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Metaphysics
Metaphysics
is a branch of philosophy that explores the fundamental questions, including the nature of concepts like being, existence, and reality.[1] It has two branches – cosmology and ontology. Traditional metaphysics seeks to answer, in a "suitably abstract and fully general manner", the questions:[2]

What is there? And what is it like?

Topics of metaphysical investigation include existence, objects and their properties, space and time, cause and effect, and possibility. A central branch of metaphysics is ontology, the investigation into the basic categories of being and how they relate to one another. There are two broad conceptions about what is the "world" studied by metaphysics. The strong, classical view assumes that the objects studied by metaphysics exist independently of any observer, so that the subject is the most fundamental of all sciences. The weak, modern view assumes that the objects studied by metaphysics exist inside the mind of an observer, so the subject becomes a form of introspection and conceptual analysis. Some philosophers, notably Kant, discuss both of these "worlds" and what can be inferred about each one. Some philosophers, such as the logical positivists, and many scientists reject the entire subject of metaphysics as meaningless and unverifiable.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Central questions

2.1 Ontology
Ontology
(Being) 2.2 Identity and change 2.3 Causality
Causality
and time 2.4 Necessity and possibility 2.5 Cosmology
Cosmology
and cosmogony 2.6 Mind
Mind
and matter 2.7 Determinism
Determinism
and free will

3 Metaphysics
Metaphysics
in science 4 Rejections of metaphysics 5 History and schools of metaphysics

5.1 Pre-history 5.2 Bronze age 5.3 Pre-Socratic Greece 5.4 Chinese metaphysics 5.5 Socrates
Socrates
and Plato 5.6 Aristotle 5.7 Classical India

5.7.1 Sāṃkhya 5.7.2 Vedānta

5.8 Buddhist metaphysics 5.9 Islamic metaphysics 5.10 Scholasticism
Scholasticism
and the Middle Ages 5.11 Rationalism
Rationalism
and Continental Rationalism 5.12 British empiricism 5.13 Wolff 5.14 Kant 5.15 Kantians 5.16 Early analytical philosophy and positivism 5.17 Continental philosophy 5.18 Process metaphysics 5.19 Later analytical philosophy

6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 Further reading 10 External links

Etymology[edit] The word "metaphysics" derives from the Greek words μετά (metá, "beyond", "upon" or "after") and φυσικά (physiká, "physics").[3] It was first used as the title for several of Aristotle's works, because they were usually anthologized after the works on physics in complete editions. The prefix meta- ("after") indicates that these works come "after" the chapters on physics. However, Aristotle
Aristotle
himself did not call the subject of these books metaphysics: he referred to it as "first philosophy." The editor of Aristotle's works, Andronicus of Rhodes, is thought to have placed the books on first philosophy right after another work, Physics, and called them τὰ μετὰ τὰ φυσικὰ βιβλία (tà metà tà physikà biblía) or "the books [that come] after the [books on] physics". This was misread by Latin
Latin
scholiasts, who thought it meant "the science of what is beyond the physical". However, once the name was given, the commentators sought to find intrinsic reasons for its appropriateness. For instance, it was understood to mean "the science of the world beyond nature" (φύσις - phýsis in Greek), that is, the science of the immaterial. Again, it was understood to refer to the chronological or pedagogical order among our philosophical studies, so that the "metaphysical sciences" would mean "those that we study after having mastered the sciences that deal with the physical world" (St. Thomas Aquinas, Expositio in librum Boethii De hebdomadibus, V, 1). A person who does, or is doing, metaphysics is called a metaphysician.[4] There is a related use of the term, equating the metaphysical with the non-physical: "Metaphysical healing" means healing by means of remedies that are not physical.[5] Central questions[edit] Ontology
Ontology
(Being)[edit] See also: Ontology Ontology
Ontology
is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.[6] Traditionally listed as the core of metaphysics, ontology often deals with questions concerning what entities exist or may be said to exist and how such entities may be grouped, related within a hierarchy, and subdivided according to similarities and differences. Although ontology as a philosophical enterprise is highly hypothetical, it also has practical application in information science and technology, such as ontology engineering. Identity and change[edit] Main article: Identity and change See also: Identity (philosophy) and Philosophy
Philosophy
of space and time Identity is a fundamental metaphysical issue. Metaphysicians investigating identity are tasked with the question of what, exactly, it means for something to be identical to itself. Other issues of identity arise in the context of time: what does it mean for something to be itself across two moments in time? How do we account for this? Another question of identity arises when we ask what our criteria ought to be for determining identity? And how does the reality of identity interface with linguistic expressions? The metaphysical positions one takes on identity have far-reaching implications on issues such as the mind-body problem, personal identity, ethics, and law. The ancient Greeks took extreme positions on the nature of change. Parmenides
Parmenides
denied change altogether, while Heraclitus
Heraclitus
argued that change was ubiquitous: "[Y]ou cannot step into the same river twice." Identity, sometimes called Numerical Identity, is the relation that a "thing" bears to itself, and which no "thing" bears to anything other than itself (cf. sameness). A modern philosopher who made a lasting impact on the philosophy of identity was Leibniz, whose Law of the Indiscernability of Identicals is still in wide use today. It states that if some object x is identical to some object y, then any property that x has, y will have as well. Put formally, it states

∀ x

∀ y

( x = y → ∀ P

( P ( x ) ↔ P ( y ) ) )

displaystyle forall x;forall y;(x=yrightarrow forall P;(P(x)leftrightarrow P(y)))

However, it seems, too, that objects can change over time. If one were to look at a tree one day, and the tree later lost a leaf, it would seem that one could still be looking at that same tree. Two rival theories to account for the relationship between change and identity are Perdurantism, which treats the tree as a series of tree-stages, and Endurantism, which maintains that the organism—the same tree—is present at every stage in its history. Causality
Causality
and time[edit] See also: Causality
Causality
and Philosophy
Philosophy
of space and time Classical philosophy recognized a number of causes, including teleological future causes. In special relativity and quantum field theory the notions of space, time and causality become tangled together, with temporal orders of causations becoming dependent on who is observing them. The laws of physics are symmetrical in time, so could equally well be used to describe time as running backwards. Why then do we perceive it as flowing in one direction, the arrow of time, and as containing causation flowing in the same direction? Causality
Causality
is usually required as a foundation for philosophy of science, if science aims to understand causes and effects and make predictions about them. Necessity and possibility[edit] See also: Modal logic and Modal realism Metaphysicians investigate questions about the ways the world could have been. David Lewis, in "On the Plurality of Worlds," endorsed a view called Concrete Modal realism, according to which facts about how things could have been are made true by other concrete worlds, just as in ours, in which things are different. Other philosophers, such as Gottfried Leibniz, have dealt with the idea of possible worlds as well. The idea of necessity is that any necessary fact is true across all possible worlds. A possible fact is true in some possible world, even if not in the actual world. For example, it is possible that cats could have had two tails, or that any particular apple could have not existed. By contrast, certain propositions seem necessarily true, such as analytic propositions, e.g., "All bachelors are unmarried." The particular example of analytic truth being necessary is not universally held among philosophers. A less controversial view might be that self-identity is necessary, as it seems fundamentally incoherent to claim that for any x, it is not identical to itself; this is known as the law of identity, a putative "first principle". Aristotle
Aristotle
describes the principle of non-contradiction, "It is impossible that the same quality should both belong and not belong to the same thing ... This is the most certain of all principles ... Wherefore they who demonstrate refer to this as an ultimate opinion. For it is by nature the source of all the other axioms." Cosmology
Cosmology
and cosmogony[edit] See also: Cosmology
Cosmology
(metaphysics) Metaphysical cosmology is the branch of metaphysics that deals with the world as the totality of all phenomena in space and time. Historically, it has had a broad scope, and in many cases was founded in religion. The ancient Greeks drew no distinction between this use and their model for the cosmos. However, in modern times it addresses questions about the Universe
Universe
which are beyond the scope of the physical sciences. It is distinguished from religious cosmology in that it approaches these questions using philosophical methods (e.g. dialectics). Cosmogony
Cosmogony
deals specifically with the origin of the universe. Modern metaphysical cosmology and cosmogony try to address questions such as:

