Local Ring
In abstract algebra, more specifically ring theory, local rings are certain rings that are comparatively simple, and serve to describe what is called "local behaviour", in the sense of functions defined on varieties or manifolds, or of algebraic number fields examined at a particular place, or prime. Local algebra is the branch of commutative algebra that studies commutative local rings and their modules. In practice, a commutative local ring often arises as the result of the localization of a ring at a prime ideal. The concept of local rings was introduced by Wolfgang Krull in 1938 under the name ''Stellenringe''. The English term ''local ring'' is due to Zariski. Definition and first consequences A ring ''R'' is a local ring if it has any one of the following equivalent properties: * ''R'' has a unique maximal left ideal. * ''R'' has a unique maximal right ideal. * 1 ≠ 0 and the sum of any two nonunits in ''R'' is a nonunit. * 1 ≠ 0 and if ''x'' is any element o ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Abstract Algebra
In mathematics, more specifically algebra, abstract algebra or modern algebra is the study of algebraic structures. Algebraic structures include groups, rings, fields, modules, vector spaces, lattices, and algebras over a field. The term ''abstract algebra'' was coined in the early 20th century to distinguish this area of study from older parts of algebra, and more specifically from elementary algebra, the use of variables to represent numbers in computation and reasoning. Algebraic structures, with their associated homomorphisms, form mathematical categories. Category theory is a formalism that allows a unified way for expressing properties and constructions that are similar for various structures. Universal algebra is a related subject that studies types of algebraic structures as single objects. For example, the structure of groups is a single object in universal algebra, which is called the ''variety of groups''. History Before the nineteenth century, algebra mea ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Coprime
In mathematics, two integers and are coprime, relatively prime or mutually prime if the only positive integer that is a divisor of both of them is 1. Consequently, any prime number that divides does not divide , and vice versa. This is equivalent to their greatest common divisor (GCD) being 1. One says also '' is prime to '' or '' is coprime with ''. The numbers 8 and 9 are coprime, despite the fact that neither considered individually is a prime number, since 1 is their only common divisor. On the other hand, 6 and 9 are not coprime, because they are both divisible by 3. The numerator and denominator of a reduced fraction are coprime, by definition. Notation and testing Standard notations for relatively prime integers and are: and . In their 1989 textbook ''Concrete Mathematics'', Ronald Graham, Donald Knuth, and Oren Patashnik proposed that the notation a\perp b be used to indicate that and are relatively prime and that the term "prime" be used instead of coprime (a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Geometric Series
In mathematics, a geometric series is the sum of an infinite number of terms that have a constant ratio between successive terms. For example, the series :\frac \,+\, \frac \,+\, \frac \,+\, \frac \,+\, \cdots is geometric, because each successive term can be obtained by multiplying the previous term by 1/2. In general, a geometric series is written as a + ar + ar^2 + ar^3 + ..., where a is the coefficient of each term and r is the common ratio between adjacent terms. The geometric series had an important role in the early development of calculus, is used throughout mathematics, and can serve as an introduction to frequently used mathematical tools such as the Taylor series, the complex Fourier series, and the matrix exponential. The name geometric series indicates each term is the geometric mean of its two neighboring terms, similar to how the name arithmetic series indicates each term is the arithmetic mean of its two neighboring terms. The sequence of geometric ser ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Quotient Ring
In ring theory, a branch of abstract algebra, a quotient ring, also known as factor ring, difference ring or residue class ring, is a construction quite similar to the quotient group in group theory and to the quotient space in linear algebra. It is a specific example of a quotient, as viewed from the general setting of universal algebra. Starting with a ring and a twosided ideal in , a new ring, the quotient ring , is constructed, whose elements are the cosets of in subject to special and operations. (Only the fraction slash "/" is used in quotient ring notation, not a horizontal fraction bar.) Quotient rings are distinct from the socalled "quotient field", or field of fractions, of an integral domain as well as from the more general "rings of quotients" obtained by localization. Formal quotient ring construction Given a ring and a twosided ideal in , we may define an equivalence relation on as follows: : if and only if is in . Using the ideal properties, it is ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Dual Numbers
In algebra, the dual numbers are a hypercomplex number system first introduced in the 19th century. They are expressions of the form , where and are real numbers, and is a symbol taken to satisfy \varepsilon^2 = 0 with \varepsilon\neq 0. Dual numbers can be added componentwise, and multiplied by the formula : (a+b\varepsilon)(c+d\varepsilon) = ac + (ad+bc)\varepsilon, which follows from the property and the fact that multiplication is a bilinear operation. The dual numbers form a commutative algebra of dimension two over the reals, and also an Artinian local ring. They are one of the simplest examples of a ring that has nonzero nilpotent elements. History Dual numbers were introduced in 1873 by William Clifford, and were used at the beginning of the twentieth century by the German mathematician Eduard Study, who used them to represent the dual angle which measures the relative position of two skew lines in space. Study defined a dual angle as , where is the angle b ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Constant Term
In mathematics, a constant term is a term in an algebraic expression that does not contain any variables and therefore is constant. For example, in the quadratic polynomial :x^2 + 2x + 3,\ the 3 is a constant term. After like terms are combined, an algebraic expression will have at most one constant term. Thus, it is common to speak of the quadratic polynomial :ax^2+bx+c,\ where x is the variable, as having a constant term of c. If the constant term is 0, then it will conventionally be omitted when the quadratic is written out. Any polynomial written in standard form has a unique constant term, which can be considered a coefficient of x^0. In particular, the constant term will always be the lowest degree term of the polynomial. This also applies to multivariate polynomials. For example, the polynomial :x^2+2xy+y^22x+2y4\ has a constant term of −4, which can be considered to be the coefficient of x^0y^0, where the variables are eliminated by being exponentiated ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Formal Power Series
