Extension (predicate Logic)
The extension of a predicatea truthvalued functionis the set of tuples of values that, used as arguments, satisfy the predicate. Such a set of tuples is a relation. Examples For example, the statement "''d2'' is the weekday following ''d1''" can be seen as a truth function associating to each tuple (''d2'', ''d1'') the value ''true'' or ''false''. The extension of this truth function is, by convention, the set of all such tuples associated with the value ''true'', i.e. By examining this extension we can conclude that "Tuesday is the weekday following Saturday" (for example) is false. Using setbuilder notation, the extension of the ''n''ary predicate \Phi can be written as :\\,. Relationship with characteristic function If the values 0 and 1 in the range of a characteristic function are identified with the values false and true, respectivelymaking the characteristic function a predicate, then for all relations ''R'' and predicates \Phi the following two statements are eq ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Bing] [Yahoo] [DuckDuckGo] [Baidu] 

Predicate (mathematical Logic)
In logic, a predicate is a symbol which represents a property or a relation. For instance, in the first order formula P(a), the symbol P is a predicate which applies to the individual constant a. Similarly, in the formula R(a,b), R is a predicate which applies to the individual constants a and b. In the semantics of logic, predicates are interpreted as relations. For instance, in a standard semantics for firstorder logic, the formula R(a,b) would be true on an interpretation if the entities denoted by a and b stand in the relation denoted by R. Since predicates are nonlogical symbols, they can denote different relations depending on the interpretation used to interpret them. While firstorder logic only includes predicates which apply to individual constants, other logics may allow predicates which apply to other predicates. Predicates in different systems * In propositional logic, atomic formulas are sometimes regarded as zeroplace predicates In a sense, these are nu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Bing] [Yahoo] [DuckDuckGo] [Baidu] 

Truthvalue
In logic and mathematics, a truth value, sometimes called a logical value, is a value indicating the relation of a proposition to truth, which in classical logic has only two possible values ('' true'' or ''false''). Computing In some programming languages, any expression can be evaluated in a context that expects a Boolean data type. Typically (though this varies by programming language) expressions like the number zero, the empty string, empty lists, and null evaluate to false, and strings with content (like "abc"), other numbers, and objects evaluate to true. Sometimes these classes of expressions are called "truthy" and "falsy" / "false". Classical logic In classical logic, with its intended semantics, the truth values are '' true'' (denoted by ''1'' or the verum ⊤), and '' untrue'' or ''false'' (denoted by ''0'' or the falsum ⊥); that is, classical logic is a twovalued logic. This set of two values is also called the Boolean domain. Corresponding semantics o ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Bing] [Yahoo] [DuckDuckGo] [Baidu] 

Function (mathematics)
In mathematics, a function from a set to a set assigns to each element of exactly one element of .; the words map, mapping, transformation, correspondence, and operator are often used synonymously. The set is called the domain of the function and the set is called the codomain of the function.Codomain ''Encyclopedia of Mathematics'Codomain. ''Encyclopedia of Mathematics''/ref> The earliest known approach to the notion of function can be traced back to works of Persian mathematicians AlBiruni and Sharaf alDin alTusi. Functions were originally the idealization of how a varying quantity depends on another quantity. For example, the position of a planet is a ''function'' of time. Historically, the concept was elaborated with the infinitesimal calculus at the end of the 17th century, and, until the 19th century, the functions that were considered were differentiable (that is, they had a high degree of regularity). The concept of a function was formalized at the end of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Bing] [Yahoo] [DuckDuckGo] [Baidu] 

Set (mathematics)
A set is the mathematical model for a collection of different things; a set contains '' elements'' or ''members'', which can be mathematical objects of any kind: numbers, symbols, points in space, lines, other geometrical shapes, variables, or even other sets. The set with no element is the empty set; a set with a single element is a singleton. A set may have a finite number of elements or be an infinite set. Two sets are equal if they have precisely the same elements. Sets are ubiquitous in modern mathematics. Indeed, set theory, more specifically Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory, has been the standard way to provide rigorous foundations for all branches of mathematics since the first half of the 20th century. History The concept of a set emerged in mathematics at the end of the 19th century. The German word for set, ''Menge'', was coined by Bernard Bolzano in his work '' Paradoxes of the Infinite''. Georg Cantor, one of the founders of set theory, gave the following ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Bing] [Yahoo] [DuckDuckGo] [Baidu] 

