Field (mathematics)
In mathematics, a field is a set on which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are defined and behave as the corresponding operations on rational and real numbers do. A field is thus a fundamental algebraic structure which is widely used in algebra, number theory, and many other areas of mathematics. The best known fields are the field of rational numbers, the field of real numbers and the field of complex numbers. Many other fields, such as fields of rational functions, algebraic function fields, algebraic number fields, and ''p''adic fields are commonly used and studied in mathematics, particularly in number theory and algebraic geometry. Most cryptographic protocols rely on finite fields, i.e., fields with finitely many elements. The relation of two fields is expressed by the notion of a field extension. Galois theory, initiated by Ã‰variste Galois in the 1830s, is devoted to understanding the symmetries of field extensions. Among other results, thi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Regular Polygon 7 Annotated
The term regular can mean normal or in accordance with rules. It may refer to: People * Moses Regular (born 1971), America football player Arts, entertainment, and media Music * "Regular" (Badfinger song) * Regular tunings of stringed instruments, tunings with equal intervals between the paired notes of successive open strings Other uses in arts, entertainment, and media * Regular character, a main character who appears more frequently and/or prominently than a recurring character * Regular division of the plane, a series of drawings by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which began in 1936 * '' Regular Show'', an animated television sitcom * ''The Regular Guys'', a radio morning show Language * Regular inflection, the formation of derived forms such as plurals in ways that are typical for the language ** Regular verb * Regular script, the newest of the Chinese script styles Mathematics There are an extremely large number of unrelated notions of "regularity" in mathematics. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Algebraic Geometry
Algebraic geometry is a branch of mathematics, classically studying zeros of multivariate polynomials. Modern algebraic geometry is based on the use of abstract algebraic techniques, mainly from commutative algebra, for solving geometrical problems about these sets of zeros. The fundamental objects of study in algebraic geometry are algebraic varieties, which are geometric manifestations of solutions of systems of polynomial equations. Examples of the most studied classes of algebraic varieties are: plane algebraic curves, which include lines, circles, parabolas, ellipses, hyperbolas, cubic curves like elliptic curves, and quartic curves like lemniscates and Cassini ovals. A point of the plane belongs to an algebraic curve if its coordinates satisfy a given polynomial equation. Basic questions involve the study of the points of special interest like the singular points, the inflection points and the points at infinity. More advanced questions involve the topology of the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Vector Space
In mathematics and physics, a vector space (also called a linear space) is a set whose elements, often called ''vectors'', may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers called '' scalars''. Scalars are often real numbers, but can be complex numbers or, more generally, elements of any field. The operations of vector addition and scalar multiplication must satisfy certain requirements, called ''vector axioms''. The terms real vector space and complex vector space are often used to specify the nature of the scalars: real coordinate space or complex coordinate space. Vector spaces generalize Euclidean vectors, which allow modeling of physical quantities, such as forces and velocity, that have not only a magnitude, but also a direction. The concept of vector spaces is fundamental for linear algebra, together with the concept of matrix, which allows computing in vector spaces. This provides a concise and synthetic way for manipulating and studying systems of linear eq ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Scalar (mathematics)
A scalar is an element of a field which is used to define a ''vector space''. In linear algebra, real numbers or generally elements of a field are called scalars and relate to vectors in an associated vector space through the operation of scalar multiplication (defined in the vector space), in which a vector can be multiplied by a scalar in the defined way to produce another vector. Generally speaking, a vector space may be defined by using any field instead of real numbers (such as complex numbers). Then scalars of that vector space will be elements of the associated field (such as complex numbers). A scalar product operation â€“ not to be confused with scalar multiplication â€“ may be defined on a vector space, allowing two vectors to be multiplied in the defined way to produce a scalar. A vector space equipped with a scalar product is called an inner product space. A quantity described by multiple scalars, such as having both direction and magnitude, is called a '' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematical Analysis
Analysis is the branch of mathematics dealing with continuous functions, limit (mathematics), limits, and related theories, such as Derivative, differentiation, Integral, integration, measure (mathematics), measure, infinite sequences, series (mathematics), series, and analytic functions. These theories are usually studied in the context of Real number, real and Complex number, complex numbers and Function (mathematics), functions. Analysis evolved from calculus, which involves the elementary concepts and techniques of analysis. Analysis may be distinguished from geometry; however, it can be applied to any Space (mathematics), space of mathematical objects that has a definition of nearness (a topological space) or specific distances between objects (a metric space). History Ancient Mathematical analysis formally developed in the 17th century during the Scientific Revolution, but many of its ideas can be traced back to earlier mathematicians. Early results in analysis were i ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Quintic Equation