What is the origin of the Universe? What is its first cause? Is its existence necessary? (see monism, pantheism, emanationism and creationism) What are the ultimate material components of the Universe? (see mechanism, dynamism, hylomorphism, atomism) What is the ultimate reason for the existence of the Universe? Does the cosmos have a purpose? (see teleology)

Mind
Mind
and matter[edit] See also: Matter, Materialism, and Philosophy
Philosophy
of mind

Different approaches toward resolving the mind–body problem

The nature of matter was a problem in its own right in early philosophy. Aristotle
Aristotle
himself introduced the idea of matter in general to the Western world, adapting the term hyle, which originally meant "lumber." Early debates centered on identifying a single underlying principle. Water was claimed by Thales, air by Anaximenes, Apeiron (the Boundless) by Anaximander, fire by Heraclitus. Democritus, in conjunction with his mentor, Leucippus, conceived of an atomic theory some 24 centuries before it was accepted by modern science. It is worth noting, however, that the grounds necessary to ensure validity to the proposed theory's veridical nature were not scientific, but just as philosophical as those traditions espoused by Thales
Thales
and Anaximander. The nature of the mind and its relation to the body has been seen as more of a problem as science has progressed in its mechanistic understanding of the brain and body. Proposed solutions often have ramifications about the nature of mind as a whole. René Descartes proposed substance dualism, a theory in which mind and body are essentially different, with the mind having some of the attributes traditionally assigned to the soul, in the seventeenth century. This creates a conceptual puzzle about how the two interact (which has received some strange answers, such as occasionalism). Evidence
Evidence
of a close relationship between brain and mind, such as the Phineas Gage case, have made this form of dualism increasingly unpopular. Another proposal discussing the mind–body problem is idealism, in which the material is sweepingly eliminated in favor of the mental. Idealists, such as George Berkeley, claim that material objects do not exist unless perceived and only as perceptions. The "German idealists" such as Fichte, Hegel
Hegel
and Schopenhauer
Schopenhauer
took Kant
Kant
as their starting-point, although it is debatable how much of an idealist Kant himself was. Idealism
Idealism
is also a common theme in Eastern philosophy. Related ideas are panpsychism and panexperientialism, which say everything has a mind rather than everything exists in a mind. Alfred North Whitehead was a twentieth-century exponent of this approach. Idealism
Idealism
is a monistic theory which holds that there is a single universal substance or principle. Neutral monism, associated in different forms with Ernst Mach, William James, Bertrand Russell, the adherents of American New Realism, Moritz Schlick, A.J. Ayer
A.J. Ayer
and others, seeks to be less extreme than idealism, and to avoid the problems of substance dualism. It is unlike the double aspect theory in claiming that existence consists of a single substance that in itself is neither mental nor physical, but is capable of mental and physical aspects or attributes – thus it implies a dual-aspect theory. Neutral monism
Neutral monism
merely claims that everything, either physical or mental, can be constructed out of neutral elements, though not necessarily the same ones. For the last one hundred years, the dominant metaphysics has without a doubt been materialistic monism. Type identity theory, token identity theory, functionalism, reductive physicalism, nonreductive physicalism, eliminative materialism, anomalous monism, property dualism, epiphenomenalism and emergence are just some of the candidates for a scientifically informed account of the mind. (It should be noted that while many of these positions are dualisms, none of them are substance dualism.) Prominent recent philosophers of mind include David Armstrong, Ned Block, David Chalmers, Patricia and Paul Churchland, Donald Davidson, Daniel Dennett, Fred Dretske, Douglas Hofstadter, Roger Lyness, Jerry Fodor, David Lewis, Thomas Nagel, Hilary Putnam, John Searle, John Smart, Ludwig Wittgenstein, and Fred Alan Wolf. Determinism
Determinism
and free will[edit] See also: Determinism
Determinism
and Free will Determinism
Determinism
is the philosophical proposition that every event, including human cognition, decision and action, is causally determined by an unbroken chain of prior occurrences. It holds that nothing happens that has not already been determined. The principal consequence of the deterministic claim is that it poses a challenge to the existence of free will. The problem of free will is the problem of whether rational agents exercise control over their own actions and decisions. Addressing this problem requires understanding the relation between freedom and causation, and determining whether the laws of nature are causally deterministic. Some philosophers, known as Incompatibilists, view determinism and free will as mutually exclusive. If they believe in determinism, they will therefore believe free will to be an illusion, a position known as Hard Determinism. Proponents range from Baruch Spinoza
Spinoza
to Ted Honderich. Others, labeled Compatibilists (or "Soft Determinists"), believe that the two ideas can be reconciled coherently. Adherents of this view include Thomas Hobbes
Thomas Hobbes
and many modern philosophers such as John Martin Fischer. Incompatibilists who accept free will but reject determinism are called Libertarians, a term not to be confused with the political sense. Robert Kane and Alvin Plantinga
Alvin Plantinga
are modern defenders of this theory. Metaphysics
Metaphysics
in science[edit] Prior to the modern history of science, scientific questions were addressed as a part of natural philosophy. Originally, the term "science" ( Latin
Latin
scientia) simply meant "knowledge". The scientific method, however, transformed natural philosophy into an empirical activity deriving from experiment, unlike the rest of philosophy. By the end of the 18th century, it had begun to be called "science" to distinguish it from philosophy. Thereafter, metaphysics denoted philosophical enquiry of a non-empirical character into the nature of existence.[7] Metaphysics
Metaphysics
continues asking "why" where science leaves off. For example, any theory of fundamental physics is based on some set of axioms, which may postulate the existence of entities such as atoms, particles, forces, charges, mass, or fields. Stating such postulates is considered to be the "end" of a science theory. Metaphysics
Metaphysics
takes these postulates and explores what they mean as human concepts. For example, do all theories of physics require the existence of space and time,[8] objects, and properties? Or can they be expressed using only objects, or only properties? Do the objects have to retain their identity over time or do they change?[9] If they change, then are they still the same object? Can theories be reformulated by converting properties or predicates (such as "red") into entities (such as redness or redness fields). Is the distinction between objects and properties fundamental to the physical world or to our perception of it? Much recent work has been devoted to analyzing the role of metaphysics in scientific theorizing. Alexandre Koyré
Alexandre Koyré
led this movement, declaring in his book Metaphysics
Metaphysics
and Measurement, "It is not by following experiment, but by outstripping experiment, that the scientific mind makes progress."[10] That metaphysical propositions can influence scientific theorizing is John Watkins' most lasting contribution to philosophy. Since 1957[11][12] "he showed the ways in which some untestable and hence, according to Popperian ideas, non-empirical propositions can nevertheless be influential in the development of properly testable and hence scientific theories. These profound results in applied elementary logic...represented an important corrective to positivist teachings about the meaninglessness of metaphysics and of normative claims".[13] Imre Lakatos
Imre Lakatos
maintained that all scientific theories have a metaphysical "hard core" essential for the generation of hypotheses and theoretical assumptions.[14] Thus, according to Lakatos, "scientific changes are connected with vast cataclysmic metaphysical revolutions."[15] An example from biology of Lakatos' thesis: David Hull has argued that changes in the ontological status of the species concept have been central in the development of biological thought from Aristotle through Cuvier, Lamarck, and Darwin. Darwin's ignorance of metaphysics made it more difficult for him to respond to his critics because he could not readily grasp the ways in which their underlying metaphysical views differed from his own.[16] In physics, new metaphysical ideas have arisen in connection with quantum mechanics, where subatomic particles arguably do not have the same sort of individuality as the particulars with which philosophy has traditionally been concerned.[17] Also, adherence to a deterministic metaphysics in the face of the challenge posed by the quantum-mechanical uncertainty principle led physicists such as Albert Einstein to propose alternative theories that retained determinism.[18] A. N. Whitehead
A. N. Whitehead
is famous for creating a process philosophy metaphysics inspired by electromagnetism and special relativity.[19] In chemistry, Gilbert Newton Lewis
Gilbert Newton Lewis
addressed the nature of motion, arguing that an electron should not be said to move when it has none of the properties of motion.[20] Katherine Hawley notes that the metaphysics even of a widely accepted scientific theory may be challenged if it can be argued that the metaphysical presuppositions of the theory make no contribution to its predictive success.[21] Rejections of metaphysics[edit] A number of individuals have suggested that much or all of metaphysics should be rejected. In the eighteenth century, David Hume
David Hume
took an extreme position, arguing that all genuine knowledge involves either mathematics or matters of fact and that metaphysics, which goes beyond these, is worthless. He concludes his Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding with the statement:

