Extension (semantics)
In any of several fields of study that treat the use of signs — for example, in linguistics, logic, mathematics, semantics, semiotics, and philosophy of language — the extension of a concept, idea, or sign consists of the things to which it applies, in contrast with its comprehension or intension, which consists very roughly of the ideas, properties, or corresponding signs that are implied or suggested by the concept in question. In philosophical semantics or the philosophy of language, the 'extension' of a concept or expression is the set of things it extends to, or applies to, if it is the sort of concept or expression that a single object by itself can satisfy. Concepts and expressions of this sort are monadic or "oneplace" concepts and expressions. So the extension of the word "dog" is the set of all (past, present and future) dogs in the world: the set includes Fido, Rover, Lassie, Rex, and so on. The extension of the phrase "Wikipedia reader" includes each person who ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Bing] [Yahoo] [DuckDuckGo] [Baidu] 

Linguistics
Linguistics is the scientific study of human language. It is called a scientific study because it entails a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise analysis of all aspects of language, particularly its nature and structure. Linguistics is concerned with both the cognitive and social aspects of language. It is considered a scientific field as well as an academic discipline; it has been classified as a social science, natural science, cognitive science,Thagard, PaulCognitive Science, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2008 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.). or part of the humanities. Traditional areas of linguistic analysis correspond to phenomena found in human linguistic systems, such as syntax (rules governing the structure of sentences); semantics (meaning); morphology (structure of words); phonetics (speech sounds and equivalent gestures in sign languages); phonology (the abstract sound system of a particular language); and pragmatics (how social conte ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Bing] [Yahoo] [DuckDuckGo] [Baidu] 

Abstract Algebra
In mathematics, more specifically algebra, abstract algebra or modern algebra is the study of algebraic structures. Algebraic structures include groups, rings, fields, modules, vector spaces, lattices, and algebras over a field. The term ''abstract algebra'' was coined in the early 20th century to distinguish this area of study from older parts of algebra, and more specifically from elementary algebra, the use of variables to represent numbers in computation and reasoning. Algebraic structures, with their associated homomorphisms, form mathematical categories. Category theory is a formalism that allows a unified way for expressing properties and constructions that are similar for various structures. Universal algebra is a related subject that studies types of algebraic structures as single objects. For example, the structure of groups is a single object in universal algebra, which is called the ''variety of groups''. History Before the nineteenth century, algebra me ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Bing] [Yahoo] [DuckDuckGo] [Baidu] 

Possible Worlds
Possible Worlds may refer to: * Possible worlds, concept in philosophy * ''Possible Worlds'' (play), 1990 play by John Mighton ** ''Possible Worlds'' (film), 2000 film by Robert Lepage, based on the play * Possible Worlds (studio) * ''Possible Worlds'', poetry book by Peter Porter * ''Possible Worlds'', book by J. B. S. Haldane * ''Possible Worlds'', 1995 album by Markus Stockhausen See also * * * Possible (other) * World (other) {{dab ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Bing] [Yahoo] [DuckDuckGo] [Baidu] 

Metaphysics
Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that studies the fundamental nature of reality, the first principles of being, identity and change, space and time, causality, necessity, and possibility. It includes questions about the nature of consciousness and the relationship between mind and matter, between substance and attribute, and between potentiality and actuality. The word "metaphysics" comes from two Greek words that, together, literally mean "after or behind or among he study ofthe natural". It has been suggested that the term might have been coined by a first century CE editor who assembled various small selections of Aristotle's works into the treatise we now know by the name ''Metaphysics'' (μετὰ τὰ φυσικά, ''meta ta physika'', 'after the ''Physics'' ', another of Aristotle's works). Metaphysics studies questions related to what it is for something to exist and what types of existence there are. Metaphysics seeks to answer, in an abstract and ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Bing] [Yahoo] [DuckDuckGo] [Baidu] 

Row (database)
In the context of a relational database, a row—also called a tuple—represents a single, implicitly structured data item in a table. In simple terms, a database table can be thought of as consisting of ''rows'' and columns. Cory Janssen, Techopedia, retrieved 27 June 2014 Each row in a table represents a set of related data, and every row in the table has the same structure. For example, in a table that represents companies, each row would represent a single company. Columns might represent things like company name, company street address, whether the company is publicly held, its VAT number, etc. In a table that represents ''the association'' of employees with depart ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Bing] [Yahoo] [DuckDuckGo] [Baidu] 

Logical Schema
A logical data model or logical schema is a data model of a specific problem domain expressed independently of a particular database management product or storage technology ( physical data model) but in terms of data structures such as relational tables and columns, objectoriented classes, or XML tags. This is as opposed to a conceptual data model, which describes the semantics of an organization without reference to technology. Overview Logical data models represent the abstract structure of a domain of information. They are often diagrammatic in nature and are most typically used in business processes that seek to capture things of importance to an organization and how they relate to one another. Once validated and approved, the logical data model can become the basis of a physical data model and form the design of a database. Logical data models should be based on the structures identified in a preceding conceptual data model, since this describes the semantics of the infor ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Bing] [Yahoo] [DuckDuckGo] [Baidu] 