In algebra, a quintic function is a function of the form :g(x)=ax^5+bx^4+cx^3+dx^2+ex+f,\, where , , , , and are members of a field, typically the rational numbers, the real numbers or the complex numbers, and is nonzero. In other words, a quintic function is defined by a polynomial of degree five. Because they have an odd degree, normal quintic functions appear similar to normal cubic functions when graphed, except they may possess one additional local maximum and one additional local minimum. The derivative of a quintic function is a quartic function. Setting and assuming produces a quintic equation of the form: :ax^5+bx^4+cx^3+dx^2+ex+f=0.\, Solving quintic equations in terms of radicals (''n''th roots) was a major problem in algebra from the 16th century, when cubic and quartic equations were solved, until the first half of the 19th century, when the impossibility of such a general solution was proved with the Abelâ€“Ruffini theorem. Finding roots of a quintic equa ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Compass And Straightedge
In geometry, straightedgeandcompass construction â€“ also known as rulerandcompass construction, Euclidean construction, or classical construction â€“ is the construction of lengths, angles, and other geometric figures using only an idealized ruler and a pair of compasses. The idealized ruler, known as a straightedge, is assumed to be infinite in length, have only one edge, and no markings on it. The compass is assumed to have no maximum or minimum radius, and is assumed to "collapse" when lifted from the page, so may not be directly used to transfer distances. (This is an unimportant restriction since, using a multistep procedure, a distance can be transferred even with a collapsing compass; see compass equivalence theorem. Note however that whilst a noncollapsing compass held against a straightedge might seem to be equivalent to marking it, the neusis construction is still impermissible and this is what unmarked really means: see Markable rulers below.) More formally, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Squaring The Circle
Squaring the circle is a problem in geometry first proposed in Greek mathematics. It is the challenge of constructing a square with the area of a circle by using only a finite number of steps with a compass and straightedge. The difficulty of the problem raised the question of whether specified axioms of Euclidean geometry concerning the existence of lines and circles implied the existence of such a square. In 1882, the task was proven to be impossible, as a consequence of the Lindemannâ€“Weierstrass theorem, which proves that pi (\pi) is a transcendental number. That is, \pi is not the root of any polynomial with rational coefficients. It had been known for decades that the construction would be impossible if \pi were transcendental, but that fact was not proven until 1882. Approximate constructions with any given nonperfect accuracy exist, and many such constructions have been found. Despite the proof that it is impossible, attempts to square the circle have been common ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Angle Trisection
Angle trisection is a classical problem of straightedge and compass construction of ancient Greek mathematics. It concerns construction of an angle equal to one third of a given arbitrary angle, using only two tools: an unmarked straightedge and a compass. Pierre Wantzel proved in 1837 that the problem, as stated, is impossible to solve for arbitrary angles. However, although there is no way to trisect an angle ''in general'' with just a compass and a straightedge, some special angles can be trisected. For example, it is relatively straightforward to trisect a right angle (that is, to construct an angle of measure 30 degrees). It is possible to trisect an arbitrary angle by using tools other than straightedge and compass. For example, neusis construction, also known to ancient Greeks, involves simultaneous sliding and rotation of a marked straightedge, which cannot be achieved with the original tools. Other techniques were developed by mathematicians over the centuries. Becaus ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ã‰variste Galois
Ã‰variste Galois (; ; 25 October 1811 â€“ 31 May 1832) was a French mathematician and political activist. While still in his teens, he was able to determine a necessary and sufficient condition for a polynomial to be solvable by radicals, thereby solving a problem that had been open for 350 years. His work laid the foundations for Galois theory and group theory, two major branches of abstract algebra. He was a staunch republican and was heavily involved in the political turmoil that surrounded the French Revolution of 1830. As a result of his political activism, he was arrested repeatedly, serving one jail sentence of several months. For reasons that remain obscure, shortly after his release from prison he fought in a duel and died of the wounds he suffered. Life Early life Galois was born on 25 October 1811 to NicolasGabriel Galois and AdÃ©laÃ¯deMarie (nÃ©e Demante). His father was a Republican and was head of BourglaReine's liberal party. His father became may ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Galois Theory
In mathematics, Galois theory, originally introduced by Ã‰variste Galois, provides a connection between field theory and group theory. This connection, the fundamental theorem of Galois theory, allows reducing certain problems in field theory to group theory, which makes them simpler and easier to understand. Galois introduced the subject for studying roots of polynomials. This allowed him to characterize the polynomial equations that are solvable by radicals in terms of properties of the permutation group of their rootsâ€”an equation is ''solvable by radicals'' if its roots may be expressed by a formula involving only integers, th roots, and the four basic arithmetic operations. This widely generalizes the Abelâ€“Ruffini theorem, which asserts that a general polynomial of degree at least five cannot be solved by radicals. Galois theory has been used to solve classic problems including showing that two problems of antiquity cannot be solved as they were stated (doubling the cub ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Field Extension
In mathematics, particularly in algebra, a field extension is a pair of fields E\subseteq F, such that the operations of ''E'' are those of ''F'' restricted to ''E''. In this case, ''F'' is an extension field of ''E'' and ''E'' is a subfield of ''F''. For example, under the usual notions of addition and multiplication, the complex numbers are an extension field of the real numbers; the real numbers are a subfield of the complex numbers. Field extensions are fundamental in algebraic number theory, and in the study of polynomial roots through Galois theory, and are widely used in algebraic geometry. Subfield A subfield K of a field L is a subset K\subseteq L that is a field with respect to the field operations inherited from L. Equivalently, a subfield is a subset that contains 1, and is closed under the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and taking the inverse of a nonzero element of K. As , the latter definition implies K and L have the same zero eleme ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 