If we take in our hand any volume; of divinity or school metaphysics, for instance; let us ask, Does it contain any abstract reasoning concerning quantity or number? No. Does it contain any experimental reasoning concerning matter of fact and existence? No. Commit it then to the flames: for it can contain nothing but sophistry and illusion.[22]

Thirty-three years after Hume's Enquiry appeared, Immanuel Kant published his Critique of Pure Reason. Although he followed Hume in rejecting much of previous metaphysics, he argued that there was still room for some synthetic a priori knowledge, concerned with matters of fact yet obtainable independent of experience. These included fundamental structures of space, time, and causality. He also argued for the freedom of the will and the existence of "things in themselves", the ultimate (but unknowable) objects of experience. Wittgenstein introduced the concept that metaphysics could be influenced by theories of Aesthetics, via Logic, vis. a world composed of "atomical facts".[23][24] In the 1930s, A. J. Ayer
A. J. Ayer
and Rudolf Carnap
Rudolf Carnap
endorsed Hume's position; Carnap quoted the passage above.[25] They argued that metaphysical statements are neither true nor false but meaningless since, according to their verifiability theory of meaning, a statement is meaningful only if there can be empirical evidence for or against it. Thus, while Ayer rejected the monism of Spinoza, he avoided a commitment to pluralism, the contrary position, by holding both views to be without meaning.[26] Carnap took a similar line with the controversy over the reality of the external world.[27] While the logical positivism movement is now considered dead, it has continued to influence philosophy development.[28] Arguing against such rejections, the Scholastic philosopher Edward Feser has observed that Hume's critique of metaphysics, and specifically Hume's fork, is "notoriously self-refuting".[29] Feser argues that Hume's fork itself is not a conceptual truth and is not empirically testable. Some living philosophers, such as Amie Thomasson, have argued that many metaphysical questions can be dissolved just by looking at the way we use words; others, such as Ted Sider, have argued that metaphysical questions are substantive, and that we can make progress toward answering them by comparing theories according to a range of theoretical virtues inspired by the sciences, such as simplicity and explanatory power.[30] History and schools of metaphysics[edit] Pre-history[edit] Cognitive archeology such as analysis of cave paintings and other pre-historic art and customs suggests that a form of perennial philosophy or Shamanism
Shamanism
metaphysics may stretch back to the birth of behavioral modernity, all around the world. Similar beliefs are found in present-day "stone age" cultures such as Australian aboriginals. Perennial philosophy postulates the existence of a spirit or concept world alongside the day-to-day world, and interactions between these worlds during dreaming and ritual, or on special days or at special places. It has been argued that perennial philosophy formed the basis for Platonism, with Plato
Plato
articulating, rather than creating, much older widespread beliefs. [31][32] Bronze age[edit] Bronze Age cultures such as ancient Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt (along with similarly structured but chronologically later cultures such as Mayans
Mayans
and Aztecs) developed belief systems based on mythology, anthropomorphic gods, mind-body dualism, and a spirit world, to explain causes and cosmology. These cultures appear to have been interested in astronomy and may have associated or identified the stars with some of these entities. In ancient Egypt, the ontological distinction between order (maat) and chaos (Isfet) seems to have been important. [33] Pre-Socratic Greece[edit]

The circled dot was used by the Pythagoreans and later Greeks to represent the first metaphysical being, the Monad or The Absolute.

The first named Greek philosopher, according to Aristotle, is Thales of Miletus, early 6th century BCE. He made use of purely physical explanations to explain the phenomena of the world rather than the mythological and divine explanations of tradition. He is thought to have posited water as the single underlying principle (or Arche in later Aristotelian terminology) of the material world. His fellow, but younger Miletians, Anaximander
Anaximander
and Anaximenes, also posited monistic underlying principles, namely apeiron (the indefinite or boundless) and air respectively. Another school was the Eleatics, in southern Italy. The group was founded in the early fifth century BCE by Parmenides, and included Zeno of Elea
Zeno of Elea
and Melissus of Samos. Methodologically, the Eleatics were broadly rationalist, and took logical standards of clarity and necessity to be the criteria of truth. Parmenides' chief doctrine was that reality is a single unchanging and universal Being. Zeno used reductio ad absurdum, to demonstrate the illusory nature of change and time in his paradoxes. Heraclitus
Heraclitus
of Ephesus, in contrast, made change central, teaching that "all things flow". His philosophy, expressed in brief aphorisms, is quite cryptic. For instance, he also taught the unity of opposites. Democritus
Democritus
and his teacher Leucippus, are known for formulating an atomic theory for the cosmos.[34] They are considered forerunners of the scientific method. Chinese metaphysics[edit]

The modern "yin and yang symbol" (taijitu).

Metaphysics
Metaphysics
in Chinese philosophy
Chinese philosophy
can be traced back to the earliest Chinese philosophical concepts from the Zhou Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
such as Tian (Heaven) and Yin and Yang. The fourth century BCE saw a turn towards cosmogony with the rise of Taoism
Taoism
(in the Daodejing
Daodejing
and Zhuangzi) and sees the natural world as dynamic and constantly changing processes which spontaneously arise from a single immanent metaphysical source or principle (Tao).[35] Another philosophical school which arose around this time was the School of Naturalists
School of Naturalists
which saw the ultimate metaphysical principle as the Taiji, the "supreme polarity" composed of the forces of Ying and Yang
Ying and Yang
which were always in a state of change seeking balance. Another concern of Chinese metaphysics, especially Taoism, is the relationship and nature of Being
Being
and non- Being
Being
(you 有 and wu 無). The Taoists held that the ultimate, the Tao, was also non-being or no-presence.[35] Other important concepts were those of spontaneous generation or natural vitality (Ziran) and "correlative resonance" (Ganying). After the fall of the Han Dynasty (220 CE), China saw the rise of the Neo-Taoist Xuanxue school. This school was very influential in developing the concepts of later Chinese metaphysics.[35] Buddhist philosophy entered China (c 1st century) and was influenced by the native Chinese metaphysical concepts to develop new theories. The native Tiantai
Tiantai
and Huayen
Huayen
schools of philosophy maintained and reinterpreted the Indian theories of shunyata (emptiness, kong 空) and Buddha-nature
Buddha-nature
(Fo xing 佛性) into the theory of interpenetration of phenomena. Neo-Confucians like Zhang Zai
Zhang Zai
under the influence of other schools developed the concepts of "principle" (li) and vital energy (qi). Socrates
Socrates
and Plato[edit] Socrates
Socrates
is known for his dialectic or questioning approach to philosophy rather than a positive metaphysical doctrine. His pupil, Plato
Plato
is famous for his theory of forms (which he places in the mouth of Socrates
Socrates
in his dialogues). Platonic realism
Platonic realism
(also considered a form of idealism)[36] is considered to be a solution to the problem of universals; i.e., what particular objects have in common is that they share a specific Form which is universal to all others of their respective kind. The theory has a number of other aspects:

Epistemological: knowledge of the Forms is more certain than mere sensory data. Ethical: The Form of the Good sets an objective standard for morality. Time
Time
and Change: The world of the Forms is eternal and unchanging. Time
Time
and change belong only to the lower sensory world. " Time
Time
is a moving image of Eternity". Abstract objects and mathematics: Numbers, geometrical figures, etc., exist mind-independently in the World
World
of Forms.

