Sturm's Theorem
In mathematics, the Sturm sequence of a univariate polynomial is a sequence of polynomials associated with and its derivative by a variant of Euclid's algorithm for polynomials. Sturm's theorem expresses the number of distinct real roots of located in an interval in terms of the number of changes of signs of the values of the Sturm sequence at the bounds of the interval. Applied to the interval of all the real numbers, it gives the total number of real roots of . Whereas the fundamental theorem of algebra readily yields the overall number of complex roots, counted with multiplicity, it does not provide a procedure for calculating them. Sturm's theorem counts the number of distinct real roots and locates them in intervals. By subdividing the intervals containing some roots, it can isolate the roots into arbitrarily small intervals, each containing exactly one root. This yields the oldest realroot isolation algorithm, and arbitraryprecision rootfinding algorithm for uni ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Jacques Charles François Sturm
Jacques Charles François Sturm (29 September 1803 – 15 December 1855) was a French mathematician. Life and work Sturm was born in Geneva (then part of France) in 1803. The family of his father, JeanHenri Sturm, had emigrated from Strasbourg around 1760—about 50 years before CharlesFrançois's birth. His mother's name was JeanneLouiseHenriette Gremay. In 1818, he started to follow the lectures of the academy of Geneva. In 1819, the death of his father forced Sturm to give lessons to children of the rich in order to support his own family. In 1823, he became tutor to the son of Madame de Staël. At the end of 1823, Sturm stayed in Paris for a short time following the family of his student. He resolved, with his schoolfellow JeanDaniel Colladon, to try his fortune in Paris, and obtained employment on the ''Bulletin universel''. In 1829, he discovered the theorem that bears his name, and concerns realroot isolation, that is the determination of the number and the loca ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Euclidean Algorithm For Polynomials
In algebra, the greatest common divisor (frequently abbreviated as GCD) of two polynomials is a polynomial, of the highest possible degree, that is a factor of both the two original polynomials. This concept is analogous to the greatest common divisor of two integers. In the important case of univariate polynomials over a field the polynomial GCD may be computed, like for the integer GCD, by the Euclidean algorithm using long division. The polynomial GCD is defined only up to the multiplication by an invertible constant. The similarity between the integer GCD and the polynomial GCD allows extending to univariate polynomials all the properties that may be deduced from the Euclidean algorithm and Euclidean division. Moreover, the polynomial GCD has specific properties that make it a fundamental notion in various areas of algebra. Typically, the roots of the GCD of two polynomials are the common roots of the two polynomials, and this provides information on the roots without comput ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Polynomial Greatest Common Divisor
In algebra, the greatest common divisor (frequently abbreviated as GCD) of two polynomials is a polynomial, of the highest possible degree, that is a factor of both the two original polynomials. This concept is analogous to the greatest common divisor of two integers. In the important case of univariate polynomials over a field the polynomial GCD may be computed, like for the integer GCD, by the Euclidean algorithm using long division. The polynomial GCD is defined only up to the multiplication by an invertible constant. The similarity between the integer GCD and the polynomial GCD allows extending to univariate polynomials all the properties that may be deduced from the Euclidean algorithm and Euclidean division. Moreover, the polynomial GCD has specific properties that make it a fundamental notion in various areas of algebra. Typically, the roots of the GCD of two polynomials are the common roots of the two polynomials, and this provides information on the roots without compu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Pseudoremainder
In algebra, the greatest common divisor (frequently abbreviated as GCD) of two polynomials is a polynomial, of the highest possible degree, that is a factor of both the two original polynomials. This concept is analogous to the greatest common divisor of two integers. In the important case of univariate polynomials over a field the polynomial GCD may be computed, like for the integer GCD, by the Euclidean algorithm using long division. The polynomial GCD is defined only up to the multiplication by an invertible constant. The similarity between the integer GCD and the polynomial GCD allows extending to univariate polynomials all the properties that may be deduced from the Euclidean algorithm and Euclidean division. Moreover, the polynomial GCD has specific properties that make it a fundamental notion in various areas of algebra. Typically, the roots of the GCD of two polynomials are the common roots of the two polynomials, and this provides information on the roots without comput ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Rational Number
In mathematics, a rational number is a number that can be expressed as the quotient or fraction of two integers, a numerator and a nonzero denominator . For example, is a rational number, as is every integer (e.g. ). The set of all rational numbers, also referred to as "the rationals", the field of rationals or the field of rational numbers is usually denoted by boldface , or blackboard bold \mathbb. A rational number is a real number. The real numbers that are rational are those whose decimal expansion either terminates after a finite number of digits (example: ), or eventually begins to repeat the same finite sequence of digits over and over (example: ). This statement is true not only in base 10, but also in every other integer base, such as the binary and hexadecimal ones (see ). A real number that is not rational is called irrational. Irrational numbers include , , , and . Since the set of rational numbers is countable, and the set of real numbers is uncou ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Computer Algebra
