Retained Profit
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Retained Profit
The retained earnings (also known as plowback) of a corporation is the accumulated net income of the corporation that is retained by the corporation at a particular point of time, such as at the end of the reporting period. At the end of that period, the net income (or net loss) at that point is transferred from the Profit and Loss Account to the retained earnings account. If the balance of the retained earnings account is negative it may be called accumulated losses, retained losses or accumulated deficit, or similar terminology. Any part of a credit balance in the account can be capitalised, by the issue of bonus shares, and the balance is available for distribution of dividends to shareholders, and the residue is carried forward into the next period. Some laws, including those of most states in the United States require that dividends be only paid out of the positive balance of the retained earnings account at the time that payment is to be made. This protects creditors from ...
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Corporation
A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the state to act as a single entity (a legal entity recognized by private and public law "born out of statute"; a legal person in legal context) and recognized as such in law for certain purposes. Early incorporated entities were established by charter (i.e. by an ''ad hoc'' act granted by a monarch or passed by a parliament or legislature). Most jurisdictions now allow the creation of new corporations through registration. Corporations come in many different types but are usually divided by the law of the jurisdiction where they are chartered based on two aspects: by whether they can issue stock, or by whether they are formed to make a profit. Depending on the number of owners, a corporation can be classified as ''aggregate'' (the subject of this article) or '' sole'' (a legal entity consisting of a single incorporated office occupied by a single natural person). One of the most at ...
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Liability (financial Accounting)
In financial accounting, a liability is defined as the future sacrifices of economic benefits that the entity is ''obliged'' to make to other entities as a result of past transactions or other ''past'' events, the settlement of which may result in the transfer or use of assets, provision of services or other yielding of economic benefits in the future. Characteristics A liability is defined by the following characteristics: * Any type of borrowing from persons or banks for improving a business or personal income that is payable during short or long time; * A duty or responsibility to others that entails settlement by future transfer or use of assets, provision of services, or other transaction yielding an economic benefit, at a specified or determinable date, on occurrence of a specified event, or on demand; * A duty or responsibility that obligates the entity to another, leaving it little or no discretion to avoid settlement; and, * A transaction or event obligating the entity t ...
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Profit
Profit may refer to: Business and law * Profit (accounting), the difference between the purchase price and the costs of bringing to market * Profit (economics), normal profit and economic profit * Profit (real property), a nonpossessory interest in land * Account of profits, a type of equitable remedy in law (also known as an accounting) Arts, entertainment, and media * ''Profit'' (magazine), a Canadian business magazine aimed at entrepreneurs * ''Profit'' (TV series), an American TV series starring Adrian Pasdar People * Joe Profit (born 1959), former American football player * Laron Profit (born 1977), professional basketball player * Richard Profit (born 1974), English mountaineer and adventurer * Park "Profit" Joon-yeong, professional ''Overwatch'' player Places * Profit, United States Virgin Islands See also * Prophet (other) A prophet is a person who is believed to speak through divine inspiration. Prophet or The Prophet may also refer to: People ...
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Reserve (accounting)
In financial accounting, reserve always has a credit balance and can refer to a part of shareholders' equity, a liability for estimated claims, or contra-asset for uncollectible accounts. A reserve can appear in any part of shareholders' equity except for contributed or basic share capital. In nonprofit accounting, an "operating reserve" is the unrestricted cash on hand available to sustain an organization, and nonprofit boards usually specify a target of maintaining several months of operating cash or a percentage of their annual income, called an Operating Reserve Ratio. There are different types of reserves used in financial accounting like capital reserves, revenue reserves, statutory reserves, realized reserves, unrealized reserves. Equity ''reserves'' are created from several possible sources: * Reserves created from shareholders' contributions, the most common examples of which are: :*''legal reserve fund'' - it is required in many legislations and it must be paid as a p ...
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Liquidating Dividend
A liquidating distribution (or liquidating dividend) is a type of nondividend distribution made by a corporation or a partnership to its shareholders during its partial or complete liquidation. Liquidating distributions are not paid solely out of the profits of the corporation. Instead, the entire amount of shareholders' equity is distributed. When a company has more liabilities than assets, equity is negative and no liquidating distribution is made at all. This is usually the case in bankruptcy liquidations. Creditors are always senior to shareholders in receiving the corporation's assets upon winding up. However, in case all debts to creditors have been fully satisfied, there is a surplus left to divide among equity-holders. This mainly occurs during voluntary liquidations of solvent corporations. Cases A dividend may be referred to as liquidating dividend when a company: # Goes out of business and the net assets of the company (after all liabilities have been paid) are distribute ...
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Dividend Payout Ratio
The dividend payout ratio is the fraction of net income a firm pays to its stockholders in dividends: :\mbox=\frac The part of earnings not paid to investors is left for investment to provide for future earnings growth. Investors seeking high current income and limited capital growth prefer companies with a high dividend payout ratio. However, investors seeking capital growth may prefer a lower payout ratio because capital gains are taxed at a lower rate. High growth firms in early life generally have low or zero payout ratios. As they mature, they tend to return more of the earnings back to investors. The dividend payout ratio is calculated as DPS/ EPS. According to Financial Accounting by Walter T. Harrison, the calculation for the payout ratio is as follows: :Payout Ratio = (Dividends - Preferred Stock Dividends)/Net Income The dividend yield is given by earnings yield times the dividend payout ratio: : \begin \mbox & = & \frac \\ & = & \frac \\ \end C ...