Platonism
Platonism
developed into Neoplatonism, a philosophy with a monotheistic and mystical flavour that survived well into the early Christian era. Aristotle[edit] Plato's pupil Aristotle
Aristotle
wrote widely on almost every subject, including metaphysics. His solution to the problem of universals contrasts with Plato's. Whereas Platonic Forms are existentially apparent in the visible world, Aristotelian essences dwell in particulars. Potentiality and Actuality[37] are principles of a dichotomy which Aristotle
Aristotle
used throughout his philosophical works to analyze motion, causality and other issues. The Aristotelian theory of change and causality stretches to four causes: the material, formal, efficient and final. The efficient cause corresponds to what is now known as a cause simpliciter. Final causes are explicitly teleological, a concept now regarded as controversial in science.[38] The Matter/Form dichotomy was to become highly influential in later philosophy as the substance/essence distinction. The opening arguments in Aristotle's Metaphysics, Book
Book
I, revolve around the senses, knowledge, experience, theory, and wisdom. The first main focus in the Metaphysics
Metaphysics
is attempting to determine how intellect "advances from sensation through memory, experience, and art, to theoretical knowledge".[39] Aristotle
Aristotle
claims that eyesight provides us with the capability to recognize and remember experiences, while sound allows us to learn. Classical India[edit] More on Indian philosophy: Hindu philosophy Sāṃkhya[edit] Sāṃkhya is an ancient system of Indian philosophy
Indian philosophy
based on a dualism involving the ultimate principles of consciousness and matter.[40] It is described as the rationalist school of Indian philosophy.[41] It is most related to the Yoga school of Hinduism, and its method was most influential on the development of Early Buddhism.[42] The Sāmkhya is an enumerationist philosophy whose epistemology accepts three of six pramanas (proofs) as the only reliable means of gaining knowledge. These include pratyakṣa (perception), anumāṇa (inference) and śabda (āptavacana, word/testimony of reliable sources).[43][44][45] Samkhya
Samkhya
is strongly dualist.[46][47][48] Sāmkhya philosophy regards the universe as consisting of two realities; puruṣa (consciousness) and prakṛti (matter). Jiva
Jiva
(a living being) is that state in which puruṣa is bonded to prakṛti in some form.[49] This fusion, state the Samkhya
Samkhya
scholars, led to the emergence of buddhi ("spiritual awareness") and ahaṅkāra (ego consciousness). The universe is described by this school as one created by purusa-prakṛti entities infused with various permutations and combinations of variously enumerated elements, senses, feelings, activity and mind.[49] During the state of imbalance, one of more constituents overwhelm the others, creating a form of bondage, particularly of the mind. The end of this imbalance, bondage is called liberation, or moksha, by the Samkhya school.[50] The existence of God or supreme being is not directly asserted, nor considered relevant by the Samkhya
Samkhya
philosophers. Sāṃkhya denies the final cause of Ishvara
Ishvara
(God).[51] While the Samkhya
Samkhya
school considers the Vedas
Vedas
as a reliable source of knowledge, it is an atheistic philosophy according to Paul Deussen
Paul Deussen
and other scholars.[52][53] A key difference between Samkhya
Samkhya
and Yoga schools, state scholars,[53][54] is that Yoga school accepts a "personal, yet essentially inactive, deity" or "personal god".[55] Samkhya
Samkhya
is known for its theory of guṇas (qualities, innate tendencies).[56] Guṇa, it states, are of three types: sattva being good, compassionate, illuminating, positive, and constructive; rajas is one of activity, chaotic, passion, impulsive, potentially good or bad; and tamas being the quality of darkness, ignorance, destructive, lethargic, negative. Everything, all life forms and human beings, state Samkhya
Samkhya
scholars, have these three guṇas, but in different proportions. The interplay of these guṇas defines the character of someone or something, of nature and determines the progress of life.[57][58] The Samkhya
Samkhya
theory of guṇas was widely discussed, developed and refined by various schools of Indian philosophies, including Buddhism.[59] Samkhya's philosophical treatises also influenced the development of various theories of Hindu ethics.[42] Vedānta[edit] Realization of the nature of Self-identity is the principal object of the Vedanta
Vedanta
system of Indian metaphysics. In the Upanishads, self-consciousness is not the first-person indexical self-awareness or the self-awareness which is self-reference without identification,[60] and also not the self-consciousness which as a kind of desire is satisfied by another self-consciousness.[61] It is Self-realisation; the realisation of the Self consisting of consciousness that leads all else.[62] The word Self-consciousness in the Upanishads
Upanishads
means the knowledge about the existence and nature of Brahman. It means the consciousness of our own real being, the primary reality.[63] Self-consciousness means Self-knowledge, the knowledge of Prajna i.e. of Prana which is Brahman.[64] According to the Upanishads
Upanishads
the Atman or Paramatman is phenomenally unknowable; it is the object of realisation. The Atman is unknowable in its essential nature; it is unknowable in its essential nature because it is the eternal subject who knows about everything including itself. The Atman is the knower and also the known.[65] Metaphysicians regard the Self either to be distinct from the Absolute or entirely identical with the Absolute. They have given form to three schools of thought – a) the Dualistic school, b) the Quasi-dualistic school and c) the Monistic school, as the result of their varying mystical experiences. Prakrti
Prakrti
and Atman, when treated as two separate and distinct aspects form the basis of the Dualism of the Shvetashvatara Upanishad.[66] Quasi-dualism is reflected in the Vaishnavite-monotheism of Ramanuja
Ramanuja
and the absolute Monism, in the teachings of Adi Shankara.[67] Self-consciousness is the Fourth state of consciousness or Turiya, the first three being Vaisvanara, Taijasa
Taijasa
and Prajna. These are the four states of individual consciousness. There are three distinct stages leading to Self-realisation. The First stage is in mystically apprehending the glory of the Self within us as though we were distinct from it. The Second stage is in identifying the "I-within" with the Self, that we are in essential nature entirely identical with the pure Self. The Third stage is in realising that the Atman is Brahman, that there is no difference between the Self and the Absolute. The Fourth stage is in realising "I am the Absolute" - Aham Brahman
Brahman
Asmi. The Fifth stage is in realising that Brahman
Brahman
is the "All" that exists, as also that which does not exist.[68] Buddhist metaphysics[edit] In Buddhist philosophy
Buddhist philosophy
there are various metaphysical traditions that have proposed different questions about the nature of reality based on the teachings of the Buddha
Buddha
in the early Buddhist texts. The Buddha
Buddha
of the early texts does not focus on metaphysical questions but on ethical and spiritual training and in some cases, he dismisses certain metaphysical questions as unhelpful and indeterminate Avyakta, which he recommends should be set aside. The development of systematic metaphysics arose after the Buddha's death with the rise of the Abhidharma
Abhidharma
traditions.[69] The Buddhist Abhidharma
Abhidharma
schools developed their analysis of reality based on the concept of dharmas which are the ultimate physical and mental events that make up experience and their relations to each other. Noa Ronkin has called their approach "phenomenological".[70] Later philosophical traditions include the Madhyamika
Madhyamika
school of Nagarjuna, which further developed the theory of the emptiness (shunyata) of all phenomena or dharmas which rejects any kind of substance. This has been interpreted as a form of anti-foundationalism and anti-realism which sees reality has having no ultimate essence or ground.[71] The Yogacara
Yogacara
school meanwhile promoted a theory called "awareness only" (vijnapti-matra) which has been interpreted as a form of Idealism
Idealism
or Phenomenology and denies the split between awareness itself and the objects of awareness.[72] Islamic metaphysics[edit] Islamic philosophy
Islamic philosophy
was highly active during Europe's 'Dark Ages', beginning with the arrival and translation of Aristotle
Aristotle
into Arabic. Scholasticism
Scholasticism
and the Middle Ages[edit] Between about 1100 and 1500, philosophy as a discipline took place as part of the Catholic church's teaching system, known as scholasticism. Scholastic philosophy took place within an established framework blending Christian theology with Aristotelian teachings. Although fundamental orthodoxies were not commonly challenged, there were nonetheless deep metaphysical disagreements, particularly over the problem of universals, which engaged Duns Scotus
Duns Scotus
and Pierre Abelard. William of Ockham
William of Ockham
is remembered for his principle of ontological parsimony. Rationalism
Rationalism
and Continental Rationalism[edit] Main article: Rationalism In the early modern period (17th and 18th centuries), the system-building scope of philosophy is often linked to the rationalist method of philosophy, that is the technique of deducing the nature of the world by pure reason. The scholastic concepts of substance and accident were employed.