Database
In computing, a database is an organized collection of data stored and accessed electronically. Small databases can be stored on a file system, while large databases are hosted on computer clusters or cloud storage. The design of databases spans formal techniques and practical considerations, including data modeling, efficient data representation and storage, query languages, security and privacy of sensitive data, and distributed computing issues, including supporting concurrent access and fault tolerance. A database management system (DBMS) is the software that interacts with end users, applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze the data. The DBMS software additionally encompasses the core facilities provided to administer the database. The sum total of the database, the DBMS and the associated applications can be referred to as a database system. Often the term "database" is also used loosely to refer to any of the DBMS, the database system or an app ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Bing] [Yahoo] [DuckDuckGo] [Baidu] 

Computer Science
Computer science is the study of computation, automation, and information. Computer science spans theoretical disciplines (such as algorithms, theory of computation, information theory, and automation) to practical disciplines (including the design and implementation of hardware and software). Computer science is generally considered an area of academic research and distinct from computer programming. Algorithms and data structures are central to computer science. The theory of computation concerns abstract models of computation and general classes of problems that can be solved using them. The fields of cryptography and computer security involve studying the means for secure communication and for preventing security vulnerabilities. Computer graphics and computational geometry address the generation of images. Programming language theory considers different ways to describe computational processes, and database theory concerns the management of repositories of dat ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Bing] [Yahoo] [DuckDuckGo] [Baidu] 

Characterization (mathematics)
In mathematics, a characterization of an object is a set of conditions that, while different from the definition of the object, is logically equivalent to it. To say that "Property ''P'' characterizes object ''X''" is to say that not only does ''X'' have property ''P'', but that ''X'' is the ''only'' thing that has property ''P'' (i.e., ''P'' is a defining property of ''X''). Similarly, a set of properties ''P'' is said to characterize ''X'', when these properties distinguish ''X'' from all other objects. Even though a characterization identifies an object in a unique way, several characterizations can exist for a single object. Common mathematical expressions for a characterization of ''X'' in terms of ''P'' include "''P'' is necessary and sufficient for ''X''", and "''X'' holds if and only if ''P''". It is also common to find statements such as "Property ''Q'' characterizes ''Y'' up to isomorphism". The first type of statement says in different words that the extension of ''P'' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Bing] [Yahoo] [DuckDuckGo] [Baidu] 

Mathematical Object
A mathematical object is an abstract concept arising in mathematics. In the usual language of mathematics, an ''object'' is anything that has been (or could be) formally defined, and with which one may do deductive reasoning and mathematical proofs. Typically, a mathematical object can be a value that can be assigned to a variable, and therefore can be involved in formulas. Commonly encountered mathematical objects include numbers, sets, functions, expressions, geometric objects, transformations of other mathematical objects, and spaces. Mathematical objects can be very complex; for example, theorems, proofs, and even theories are considered as mathematical objects in proof theory. The ontological status of mathematical objects has been the subject of much investigation and debate by philosophers of mathematics. Burgess, John, and Rosen, Gideon, 1997. ''A Subject with No Object: Strategies for Nominalistic Reconstrual of Mathematics''. Oxford University Press. List ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Bing] [Yahoo] [DuckDuckGo] [Baidu] 

Set Theory
Set theory is the branch of mathematical logic that studies sets, which can be informally described as collections of objects. Although objects of any kind can be collected into a set, set theory, as a branch of mathematics, is mostly concerned with those that are relevant to mathematics as a whole. The modern study of set theory was initiated by the German mathematicians Richard Dedekind and Georg Cantor in the 1870s. In particular, Georg Cantor is commonly considered the founder of set theory. The nonformalized systems investigated during this early stage go under the name of ''naive set theory''. After the discovery of paradoxes within naive set theory (such as Russell's paradox, Cantor's paradox and the BuraliForti paradox) various axiomatic systems were proposed in the early twentieth century, of which Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory (with or without the axiom of choice) is still the bestknown and most studied. Set theory is commonly employed as a foundational syst ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Bing] [Yahoo] [DuckDuckGo] [Baidu] 

Axiomatic Set Theory
Set theory is the branch of mathematical logic that studies sets, which can be informally described as collections of objects. Although objects of any kind can be collected into a set, set theory, as a branch of mathematics, is mostly concerned with those that are relevant to mathematics as a whole. The modern study of set theory was initiated by the German mathematicians Richard Dedekind and Georg Cantor in the 1870s. In particular, Georg Cantor is commonly considered the founder of set theory. The nonformalized systems investigated during this early stage go under the name of ''naive set theory''. After the discovery of paradoxes within naive set theory (such as Russell's paradox, Cantor's paradox and the BuraliForti paradox) various axiomatic systems were proposed in the early twentieth century, of which Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory (with or without the axiom of choice) is still the bestknown and most studied. Set theory is commonly employed as a foundational sys ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Bing] [Yahoo] [DuckDuckGo] [Baidu] 