o ''g'' is in hom(''S'') whenever it is defined. These conditions ensure that ''S'' is a category in its own right: its collection of objects is ob(''S ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Embedding
In mathematics, an embedding (or imbedding) is one instance of some mathematical structure contained within another instance, such as a group that is a subgroup. When some object X is said to be embedded in another object Y, the embedding is given by some injective and structurepreserving map f:X\rightarrow Y. The precise meaning of "structurepreserving" depends on the kind of mathematical structure of which X and Y are instances. In the terminology of category theory, a structurepreserving map is called a morphism. The fact that a map f:X\rightarrow Y is an embedding is often indicated by the use of a "hooked arrow" (); thus: f : X \hookrightarrow Y. (On the other hand, this notation is sometimes reserved for inclusion maps.) Given X and Y, several different embeddings of X in Y may be possible. In many cases of interest there is a standard (or "canonical") embedding, like those of the natural numbers in the integers, the integers in the rational numbers, the rational n ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Yoneda Embedding
In mathematics, the Yoneda lemma is arguably the most important result in category theory. It is an abstract result on functors of the type ''morphisms into a fixed object''. It is a vast generalisation of Cayley's theorem from group theory (viewing a group as a miniature category with just one object and only isomorphisms). It allows the embedding of any locally small category into a category of functors (contravariant setvalued functors) defined on that category. It also clarifies how the embedded category, of representable functors and their natural transformations, relates to the other objects in the larger functor category. It is an important tool that underlies several modern developments in algebraic geometry and representation theory. It is named after Nobuo Yoneda. Generalities The Yoneda lemma suggests that instead of studying the locally small category \mathcal , one should study the category of all functors of \mathcal into \mathbf (the category of sets with f ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Vector Space
In mathematics and physics, a vector space (also called a linear space) is a set whose elements, often called ''vectors'', may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers called '' scalars''. Scalars are often real numbers, but can be complex numbers or, more generally, elements of any field. The operations of vector addition and scalar multiplication must satisfy certain requirements, called ''vector axioms''. The terms real vector space and complex vector space are often used to specify the nature of the scalars: real coordinate space or complex coordinate space. Vector spaces generalize Euclidean vectors, which allow modeling of physical quantities, such as forces and velocity, that have not only a magnitude, but also a direction. The concept of vector spaces is fundamental for linear algebra, together with the concept of matrix, which allows computing in vector spaces. This provides a concise and synthetic way for manipulating and studying systems of linear eq ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Abelian Category
In mathematics, an abelian category is a category in which morphisms and objects can be added and in which kernels and cokernels exist and have desirable properties. The motivating prototypical example of an abelian category is the category of abelian groups, Ab. The theory originated in an effort to unify several cohomology theories by Alexander Grothendieck and independently in the slightly earlier work of David Buchsbaum. Abelian categories are very ''stable'' categories; for example they are regular and they satisfy the snake lemma. The class of abelian categories is closed under several categorical constructions, for example, the category of chain complexes of an abelian category, or the category of functors from a small category to an abelian category are abelian as well. These stability properties make them inevitable in homological algebra and beyond; the theory has major applications in algebraic geometry, cohomology and pure category theory. Abelian categories are na ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Peter Freyd
Peter John Freyd (; born February 5, 1936) is an American mathematician, a professor at the University of Pennsylvania, known for work in category theory and for founding the False Memory Syndrome Foundation. Mathematics Freyd obtained his Ph.D. from Princeton University in 1960; his dissertation, on ''Functor Theory'', was written under the supervision of Norman Steenrod and David Buchsbaum. Freyd is best known for his adjoint functor theorem. He was the author of the foundational book ''Abelian Categories: An Introduction to the Theory of Functors'' (1964). This work culminates in a proof of the Freyd–Mitchell embedding theorem. In addition, Freyd's name is associated with the HOMFLYPT polynomial of knot theory, and he and Scedrov originated the concept of (mathematical) allegories. In 2012, he became a fellow of the American Mathematical Society. False Memory Syndrome Foundation Freyd and his wife Pamela founded the False Memory Syndrome Foundation in 1992, after ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Isomorphismclosed Subcategory