Leibniz proposed in his Monadology
Monadology
a plurality of non-interacting substances. Descartes
Descartes
is famous for his Dualism of material and mental substances. Spinoza
Spinoza
believed reality was a single substance of God-or-nature.

British empiricism[edit] British empiricism
British empiricism
marked something of a reaction to rationalist and system-building philosophy, or speculative metaphysics as it was pejoratively termed. The sceptic David Hume
David Hume
famously declared that most metaphysics should be consigned to the flames (see below). Hume was notorious among his contemporaries as one of the first philosophers to openly doubt religion, but is better known now for his critique of causality. John Stuart Mill, Thomas Reid
Thomas Reid
and John Locke were less sceptical, embracing a more cautious style of metaphysics based on realism, common sense and science. Other philosophers, notably George Berkeley
George Berkeley
were led from empiricism to idealistic metaphysics. Wolff[edit] Christian Wolff had theoretical philosophy divided into an ontology or philosophia prima as a general metaphysics,[73] which arises as a preliminary to the distinction of the three "special metaphysics"[74] on the soul, world and God:[75][76] rational psychology,[77][78] rational cosmology[79] and rational theology.[80] The three disciplines are called empirical and rational because they are independent of revelation. This scheme, which is the counterpart of religious tripartition in creature, creation, and Creator, is best known to philosophical students by Kant's treatment of it in the Critique of Pure Reason. In the "Preface" of the 2nd edition of Kant's book, Wolff is defined "the greatest of all dogmatic philosophers."[81] Kant[edit] Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
attempted a grand synthesis and revision of the trends already mentioned: scholastic philosophy, systematic metaphysics, and skeptical empiricism, not to forget the burgeoning science of his day. As did the systems builders, he had an overarching framework in which all questions were to be addressed. Like Hume, who famously woke him from his 'dogmatic slumbers', he was suspicious of metaphysical speculation, and also places much emphasis on the limitations of the human mind. Kant
Kant
described his shift in metaphysics away from making claims about an objective noumenal world, towards exploring the subjective phenomenal world, as a Copernican Revolution, by analogy to (though opposite in direction to) Copernicus' shift from man (the subject) to the sun (an object) at the center of the universe. Kant
Kant
saw rationalist philosophers as aiming for a kind of metaphysical knowledge he defined as the synthetic apriori—that is knowledge that does not come from the senses (it is a priori) but is nonetheless about reality (synthetic). Inasmuch as it is about reality, it differs from abstract mathematical propositions (which he terms analytical apriori), and being apriori it is distinct from empirical, scientific knowledge (which he terms synthetic aposteriori). The only synthetic apriori knowledge we can have is of how our minds organise the data of the senses; that organising framework is space and time, which for Kant
Kant
have no mind-independent existence, but nonetheless operate uniformly in all humans. Apriori knowledge of space and time is all that remains of metaphysics as traditionally conceived. There is a reality beyond sensory data or phenomena, which he calls the realm of noumena; however, we cannot know it as it is in itself, but only as it appears to us. He allows himself to speculate that the origins of phenomenal God, morality, and free will might exist in the noumenal realm, but these possibilities have to be set against its basic unknowability for humans. Although he saw himself as having disposed of metaphysics, in a sense, he has generally been regarded in retrospect as having a metaphysics of his own, and as beginning the modern analytical conception of the subject. Kantians[edit] Nineteenth century philosophy was overwhelmingly influenced by Kant and his successors. Schopenhauer, Schelling, Fichte
Fichte
and Hegel
Hegel
all purveyed their own panoramic versions of German Idealism, Kant's own caution about metaphysical speculation, and refutation of idealism, having fallen by the wayside. The idealistic impulse continued into the early twentieth century with British idealists such as F. H. Bradley and J. M. E. McTaggart. Followers of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
took Hegel's dialectic view of history and re-fashioned it as materialism. Early analytical philosophy and positivism[edit] During the period when idealism was dominant in philosophy, science had been making great advances. The arrival of a new generation of scientifically minded philosophers led to a sharp decline in the popularity of idealism during the 1920s. Analytical philosophy
Analytical philosophy
was spearheaded by Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
and G. E. Moore. Russell and William James
William James
tried to compromise between idealism and materialism with the theory of neutral monism. The early to mid twentieth century philosophy also saw a trend to reject metaphysical questions as meaningless. The driving force behind this tendency was the philosophy of logical positivism as espoused by the Vienna Circle. At around the same time, the American pragmatists were steering a middle course between materialism and idealism. System-building metaphysics, with a fresh inspiration from science, was revived by A. N. Whitehead and Charles Hartshorne. Continental philosophy[edit] The forces that shaped analytical philosophy—the break with idealism, and the influence of science—were much less significant outside the English speaking world, although there was a shared turn toward language. Continental philosophy
Continental philosophy
continued in a trajectory from post Kantianism. The phenomenology of Husserl and others was intended as a collaborative project for the investigation of the features and structure of consciousness common to all humans, in line with Kant's basing his synthetic apriori on the uniform operation of consciousness. It was officially neutral with regards to ontology, but was nonetheless to spawn a number of metaphysical systems. Brentano's concept of intentionality would become widely influential, including on analytical philosophy. Heidegger, author of Being
Being
and Time, saw himself as re-focusing on Being-qua-being, introducing the novel concept of Dasein in the process. Classing himself an existentialist, Sartre
Sartre
wrote an extensive study of Being
Being
and Nothingness. The speculative realism movement marks a return to full blooded realism. Process metaphysics[edit] Further information: Process philosophy There are two fundamental aspects of everyday experience: change and persistence. Until recently, the Western philosophical tradition has arguably championed substance and persistence, with some notable exceptions, however. According to process thinkers, novelty, flux and accident do matter, and sometimes they constitute the ultimate reality. In a broad sense, process metaphysics is as old as Western philosophy, with figures such as Heraclitus, Plotinus, Duns Scotus, Leibniz, David Hume, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling, Gustav Theodor Fechner, Friedrich Adolf Trendelenburg, Charles Renouvier, Karl Marx, Ernst Mach, Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche, Émile Boutroux, Henri Bergson, Samuel Alexander and Nicolas Berdyaev. It seemingly remains an open question whether major "Continental" figures such as the late Martin Heidegger, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Gilles Deleuze, Michel Foucault, or Jacques Derrida should be included.[82] In a strict sense, process metaphysics may be limited to the works of a few founding fathers: G. W. F. Hegel, Charles Sanders Peirce, William James, Henri Bergson, A. N. Whitehead, and John Dewey. From a European perspective, there was a very significant and early Whiteheadian influence on the works of outstanding scholars such as Émile Meyerson (1859–1933), Louis Couturat (1868–1914), Jean Wahl (1888–1974), Robin George Collingwood (1889–1943), Philippe Devaux (1902–1979), Hans Jonas (1903–1993), Dorothy M. Emmett (1904–2000), Maurice Merleau Ponty (1908–1961), Enzo Paci (1911–1976), Charlie Dunbar Broad (1887–1971), Wolfe Mays (1912–), Ilya Prigogine (1917–2003), Jules Vuillemin (1920–2001), Jean Ladrière (1921–), Gilles Deleuze (1925–1995), Wolfhart Pannenberg (1928–), and Reiner Wiehl (1929–2010).[83] Later analytical philosophy[edit] While early analytic philosophy tended to reject metaphysical theorizing, under the influence of logical positivism, it was revived in the second half of the twentieth century. Philosophers such as David K. Lewis and David Armstrong developed elaborate theories on a range of topics such as universals, causation, possibility and necessity and abstract objects. However, the focus of analytical philosophy generally is away from the construction of all-encompassing systems and toward close analysis of individual ideas. Among the developments that led to the revival of metaphysical theorizing were Quine's attack on the analytic–synthetic distinction, which was generally taken to undermine Carnap's distinction between existence questions internal to a framework and those external to it.[84] The philosophy of fiction, the problem of empty names, and the debate over existence's status as a property have all come of relative obscurity into the limelight, while perennial issues such as free will, possible worlds, and the philosophy of time have had new life breathed into them.[85][86] The analytic view is of metaphysics as studying phenomenal human concepts rather than making claims about the noumenal world, so its style often blurs into philosophy of language and introspective psychology. Compared to system-building, it can seem very dry, stylistically similar to computer programming or mathematics. Despite, or perhaps because of, this scientific dryness, it is generally regarded as having made "progress" where other schools have not. For example, concepts from analytical metaphysics are now routinely employed and cited as useful guides in computational ontologies for databases and to frame computer natural language processing and knowledge representation software.

