Local Zetafunction
In number theory, the local zeta function (sometimes called the congruent zeta function or the Hasse–Weil zeta function) is defined as :Z(V, s) = \exp\left(\sum_^\infty \frac (q^)^m\right) where is a nonsingular dimensional projective algebraic variety over the field with elements and is the number of points of defined over the finite field extension of . Making the variable transformation gives : \mathit (V,u) = \exp \left( \sum_^ N_m \frac \right) as the formal power series in the variable u. Equivalently, the local zeta function is sometimes defined as follows: : (1)\ \ \mathit (V,0) = 1 \, : (2)\ \ \frac \log \mathit (V,u) = \sum_^ N_m u^\ . In other words, the local zeta function with coefficients in the finite field is defined as a function whose logarithmic derivative generates the number of solutions of the equation defining in the degree extension Formulation Given a finite field ''F'', there is, up to isomorphism, only one field ''Fk'' with : ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Number Theory
Number theory (or arithmetic or higher arithmetic in older usage) is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers and integervalued functions. German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855) said, "Mathematics is the queen of the sciences—and number theory is the queen of mathematics."German original: "Die Mathematik ist die Königin der Wissenschaften, und die Arithmetik ist die Königin der Mathematik." Number theorists study prime numbers as well as the properties of mathematical objects made out of integers (for example, rational numbers) or defined as generalizations of the integers (for example, algebraic integers). Integers can be considered either in themselves or as solutions to equations (Diophantine geometry). Questions in number theory are often best understood through the study of analytical objects (for example, the Riemann zeta function) that encode properties of the integers, primes or other numbertheoretic objects in ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Daniel Bump
Daniel Willis Bump (born 13 May 1952) is a mathematician who is a professor at Stanford University. He is a fellow of the American Mathematical Society since 2015, for "contributions to number theory, representation theory, combinatorics, and random matrix theory, as well as mathematical exposition". He has a Bachelor of Arts from Reed College, where he graduated in 1974. He obtained his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1982 under the supervision of Walter Lewis Baily, Jr. Among Bump's doctoral students is president of the National Association of Mathematicians Edray Goins. Selected publications Articles * Bump, D., Friedberg, S., & Hoffstein, J. (1990)"Nonvanishing theorems for Lfunctions of modular forms and their derivatives" '' Inventiones Mathematicae'', 102(1), pp. 543–618. * Bump, D., & Ginzburg, D. (1992). "Symmetric square Lfunctions on GL(''r'')". ''Annals of Mathematics'', 136(1), pp. 137–205. * Bump, D., Friedberg, S., & Hoffstein, J. (199 ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

André Weil
André Weil (; ; 6 May 1906 – 6 August 1998) was a French mathematician, known for his foundational work in number theory and algebraic geometry. He was a founding member and the ''de facto'' early leader of the mathematical Bourbaki group. The philosopher Simone Weil was his sister. The writer Sylvie Weil is his daughter. Life André Weil was born in Paris to agnostic Alsatian Jewish parents who fled the annexation of AlsaceLorraine by the German Empire after the FrancoPrussian War in 1870–71. Simone Weil, who would later become a famous philosopher, was Weil's younger sister and only sibling. He studied in Paris, Rome and Göttingen and received his doctorate in 1928. While in Germany, Weil befriended Carl Ludwig Siegel. Starting in 1930, he spent two academic years at Aligarh Muslim University in India. Aside from mathematics, Weil held lifelong interests in classical Greek and Latin literature, in Hinduism and Sanskrit literature: he had taught himself Sanskrit in ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Hasse's Theorem On Elliptic Curves
Hasse's theorem on elliptic curves, also referred to as the Hasse bound, provides an estimate of the number of points on an elliptic curve over a finite field, bounding the value both above and below. If ''N'' is the number of points on the elliptic curve ''E'' over a finite field with ''q'' elements, then Hasse's result states that :, N  (q+1), \le 2 \sqrt. The reason is that ''N'' differs from ''q'' + 1, the number of points of the projective line over the same field, by an 'error term' that is the sum of two complex numbers, each of absolute value . This result had originally been conjectured by Emil Artin in his thesis. It was proven by Hasse in 1933, with the proof published in a series of papers in 1936. Hasse's theorem is equivalent to the determination of the absolute value of the roots of the local zetafunction of ''E''. In this form it can be seen to be the analogue of the Riemann hypothesis for the function field associated with the elliptic curve. HasseWei ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Genus (mathematics)
In mathematics, genus (plural genera) has a few different, but closely related, meanings. Intuitively, the genus is the number of "holes" of a surface. A sphere has genus 0, while a torus has genus 1. Topology Orientable surfaces The genus of a connected, orientable surface is an integer representing the maximum number of cuttings along nonintersecting closed simple curves without rendering the resultant manifold disconnected. It is equal to the number of handles on it. Alternatively, it can be defined in terms of the Euler characteristic ''χ'', via the relationship ''χ'' = 2 − 2''g'' for closed surfaces, where ''g'' is the genus. For surfaces with ''b'' boundary components, the equation reads ''χ'' = 2 − 2''g'' − ''b''. In layman's terms, it's the number of "holes" an object has ("holes" interpreted in the sense of doughnut holes; a hollow sphere would be considered as having zero holes in this sense). A torus has 1 such ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Dirichlet Series
In mathematics, a Dirichlet series is any series of the form \sum_^\infty \frac, where ''s'' is complex, and a_n is a complex sequence. It is a special case of general Dirichlet series. Dirichlet series play a variety of important roles in analytic number theory. The most usually seen definition of the Riemann zeta function is a Dirichlet series, as are the Dirichlet Lfunctions. It is conjectured that the Selberg class of series obeys the generalized Riemann hypothesis. The series is named in honor of Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet. Combinatorial importance Dirichlet series can be used as generating series for counting weighted sets of objects with respect to a weight which is combined multiplicatively when taking Cartesian products. Suppose that ''A'' is a set with a function ''w'': ''A'' → N assigning a weight to each of the elements of ''A'', and suppose additionally that the fibre over any natural number under that weight is a finite set. (We call such an arrangement ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Prime Number