In category theory, a branch of mathematics, a subcategory \mathcal of a category \mathcal is said to be isomorphism closed or replete if every \mathcalisomorphism h:A\to B with A\in\mathcal belongs to \mathcal. This implies that both B and h^:B\to A belong to \mathcal as well. A subcategory that is isomorphism closed and full is called strictly full. In the case of full subcategories it is sufficient to check that every \mathcalobject that is isomorphic to an \mathcalobject is also an \mathcalobject. This condition is very natural. For example, in the category of topological spaces one usually studies properties that are invariant under homeomorphisms—socalled topological properties In topology and related areas of mathematics, a topological property or topological invariant is a property of a topological space that is invariant under homeomorphisms. Alternatively, a topological property is a proper class of topological space .... Every topological property correspon ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Equivalence Of Categories
In category theory, a branch of abstract mathematics, an equivalence of categories is a relation between two categories that establishes that these categories are "essentially the same". There are numerous examples of categorical equivalences from many areas of mathematics. Establishing an equivalence involves demonstrating strong similarities between the mathematical structures concerned. In some cases, these structures may appear to be unrelated at a superficial or intuitive level, making the notion fairly powerful: it creates the opportunity to "translate" theorems between different kinds of mathematical structures, knowing that the essential meaning of those theorems is preserved under the translation. If a category is equivalent to the opposite (or dual) of another category then one speaks of a duality of categories, and says that the two categories are dually equivalent. An equivalence of categories consists of a functor between the involved categories, which is required t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Isomorphism Of Categories
In category theory, two categories ''C'' and ''D'' are isomorphic if there exist functors ''F'' : ''C'' → ''D'' and ''G'' : ''D'' → ''C'' which are mutually inverse to each other, i.e. ''FG'' = 1''D'' (the identity functor on ''D'') and ''GF'' = 1''C''. This means that both the objects and the morphisms of ''C'' and ''D'' stand in a onetoone correspondence to each other. Two isomorphic categories share all properties that are defined solely in terms of category theory; for all practical purposes, they are identical and differ only in the notation of their objects and morphisms. Isomorphism of categories is a very strong condition and rarely satisfied in practice. Much more important is the notion of equivalence of categories; roughly speaking, for an equivalence of categories we don't require that FG be ''equal'' to 1_D, but only ''naturally isomorphic'' to 1_D, and likewise that GF be naturally isomorphic to 1_C. Properties As is true for any notion of isomorphism, we have ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Image (mathematics)
In mathematics, the image of a function is the set of all output values it may produce. More generally, evaluating a given function f at each element of a given subset A of its domain produces a set, called the "image of A under (or through) f". Similarly, the inverse image (or preimage) of a given subset B of the codomain of f, is the set of all elements of the domain that map to the members of B. Image and inverse image may also be defined for general binary relations, not just functions. Definition The word "image" is used in three related ways. In these definitions, f : X \to Y is a function from the set X to the set Y. Image of an element If x is a member of X, then the image of x under f, denoted f(x), is the value of f when applied to x. f(x) is alternatively known as the output of f for argument x. Given y, the function f is said to "" or "" if there exists some x in the function's domain such that f(x) = y. Similarly, given a set S, f is said to "" if there exi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Isomorphism
In mathematics, an isomorphism is a structurepreserving mapping between two structures of the same type that can be reversed by an inverse mapping. Two mathematical structures are isomorphic if an isomorphism exists between them. The word isomorphism is derived from the Ancient Greek: ἴσος ''isos'' "equal", and μορφή ''morphe'' "form" or "shape". The interest in isomorphisms lies in the fact that two isomorphic objects have the same properties (excluding further information such as additional structure or names of objects). Thus isomorphic structures cannot be distinguished from the point of view of structure only, and may be identified. In mathematical jargon, one says that two objects are . An automorphism is an isomorphism from a structure to itself. An isomorphism between two structures is a canonical isomorphism (a canonical map that is an isomorphism) if there is only one isomorphism between the two structures (as it is the case for solutions of a univer ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Full And Faithful Functor
In category theory, a faithful functor is a functor that is injective on homsets, and a full functor is surjective on homsets. A functor that has both properties is called a full and faithful functor. Formal definitions Explicitly, let ''C'' and ''D'' be (locally small) categories and let ''F'' : ''C'' → ''D'' be a functor from ''C'' to ''D''. The functor ''F'' induces a function :F_\colon\mathrm_(X,Y)\rightarrow\mathrm_(F(X),F(Y)) for every pair of objects ''X'' and ''Y'' in ''C''. The functor ''F'' is said to be *faithful if ''F''''X'',''Y'' is injectiveJacobson (2009), p. 22 *full if ''F''''X'',''Y'' is surjectiveMac Lane (1971), p. 14 *fully faithful (= full and faithful) if ''F''''X'',''Y'' is bijective for each ''X'' and ''Y'' in ''C''. A mnemonic for remembering the term "full" is that the image of the function fills the codomain; a mnemonic for remembering the term "faithful" is that you can trust (have faith) that F(X)=F(Y) implies X=Y. Properties A faithful functor ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 