See also[edit]

Feminist metaphysics Metaphilosophy Metaethics Metaphysical fiction novels Personal identity Philosophical
Philosophical
logic Philosophical
Philosophical
realism Philosophical
Philosophical
theology Philosophy
Philosophy
of physics

References[edit]

^ Metaphysics
Metaphysics
(Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy). ^ What is it (that is, whatever it is that there is) like? Hall, Ned (2012). "David Lewis's Metaphysics". In Edward N. Zalta (ed). The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Philosophy
(Fall 2012 ed.). Center for the Study of Language and Information, Stanford University. Retrieved October 5, 2012. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) ^ In the English language, the word comes by way of the Medieval Latin metaphysica, the neuter plural of Medieval Greek
Medieval Greek
metaphysika.[1] Various dictionaries trace its first appearance in English to the mid-sixteenth century, although in some cases as early as 1387.[2] ^ Random House Dictionary Online – metaphysician ^  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Metaphysics". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/ontology ^ Peter Gay, The Enlightenment, vol. 1 (The Rise of Modern Paganism), Chapter 3, Section II, pp. 132–141. ^ Shoemaker, Sydney. " Time
Time
without change." The Journal of Philosophy 66.12 (1969): 363-381. ^ Identity and Individuality in Quantum Theory, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy ^ Koyré, Alexandre (1968). Metaphysics
Metaphysics
and Measurement. Harvard University Press. p. 80.  ^ J. W. N. Watkins (9 December 1957). " Epistemology
Epistemology
and Politics". Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society. Oxford University Press. 58: 79–102. doi:10.1007/978-94-009-3491-7_10. JSTOR 4544590.  ^ J. W. N. Watkins (1 July 1958). "Confirmable and Influential Metaphysics". Mind. Oxford University Press. 67 (267): 344–365. doi:10.1093/mind/LXVII.267.344. JSTOR 2251532.  ^ Fred D'Agostino (2005). Stuart Brown, ed. Dictionary of Twentieth-Century British Philosophers. 2 Volumes. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 1096. ISBN 1-44119241-7.  ^ Brekke, John S. (1986). "Scientific Imperatives in Social Work Research: Pluralism Is Not Skepticism". Social Service Review. 60 (4): 538–554. doi:10.1086/644398.  ^ Lakatos, Imre (1970). "Science: reason or religion". Section 1 of "Falsification and the methodology of scientific research programs" in Imre Lakatos
Imre Lakatos
& Alan Musgrave, Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-07826-1. ^ Hull, David (1967). "The Metaphysics
Metaphysics
of Evolution". British Journal for the History of Science. 3 (4): 309–337. doi:10.1017/s0007087400002892.  ^ Arenhart, Jonas R. B. (2012). "Ontological frameworks for scientific theories". Foundations of Science. 17 (4). doi:10.1007/s10699-012-9288-5.  ^ Hawking, Stephen (1999). "Does God play dice?". Retrieved September 2, 2012.  ^ See, e.g., Ronny Desmet and Michel Weber (edited by), Whitehead. The Algebra of Metaphysics. Applied Process Metaphysics
Metaphysics
Summer Institute Memorandum, Louvain-la-Neuve, Éditions Chromatika, 2010 (ISBN 978-2-930517-08-7). ^ Rodebush, Worth H. (1929). "The electron theory of valence". Chemical Reviews. American Chemical Society. 5 (4): 509–531. doi:10.1021/cr60020a007.  ^ Hawley, Katherine (2006). "Science as a Guide to Metaphysics?" (PDF). Synthese. Springer Netherlands. 149 (3): 451–470. doi:10.1007/s11229-005-0569-1. ISSN 0039-7857.  ^ Hume, David (1748). An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding. §132.  ^ Wittgenstein, Ludwig (1922), Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus  ^ Wittgenstein, Ludwig. "Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus". Major Works: Selected Philosophical
Philosophical
Writings. Harper Perennial Modern Classics, 2009. ^ Carnap, Rudolf (1935). "The Rejection of Metaphysics". Philosophy and Logical Syntax. Archived from the original on 14 January 2015. Retrieved September 2, 2012.  ^ Ayer, A. J. (1936). Language, Truth
Truth
and Logic. Victor Gollantz. p. 22.  ^ Carnap, Rudolf (1928). Der Logische Aufbau der Welt. Trans. 1967 by Rolf A. George as The Logical Structure of the World. University of California Press. pp. 333f. ISBN 0-520-01417-0.  ^ Hanfling, Oswald (2003). "Logical Positivism". Routledge History of Philosophy. IX. Routledge. pp. 193–194.  ^ Feser, Edward (2014). Scholastic Metaphysics: A Contemporary Introduction. p. 302. ISBN 978-3-86838-544-1.  ^ Chalmers, David; Manley, David; Wasserman, Ryan (2009). Metametaphysics. Oxford University Press.  ^ David Lewis-Williams. "Inside the Neolithic Mind: Consciousness, Cosmos, and the Realm of the Gods." ^ A. Huxley "The perennial philosophy" ^ Pinch, Geraldine (2004), Egyptian Mythology: A Guide to the Gods, Goddesses, and Traditions of ancient Egypt, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-517024-5  ^ Barnes (1987). ^ a b c Perkins, Franklin, " Metaphysics
Metaphysics
in Chinese Philosophy", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Philosophy
(Winter 2016 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2016/entries/chinese-metaphysics/>. ^ As universals were considered by Plato
Plato
to be ideal forms, this stance is confusingly also called Platonic idealism. This should not be confused with Idealism, as presented by philosophers such as Immanuel Kant: as Platonic abstractions are not spatial, temporal, or mental they are not compatible with the later Idealism's emphasis on mental existence. ^ The words "potentiality" and "actuality" are one set of translations from the original Greek terms of Aristotle. Other translations (including Latin) and alternative Greek terms are sometimes used in scholarly work on the subject. ^ "Where Thomas Nagel
Thomas Nagel
Went Wrong". The Chronicle of Higher Education.  ^ McKeon, R. (1941). Metaphysics. In The Basic Works of Aristotle
Aristotle
(p. 682). New York: Random House. ^ "Samkhya", Webster's College Dictionary (2010), Random House, ISBN 978-0-375-40741-3, Quote: " Samkhya
Samkhya
is a system of Hindu philosophy stressing the reality and duality of spirit and matter." ^ Mike Burley (2012), Classical Samkhya
Samkhya
and Yoga - An Indian Metaphysics
Metaphysics
of Experience, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-64887-5, pages 43–46 ^ a b Roy Perrett, Indian Ethics: Classical traditions and contemporary challenges, Volume 1 (Editor: P Bilimoria et al.), Ashgate, ISBN 978-0-7546-3301-3, pages 149–158 ^ Larson 1998, p. 9 ^