In mathematics and computer science, computer algebra, also called symbolic computation or algebraic computation, is a scientific area that refers to the study and development of algorithms and software for manipulating mathematical expressions and other mathematical objects. Although computer algebra could be considered a subfield of scientific computing, they are generally considered as distinct fields because scientific computing is usually based on numerical computation with approximate floating point numbers, while symbolic computation emphasizes ''exact'' computation with expressions containing variables that have no given value and are manipulated as symbols. Software applications that perform symbolic calculations are called ''computer algebra systems'', with the term ''system'' alluding to the complexity of the main applications that include, at least, a method to represent mathematical data in a computer, a user programming language (usually different from the lang ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Quadratic Formula
In elementary algebra, the quadratic formula is a formula that provides the solution(s) to a quadratic equation. There are other ways of solving a quadratic equation instead of using the quadratic formula, such as factoring (direct factoring, grouping, AC method), completing the square, graphing and others. Given a general quadratic equation of the form :ax^2+bx+c=0 with representing an unknown, with , and representing constants, and with , the quadratic formula is: :x = \frac where the plus–minus symbol "±" indicates that the quadratic equation has two solutions. Written separately, they become: : x_1=\frac\quad\text\quad x_2=\frac Each of these two solutions is also called a root (or zero) of the quadratic equation. Geometrically, these roots represent the values at which ''any'' parabola, explicitly given as , crosses the axis. As well as being a formula that yields the zeros of any parabola, the quadratic formula can also be used to identify the axis of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Euclidean Division
In arithmetic, Euclidean division – or division with remainder – is the process of dividing one integer (the dividend) by another (the divisor), in a way that produces an integer quotient and a natural number remainder strictly smaller than the absolute value of the divisor. A fundamental property is that the quotient and the remainder exist and are unique, under some conditions. Because of this uniqueness, ''Euclidean division'' is often considered without referring to any method of computation, and without explicitly computing the quotient and the remainder. The methods of computation are called integer division algorithms, the best known of which being long division. Euclidean division, and algorithms to compute it, are fundamental for many questions concerning integers, such as the Euclidean algorithm for finding the greatest common divisor of two integers, and modular arithmetic, for which only remainders are considered. The operation consisting of computing only ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Leading Coefficient
In mathematics, a coefficient is a multiplicative factor in some term of a polynomial, a series, or an expression; it is usually a number, but may be any expression (including variables such as , and ). When the coefficients are themselves variables, they may also be called parameters. For example, the polynomial 2x^2x+3 has coefficients 2, −1, and 3, and the powers of the variable x in the polynomial ax^2+bx+c have coefficient parameters a, b, and c. The constant coefficient is the coefficient not attached to variables in an expression. For example, the constant coefficients of the expressions above are the number 3 and the parameter ''c'', respectively. The coefficient attached to the highest degree of the variable in a polynomial is referred to as the leading coefficient. For example, in the expressions above, the leading coefficients are 2 and ''a'', respectively. Terminology and definition In mathematics, a coefficient is a multiplicative factor in some term of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Halfopen Interval
In mathematics, a (real) interval is a set of real numbers that contains all real numbers lying between any two numbers of the set. For example, the set of numbers satisfying is an interval which contains , , and all numbers in between. Other examples of intervals are the set of numbers such that , the set of all real numbers \R, the set of nonnegative real numbers, the set of positive real numbers, the empty set, and any singleton (set of one element). Real intervals play an important role in the theory of integration, because they are the simplest sets whose "length" (or "measure" or "size") is easy to define. The concept of measure can then be extended to more complicated sets of real numbers, leading to the Borel measure and eventually to the Lebesgue measure. Intervals are central to interval arithmetic, a general numerical computing technique that automatically provides guaranteed enclosures for arbitrary formulas, even in the presence of uncertainties, mathematical ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Squarefree Polynomial
In mathematics, a squarefree polynomial is a polynomial defined over a field (or more generally, an integral domain) that does not have as a divisor any square of a nonconstant polynomial. A univariate polynomial is square free if and only if it has no multiple root in an algebraically closed field containing its coefficients. This motivates that, in applications in physics and engineering, a squarefree polynomial is commonly called a polynomial with no repeated roots. In the case of univariate polynomials, the product rule implies that, if divides , then divides the formal derivative of . The converse is also true and hence, f is squarefree if and only if 1 is a greatest common divisor of the polynomial and its derivative. A squarefree decomposition or squarefree factorization of a polynomial is a factorization into powers of squarefree polynomials : f = a_1 a_2^2 a_3^3 \cdots a_n^n =\prod_^n a_k^k\, where those of the that are nonconstant are pairwise coprime squar ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 