A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that is not a product of two smaller natural numbers. A natural number greater than 1 that is not prime is called a composite number. For example, 5 is prime because the only ways of writing it as a product, or , involve 5 itself. However, 4 is composite because it is a product (2 × 2) in which both numbers are smaller than 4. Primes are central in number theory because of the fundamental theorem of arithmetic: every natural number greater than 1 is either a prime itself or can be factorized as a product of primes that is unique up to their order. The property of being prime is called primality. A simple but slow method of checking the primality of a given number n, called trial division, tests whether n is a multiple of any integer between 2 and \sqrt. Faster algorithms include the Miller–Rabin primality test, which is fast but has a small chance of error, and the AKS primality test, which always pr ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Rational Function
In mathematics, a rational function is any function that can be defined by a rational fraction, which is an algebraic fraction such that both the numerator and the denominator are polynomials. The coefficients of the polynomials need not be rational numbers; they may be taken in any field ''K''. In this case, one speaks of a rational function and a rational fraction ''over K''. The values of the variables may be taken in any field ''L'' containing ''K''. Then the domain of the function is the set of the values of the variables for which the denominator is not zero, and the codomain is ''L''. The set of rational functions over a field ''K'' is a field, the field of fractions of the ring of the polynomial functions over ''K''. Definitions A function f(x) is called a rational function if and only if it can be written in the form : f(x) = \frac where P\, and Q\, are polynomial functions of x\, and Q\, is not the zero function. The domain of f\, is the set of all values of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Robin Hartshorne
__NOTOC__ Robin Cope Hartshorne ( ; born March 15, 1938) is an American mathematician who is known for his work in algebraic geometry. Career Hartshorne was a Putnam Fellow in Fall 1958 while he was an undergraduate at Harvard University (under the name Robert C. Hartshorne). He received a Ph.D. in mathematics from Princeton University in 1963 after completing a doctoral dissertation titled ''Connectedness of the Hilbert scheme'' under the supervision of John Coleman Moore and Oscar Zariski. He then became a Junior Fellow at Harvard University, where he taught for several years. In 1972, he was appointed to the faculty at the University of California, Berkeley, where he is a Professor Emeritus as of 2020. Hartshorne is the author of the text ''Algebraic Geometry''. Awards In 1979, Hartshorne was awarded the Leroy P. Steele Prize for "his expository research article Equivalence relations on algebraic cycles and subvarieties of small codimension, Proceedings of Symposia in Pure M ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Barry Mazur
Barry Charles Mazur (; born December 19, 1937) is an American mathematician and the Gerhard Gade University Professor at Harvard University. His contributions to mathematics include his contributions to Wiles's proof of Fermat's Last Theorem in number theory, Mazur's torsion theorem in arithmetic geometry, the Mazur swindle in geometric topology, and the Mazur manifold in differential topology. Life Born in New York City, Mazur attended the Bronx High School of Science and MIT, although he did not graduate from the latter on account of failing a thenpresent ROTC requirement. He was nonetheless accepted for graduate studies at Princeton University, from where he received his PhD in mathematics in 1959 after completing a doctoral dissertation titled "On embeddings of spheres." He then became a Junior Fellow at Harvard University from 1961 to 1964. He is the Gerhard Gade University Professor and a Senior Fellow at Harvard. He is the brother of Joseph Mazur and the father of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cyclotomy
In mathematics, a root of unity, occasionally called a de Moivre number, is any complex number that yields 1 when raised to some positive integer power . Roots of unity are used in many branches of mathematics, and are especially important in number theory, the theory of group characters, and the discrete Fourier transform. Roots of unity can be defined in any field. If the characteristic of the field is zero, the roots are complex numbers that are also algebraic integers. For fields with a positive characteristic, the roots belong to a finite field, and, conversely, every nonzero element of a finite field is a root of unity. Any algebraically closed field contains exactly th roots of unity, except when is a multiple of the (positive) characteristic of the field. General definition An ''th root of unity'', where is a positive integer, is a number satisfying the equation :z^n = 1. Unless otherwise specified, the roots of unity may be taken to be complex numbers (in ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Complex Multiplication
In mathematics, complex multiplication (CM) is the theory of elliptic curves ''E'' that have an endomorphism ring larger than the integers. Put another way, it contains the theory of elliptic functions with extra symmetries, such as are visible when the period lattice is the Gaussian integer lattice or Eisenstein integer lattice. It has an aspect belonging to the theory of special functions, because such elliptic functions, or abelian functions of several complex variables, are then 'very special' functions satisfying extra identities and taking explicitly calculable special values at particular points. It has also turned out to be a central theme in algebraic number theory, allowing some features of the theory of cyclotomic fields to be carried over to wider areas of application. David Hilbert is said to have remarked that the theory of complex multiplication of elliptic curves was not only the most beautiful part of mathematics but of all science. There is also the higherd ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 