Eliott Deutsche (2000), in Philosophy
Philosophy
of Religion : Indian Philosophy
Philosophy
Vol 4 (Editor: Roy Perrett), Routledge, ISBN 978-0-8153-3611-2, pages 245–248; John A. Grimes, A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy: Sanskrit Terms Defined in English, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-3067-5, page 238

^ John A. Grimes, A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy: Sanskrit Terms Defined in English, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-3067-5, page 238 ^ Michaels 2004, p. 264 ^ Sen Gupta 1986, p. 6 ^ Radhakrishnan & Moore 1957, p. 89 ^ a b Samkhya
Samkhya
- Hinduism
Hinduism
Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
(2014) ^ Gerald James Larson (2011), Classical Sāṃkhya: An Interpretation of Its History and Meaning, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0503-3, pages 36–47 ^ Dasgupta 1922, p. 258. ^ Mike Burley (2012), Classical Samkhya
Samkhya
and Yoga - An Indian Metaphysics
Metaphysics
of Experience, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-64887-5, page 39 ^ a b Lloyd Pflueger, Person Purity and Power in Yogasutra, in Theory and Practice of Yoga (Editor: Knut Jacobsen), Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-3232-9, pages 38–39 ^ Mike Burley (2012), Classical Samkhya
Samkhya
and Yoga - An Indian Metaphysics
Metaphysics
of Experience, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-64887-5, page 39, 41 ^ Kovoor T. Behanan (2002), Yoga: Its Scientific Basis, Dover, ISBN 978-0-486-41792-9, pages 56–58 ^ Gerald James Larson (2011), Classical Sāṃkhya: An Interpretation of Its History and Meaning, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0503-3, pages 154–206 ^ James G. Lochtefeld, Guna, in The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A-M, Vol. 1, Rosen Publishing, ISBN 978-0-8239-3179-8, page 265 ^ T Bernard (1999), Hindu Philosophy, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-1373-1, pages 74–76 ^ Alex Wayman (1962), Buddhist Dependent Origination and the Samkhya gunas, Ethnos, Volume 27, Issue 1-4, pages 14–22, doi:10.1080/00141844.1962.9980914 ^ Andrew Brook. Self-Reference and Self-awareness. John Benjamins Publishing Co. p. 9.  ^ Robert B. Pippin. Hegel's concept of Self-consciouness. Uitgeverij Van Gorcum. p. 12.  ^ F.Max Muller. The Upanishads. Wordsworth Editions. p. 46.  ^ Theosophy of the Upanishads
Upanishads
1896. Kessinger Publishing Co. p. 12.  ^ Epiphanius Wilson. Sacred Books of the East. Cosimo Inc. p. 169.  ^ Ramachandra Dattatrya Ranade. The constructive survey of Upanishadic philosophy. Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. p. 198.  ^ Warren Mathews. World
World
Religions. Cengage Learning. p. 73.  ^ Alfred Bloom. Living in Amida's Universal Vow. World
World
Wisdom Inc. p. 249.  ^ Ramachandra Dattatrya Ranade. The constructive survey of Upanishadic philosophy. Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. p. 203.  ^ Ronkin, Noa; Early Buddhist Metaphysics: The Making of a Philosophical
Philosophical
Tradition, page 1 ^ Ronkin, Noa; Early Buddhist Metaphysics: The Making of a Philosophical
Philosophical
Tradition, page 5 ^ Westerhoff, Jan; Nagarjuna's Madhyamaka: A Philosophical Introduction (2009), Conclusion ^ Lusthaus, Dan, Buddhist Phenomenology ^ Hettche, Matt (November 11, 2014). "Christian Wolff. 8.1 Ontology (or Metaphysics
Metaphysics
Proper)". SEP. Retrieved March 24, 2018.  ^ Hettche, Matt (November 11, 2014). "Christian Wolff. 8. Theoretical Philosophy". SEP. Retrieved March 24, 2018.  ^ Mattey, George J. (2012). "UC Davis Philosophy
Philosophy
175 (Mattey) Lecture Notes: Rational Psychology". University of California, Davis, Department of Philosophy. Retrieved March 11, 2018.  ^ van Inwagen, Peter (October 31, 2014). "1. The Word 'Metaphysics' and the Concept
Concept
of Metaphysics". SEP. Retrieved March 11, 2018.  ^ Hettche, Matt (November 11, 2014). "Christian Wolff. 8.3 Psychology ( Empirical and Rational)". SEP. Retrieved March 24, 2018.  ^ Duignan, Brian (April 20, 2009). "Rational psychology". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 12, 2018.  ^ Hettche, Matt (November 11, 2014). "Christian Wolff. 8.2 Cosmology". SEP. Retrieved March 24, 2018.  ^ Hettche, Matt (November 11, 2014). "Christian Wolff. 8.4 Natural Theology". SEP. Retrieved March 24, 2018.  ^ Hettche, Matt (November 11, 2014). "Christian Wolff". SEP. Retrieved March 24, 2018.  ^ Cf. Michel Weber (ed.), After Whitehead: Rescher on Process Metaphysics, Frankfurt / Paris / Lancaster, ontos verlag, 2004, p. 46. ^ Cf. Michel Weber (ed.), After Whitehead: Rescher on Process Metaphysics, Frankfurt / Paris / Lancaster, ontos verlag, 2004, p. 45. ^ S. Yablo and A. Gallois, "Does Ontology
Ontology
Rest on a Mistake?", Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Volumes, Vol. 72, (1998), pp. 229–261, 263–283 first part ^ Everett, Anthony and Thomas Hofweber (eds.) (2000), Empty Names, Fiction and the Puzzles of Non-Existence. ^ Van Inwagen, Peter, and Dean Zimmerman (eds.) (1998), Metaphysics: The Big Questions.

Bibliography[edit]

Assiter, Alison (2009). Kierkegaard, metaphysics and political theory unfinished selves. London New York: Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8264-9831-1.  Butchvarov, Panayot (1979). Being
Being
Qua Being: A Theory of Identity, Existence and Predication. Bloomington and London: Indiana University Press. Crane, T and Farkas, K (2004). Metaphysics: A Guide and Anthology, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199261970. Gale, Richard M. (2002). The Blackwell Guide to Metaphysics. Oxford: Blackwell. Gay, Peter. (1966). The Enlightenment: An Interpretation (2 vols.). New York: W. W. Norton & Company. Harris, E. E. (1965). The Foundations of Metaphysics
Metaphysics
in Science. London: George Allen and Unwin. Harris, E. E. (2000). The Restitution of Metaphysics. New York: Humanity Books. Heisenberg, Werner (1958), "Atomic Physics and Causal Law," from The Physicist's Conception of Nature Kim, J. and Ernest Sosa Ed. (1999). Metaphysics: An Anthology. Blackwell Philosophy
Philosophy
Anthologies. Kim, J. and Ernest Sosa, Ed. (2000). A Companion to Metaphysics. Malden Massachusetts, Blackwell, Publishers. Koons, Robert C. and Pickavance, Timothy H. (2015), Metaphysics: The Fundamentals. Wiley-Blackwell. Le Poidevin R. & al. eds. (2009). The Routledge Companion to Metaphysics. New York, Routledge. Loux, M. J. (2006). Metaphysics: A Contemporary Introduction (3rd ed.). London: Routledge. Lowe, E. J. (2002). A Survey of Metaphysics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Tuomas E. Tahko (2015). An Introduction to Metametaphysics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Further reading[edit]

The London Philosophy
Philosophy
Study Guide offers many suggestions on what to read, depending on the student's familiarity with the subject: Logic & Metaphysics.