In mathematics, a formal series is an infinite sum that is considered independently from any notion of convergence, and can be manipulated with the usual algebraic operations on series (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, partial sums, etc.). A formal power series is a special kind of formal series, whose terms are of the form a x^n where x^n is the nth power of a variable x (n is a nonnegative integer), and a is called the coefficient. Hence, power series can be viewed as a generalization of polynomials, where the number of terms is allowed to be infinite, with no requirements of convergence. Thus, the series may no longer represent a function of its variable, merely a formal sequence of coefficients, in contrast to a power series, which defines a function by taking numerical values for the variable within a radius of convergence. In a formal power series, the x^n are used only as positionholders for the coefficients, so that the coefficient of x^5 is the fifth te ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Principal Ideal Domain
In mathematics, a principal ideal domain, or PID, is an integral domain in which every ideal is principal, i.e., can be generated by a single element. More generally, a principal ideal ring is a nonzero commutative ring whose ideals are principal, although some authors (e.g., Bourbaki) refer to PIDs as principal rings. The distinction is that a principal ideal ring may have zero divisors whereas a principal ideal domain cannot. Principal ideal domains are thus mathematical objects that behave somewhat like the integers, with respect to divisibility: any element of a PID has a unique decomposition into prime elements (so an analogue of the fundamental theorem of arithmetic holds); any two elements of a PID have a greatest common divisor (although it may not be possible to find it using the Euclidean algorithm). If and are elements of a PID without common divisors, then every element of the PID can be written in the form . Principal ideal domains are noetherian, they are int ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Discrete Valuation Ring
In abstract algebra, a discrete valuation ring (DVR) is a principal ideal domain (PID) with exactly one nonzero maximal ideal. This means a DVR is an integral domain ''R'' which satisfies any one of the following equivalent conditions: # ''R'' is a local principal ideal domain, and not a field. # ''R'' is a valuation ring with a value group isomorphic to the integers under addition. # ''R'' is a local Dedekind domain and not a field. # ''R'' is a Noetherian local domain whose maximal ideal is principal, and not a field.https://mathoverflow.net/a/155639/114772 # ''R'' is an integrally closed Noetherian local ring with Krull dimension one. # ''R'' is a principal ideal domain with a unique nonzero prime ideal. # ''R'' is a principal ideal domain with a unique irreducible element (up to multiplication by units). # ''R'' is a unique factorization domain with a unique irreducible element (up to multiplication by units). # ''R'' is Noetherian, not a field, and every nonzero fractional ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Skew Field
Skew may refer to: In mathematics * Skew lines, neither parallel nor intersecting. * Skew normal distribution, a probability distribution * Skew field or division ring * SkewHermitian matrix * Skew lattice * Skew polygon, whose vertices do not lie on a plane * Infinite skew polyhedron * Skewsymmetric graph * Skewsymmetric matrix * Skew tableau, a generalization of Young tableau * Skewness, a measure of the asymmetry of a probability distribution * Shear mapping In science and technology *Skew, also synclinal or gauche in alkane stereochemistry *Skew ray (optics), an optical path not in a plane of symmetry * Skew arch, not at a right angle In computing * Clock skew * Transitive data skew, an issue of data synchronization In telecommunications * Skew (fax), unstraightness * Skew (antenna) a method to improve the horizontal radiation pattern Other uses * Volatility skew, in finance, a downwardsloping volatility smile * Skew flip turnover, an aircraft maneuver * SKEW, the ti ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Field (mathematics)
In mathematics, a field is a set on which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are defined and behave as the corresponding operations on rational and real numbers do. A field is thus a fundamental algebraic structure which is widely used in algebra, number theory, and many other areas of mathematics. The best known fields are the field of rational numbers, the field of real numbers and the field of complex numbers. Many other fields, such as fields of rational functions, algebraic function fields, algebraic number fields, and ''p''adic fields are commonly used and studied in mathematics, particularly in number theory and algebraic geometry. Most cryptographic protocols rely on finite fields, i.e., fields with finitely many elements. The relation of two fields is expressed by the notion of a field extension. Galois theory, initiated by Évariste Galois in the 1830s, is devoted to understanding the symmetries of field extensions. Among other results, th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Integral Domain
In mathematics, specifically abstract algebra, an integral domain is a nonzero commutative ring in which the product of any two nonzero elements is nonzero. Integral domains are generalizations of the ring of integers and provide a natural setting for studying divisibility. In an integral domain, every nonzero element ''a'' has the cancellation property, that is, if , an equality implies . "Integral domain" is defined almost universally as above, but there is some variation. This article follows the convention that rings have a multiplicative identity, generally denoted 1, but some authors do not follow this, by not requiring integral domains to have a multiplicative identity. Noncommutative integral domains are sometimes admitted. This article, however, follows the much more usual convention of reserving the term "integral domain" for the commutative case and using "domain" for the general case including noncommutative rings. Some sources, notably Lang, use the term enti ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 