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Dividend Cover
Dividend cover, also commonly known as dividend coverage, is the ratio of company's earnings (net income) over the dividend paid to shareholders, calculated as net profit or loss attributable to ordinary shareholders by total ordinary dividend. So, if a company has net profit after tax of 2400 divided by total ordinary dividend of 1000, then dividend cover is 2.4. The dividend cover formula is the inverse of the dividend payout ratio. Generally, a dividend cover of 2 or more is considered a safe coverage, as it allows the company to safely pay out dividends and still allow for reinvestment or the possibility of a downturn. A low dividend cover can make it impossible to pay the same level of dividends in a bad year's trading or to invest in company growth. A negative dividend cover is both unusual and a clear sign that the company is in trouble. The higher the cover, the more unlikely it is that the dividend will fall the following year. See also * Liquidating dividend * Special divi ...
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Dividend Tax
A dividend tax is a tax imposed by a jurisdiction on dividends paid by a corporation to its shareholders (stockholders). The primary tax liability is that of the shareholder, though a tax obligation may also be imposed on the corporation in the form of a withholding tax. In some cases the withholding tax may be the extent of the tax liability in relation to the dividend. A dividend tax is in addition to any tax imposed directly on the corporation on its profits. Some jurisdictions do not tax dividends. To avoid a dividend tax being levied, a corporation may distribute surplus funds to shareholders by way of a share buy-back. These, however, are normally treated as capital gains, but may offer tax benefits when the tax rate on capital gains is lower than the tax rate on dividends. Another potential strategy is to for a corporation not to distribute surplus funds to shareholders, who benefit from an increase in the value of their shareholding. These may also be subject to capita ...
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Capital Gains Tax
A capital gains tax (CGT) is the tax on profits realized on the sale of a non-inventory asset. The most common capital gains are realized from the sale of stocks, bonds, precious metals, real estate, and property. Not all countries impose a capital gains tax and most have different rates of taxation for individuals versus corporations. Countries that do not impose a capital gains tax include Bahrain, Barbados, Belize, Cayman Islands, Isle of Man, Jamaica, New Zealand, Sri Lanka, Singapore, and others. In some countries, such as New Zealand and Singapore, professional traders and those who trade frequently are taxed on such profits as a business income. In Sweden, the Investment Savings Account (ISK – ''Investeringssparkonto'') was introduced in 2012 in response to a decision by Parliament to stimulate saving in funds and equities. There is no tax on capital gains in ISKs; instead, the saver pays an annual standard low rate of tax. Fund savers nowadays mainly choose to save in ...
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Undistributed Profits Tax
The undistributed profits tax was enacted in 1936 by the United States administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR), during the Great Depression. The UP tax was a revenue program for FDR's New Deal. The act was controversial even within FDR's United States Treasury Department, as some economists such as Alfred G. Buehler thought that it would harm the ability of business to put capital towards company growth. In particular, Buehler reasoned that the UP tax would hit small business especially hard, as smaller businesses have fewer options in raising capital than large ones, usually by keeping a percentage of their profits for re-investment back into the business. The UP Tax was part of FDR's "Second New Deal The Second New Deal is a term used by historians to characterize the second stage, 1935–36, of the New Deal programs of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The most famous laws included the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act, the Banking Act, the ...". The bill e ...
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Tax Avoidance
Tax avoidance is the legal usage of the tax regime in a single territory to one's own advantage to reduce the amount of tax that is payable by means that are within the law. A tax shelter is one type of tax avoidance, and tax havens are jurisdictions that facilitate reduced taxes. Tax avoidance should not be confused with tax evasion, which is illegal. Forms of tax avoidance that use legal tax laws in ways not necessarily intended by the government are often criticized in the court of public opinion and by journalists. Many corporations and businesses that take part in the practice experience a backlash from their active customers or online. Conversely, benefiting from tax laws in ways that were intended by governments is sometimes referred to as tax planning. The World Bank's World Development Report 2019 on the future of work supports increased government efforts to curb tax avoidance as part of a new social contract focused on human capital investments and expanded so ...
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Insolvency
In accounting, insolvency is the state of being unable to pay the debts, by a person or company ( debtor), at maturity; those in a state of insolvency are said to be ''insolvent''. There are two forms: cash-flow insolvency and balance-sheet insolvency. Cash-flow insolvency is when a person or company has enough assets to pay what is owed, but does not have the appropriate form of payment. For example, a person may own a large house and a valuable car, but not have enough liquid assets to pay a debt when it falls due. Cash-flow insolvency can usually be resolved by negotiation. For example, the bill collector may wait until the car is sold and the debtor agrees to pay a penalty. Balance-sheet insolvency is when a person or company does not have enough assets to pay all of their debts. The person or company might enter bankruptcy, but not necessarily. Once a loss is accepted by all parties, negotiation is often able to resolve the situation without bankruptcy. A compa ...
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