External links[edit]

Metaphysics
Metaphysics
at PhilPapers Metaphysics
Metaphysics
at the Indiana Philosophy
Philosophy
Ontology
Ontology
Project "Metaphysics". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  Metaphysics
Metaphysics
at Encyclopædia Britannica

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Śūnyatā Madhyamaka Yogacara Sautrāntika Svatantrika

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Vedanta

Acintya bheda abheda Advaita Bhedabheda Dvaita Dvaitadvaita Shuddhadvaita Vishishtadvaita

Navya-Nyāya

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Averroism Avicennism Illuminationism ʿIlm al-Kalām Sufi

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People

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0

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Contemporary

Analytic

Applied ethics Analytic feminism Analytical Marxism Communitarianism Consequentialism Critical rationalism Experimental philosophy Falsificationism Foundationalism / Coherentism Generative linguistics Internalism and Externalism Logical positivism Legal positivism Normative ethics Meta-ethics Moral realism Neo-Aristotelian Quinean naturalism Ordinary language philosophy Postanalytic philosophy Quietism Rawlsian Reformed epistemology Systemics Scientism Scientific realism Scientific skepticism Contemporary utilitarianism Vienna Circle Wittgensteinian

Continental

Critical theory Deconstruction Existentialism Feminist Frankfurt School New Historicism Hermeneutics Neo-Marxism Phenomenology Postmodernism Post-structuralism Social constructionism Structuralism Western Marxism

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Kyoto School Objectivism Russian cosmism more...

Positions

Aesthetics

Formalism Institutionalism Aesthetic response

Ethics

Consequentialism Deontology Virtue

Free will

Compatibilism Determinism Libertarianism

Metaphysics

Atomism Dualism Monism Naturalism

Epistemology

Constructivism Empiricism Idealism Particularism Fideism Rationalism / Reasonism Skepticism Solipsism

Mind

Behaviorism Emergentism Eliminativism Epiphenomenalism Functionalism Objectivism Subjectivism

Normativity

Absolutism Particularism Relativism Nihilism Skepticism Universalism

Ontology

Action Event Process

Reality

Anti-realism Conceptualism Idealism Materialism Naturalism Nominalism Physicalism Realism

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Philosophy
by region Philosophy-related lists Miscellaneous

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Portal Category Book

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Idealism

Forms

Absolute idealism Actual idealism British idealism German idealism Italian idealism Monistic idealism Epistemological idealism Platonic idealism Subjective idealism Objective idealism Transcendental idealism Indian idealism Monistic idealism
Monistic idealism
(Shaivism) Magical (thaumaturgic) idealism Buddhist Idealism
Idealism
(consciousness-only) Practical Idealism Political idealism

Related topics

Idea Plato's Theory of Ideas Anti-realism consciousness-only rationalism mentalism panpsychism phenomenalism idealistic pluralism Idealistic Studies

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Philosophy
Philosophy
of science

Concepts

Analysis Analytic–synthetic distinction A priori and a posteriori Causality Commensurability Consilience Construct Creative synthesis Demarcation problem Empirical evidence Explanatory power Fact Falsifiability Feminist method Ignoramus et ignorabimus Inductive reasoning Intertheoretic reduction Inquiry Nature Objectivity Observation Paradigm Problem of induction Scientific law Scientific method Scientific revolution Scientific theory Testability Theory choice Theory-ladenness Underdetermination Unity of science

Metatheory of science

Coherentism Confirmation holism Constructive empiricism Constructive realism Constructivist epistemology Contextualism Conventionalism Deductive-nomological model Hypothetico-deductive model Inductionism Epistemological anarchism Evolutionism Fallibilism Foundationalism Instrumentalism Pragmatism Model-dependent realism Naturalism Physicalism Positivism / Reductionism / Determinism Rationalism / Empiricism Received view / Semantic view of theories Scientific realism / Anti-realism Scientific essentialism Scientific formalism Scientific skepticism Scientism Structuralism Uniformitarianism Vitalism

Philosophy
Philosophy
of

Physics

thermal and statistical Motion

Chemistry Biology Environment Geography Social science Technology

Engineering Artificial intelligence Computer science

Information Mind Psychiatry Psychology Perception Space
Space
and time

Related topics

Alchemy Criticism of science Epistemology Faith and rationality History and philosophy of science History of science History of evolutionary thought Logic Metaphysics Pseudoscience Relationship between religion and science Rhetoric of science Sociology
Sociology
of scientific knowledge Sociology
Sociology
of scientific ignorance

Philosophers of science by era

Ancient

Plato Aristotle Stoicism Epicureans

Medieval

Averroes Avicenna Roger Bacon William of Ockham Hugh of Saint Victor Dominicus Gundissalinus Robert Kilwardby

Early modern

Francis Bacon Thomas Hobbes René Descartes Galileo Galilei Pierre Gassendi Isaac Newton David Hume

Classical modern

Immanuel Kant Friedrich Schelling William Whewell Auguste Comte John Stuart Mill Herbert Spencer Wilhelm Wundt Charles Sanders Peirce Wilhelm Windelband Henri Poincaré Pierre Duhem Rudolf Steiner Karl Pearson

Late modern

Alfred North Whitehead Bertrand Russell Albert Einstein Otto Neurath C. D. Broad Michael Polanyi Hans Reichenbach Rudolf Carnap Karl Popper Carl Gustav Hempel W. V. O. Quine Thomas Kuhn Imre Lakatos Paul Feyerabend Jürgen Habermas Ian Hacking Bas van Fraassen Larry Laudan Daniel Dennett

Portal Category

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Positivism

Perspectives

Antihumanism Empiricism Rationalism Scientism

Declinations

Legal positivism Logical positivism / analytic philosophy Positivist school Postpositivism Sociological positivism Machian positivism (empiriocriticism) Rankean historical positivism Polish positivism Russian positivism (empiriomonism)

Principal concepts

Consilience Demarcation Evidence Induction Justificationism Pseudoscience Critique of metaphysics Unity of science Verificationism

Antitheses

Antipositivism Confirmation holism Critical theory Falsifiability Geisteswissenschaft Hermeneutics Historicism Historism Human science Humanities Problem of induction Reflectivism

Related paradigm shifts in the history of science

Non-Euclidean geometry
Non-Euclidean geometry
(1830s) Heisenberg uncertainty principle (1927)

Related topics

Behavioralism Critical rationalism Criticism of science Epistemological idealism Epistemology Holism
Holism
in anthropology Instrumentalism Modernism Naturalism in literature Nomothetic–idiographic distinction Objectivity in science Operationalism Phenomenalism Philosophy
Philosophy
of science

Deductive-nomological model Ramsey sentence Sense-data theory

Qualitative research Relationship between religion and science Sociology Social science
Social science
(Philosophy) Structural functionalism Structuralism Structuration theory

Positivist-related debate

Method

1890s  Methodenstreit
Methodenstreit
(economics) 1909–1959 Werturteilsstreit 1960s Positivismusstreit 1980s Fourth Great Debate in international relations 1990s Science Wars

Contributions

1830 The Course in Positive Philosophy 1848 A General View of Positivism 1869 Critical History of Philosophy 1879  Idealism
Idealism
and Positivism 1886 The Analysis of Sensations 1927 The Logic
Logic
of Modern Physics 1936 Language, Truth, and Logic 1959 The Two Cultures 2001 The Universe
Universe
in a Nutshell

Proponents

Richard Avenarius A. J. Ayer Auguste Comte Eugen Dühring Émile Durkheim Ernst Laas Ernst Mach Berlin Circle Vienna Circle

Criticism

1909  Materialism
Materialism
and Empirio-criticism 1923 History and Class Consciousness 1934 The Logic
Logic
of Scientific Discovery 1936 The Poverty of Historicism 1942  World
World
Hypotheses 1951 Two Dogmas of Empiricism 1960  Truth
Truth
and Method 1962 The Structure of Scientific Revolutions 1963 Conjectures and Refutations 1964 One-Dimensional Man 1968  Knowledge
Knowledge
and Human Interests 1978 The Poverty of Theory 1980 The Scientific Image 1986 The Rhetoric of Economics

Critics

Theodor W. Adorno Gaston Bachelard Mario Bunge Wilhelm Dilthey Paul Feyerabend Hans-Georg Gadamer Thomas Kuhn György Lukács Karl Popper Willard Van Orman Quine Max Weber

Concepts in contention

Knowledge Phronesis Truth Verstehen

Category

Portals Access related topics

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