Tuple
In mathematics, a tuple is a finite ordered list (sequence) of elements. An tuple is a sequence (or ordered list) of elements, where is a nonnegative integer. There is only one 0tuple, referred to as ''the empty tuple''. An tuple is defined inductively using the construction of an ordered pair. Mathematicians usually write tuples by listing the elements within parentheses "" and separated by a comma and a space; for example, denotes a 5tuple. Sometimes other symbols are used to surround the elements, such as square brackets " nbsp; or angle brackets "⟨ ⟩". Braces "" are used to specify arrays in some programming languages but not in mathematical expressions, as they are the standard notation for sets. The term ''tuple'' can often occur when discussing other mathematical objects, such as vectors. In computer science, tuples come in many forms. Most typed functional programming languages implement tuples directly as product types, tightly associated with al ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Bing] [Yahoo] [DuckDuckGo] [Baidu] 

Relation (mathematics)
In mathematics, a relation on a set may, or may not, hold between two given set members. For example, ''"is less than"'' is a relation on the set of natural numbers; it holds e.g. between 1 and 3 (denoted as 1 is an asymmetric relation, but ≥ is not. Again, the previous 3 alternatives are far from being exhaustive; as an example over the natural numbers, the relation defined by is neither symmetric nor antisymmetric, let alone asymmetric. ; : for all , if and then . A transitive relation is irreflexive if and only if it is asymmetric. For example, "is ancestor of" is a transitive relation, while "is parent of" is not. ; : for all , if then or . This property is sometimes called "total", which is distinct from the definitions of "total" given in the section . ; : for all , or . This property is sometimes called "total", which is distinct from the definitions of "total" given in the section . ; : every nonempty subset of contains a minimal element with respect ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Bing] [Yahoo] [DuckDuckGo] [Baidu] 

Setbuilder Notation
In set theory and its applications to logic, mathematics, and computer science, setbuilder notation is a mathematical notation for describing a set by enumerating its elements, or stating the properties that its members must satisfy. Defining sets by properties is also known as set comprehension, set abstraction or as defining a set's intension. Sets defined by enumeration A set can be described directly by enumerating all of its elements between curly brackets, as in the following two examples: * \ is the set containing the four numbers 3, 7, 15, and 31, and nothing else. * \=\ is the set containing , , and , and nothing else (there is no order among the elements of a set). This is sometimes called the "roster method" for specifying a set. When it is desired to denote a set that contains elements from a regular sequence, an ellipses notation may be employed, as shown in the next examples: * \ is the set of integers between 1 and 100 inclusive. * \ is the set of na ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Bing] [Yahoo] [DuckDuckGo] [Baidu] 

Arity
Arity () is the number of arguments or operands taken by a function, operation or relation in logic, mathematics, and computer science. In mathematics, arity may also be named ''rank'', but this word can have many other meanings in mathematics. In logic and philosophy, it is also called adicity and degree. In linguistics, it is usually named valency. Examples The term "arity" is rarely employed in everyday usage. For example, rather than saying "the arity of the addition operation is 2" or "addition is an operation of arity 2" one usually says "addition is a binary operation". In general, the naming of functions or operators with a given arity follows a convention similar to the one used for ''n''based numeral systems such as binary and hexadecimal. One combines a Latin prefix with the ary ending; for example: * A nullary function takes no arguments. ** Example: f()=2 * A unary function takes one argument. ** Example: f(x)=2x * A binary function takes two arguments. ** Examp ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Bing] [Yahoo] [DuckDuckGo] [Baidu] 

Indicator Function
In mathematics, an indicator function or a characteristic function of a subset of a set is a function that maps elements of the subset to one, and all other elements to zero. That is, if is a subset of some set , one has \mathbf_(x)=1 if x\in A, and \mathbf_(x)=0 otherwise, where \mathbf_A is a common notation for the indicator function. Other common notations are I_A, and \chi_A. The indicator function of is the Iverson bracket of the property of belonging to ; that is, :\mathbf_(x)= \in A For example, the Dirichlet function is the indicator function of the rational numbers as a subset of the real numbers. Definition The indicator function of a subset of a set is a function \mathbf_A \colon X \to \ defined as \mathbf_A(x) := \begin 1 ~&\text~ x \in A~, \\ 0 ~&\text~ x \notin A~. \end The Iverson bracket provides the equivalent notation, \in A/math> or to be used instead of \mathbf_(x)\,. The function \mathbf_A is sometimes denoted , , , or even just . N ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Bing] [Yahoo] [DuckDuckGo] [Baidu] 

Extensional Logic
Intensional logic is an approach to predicate logic that extends firstorder logic, which has quantifiers that range over the individuals of a universe ('' extensions''), by additional quantifiers that range over terms that may have such individuals as their value ('' intensions''). The distinction between intensional and extensional entities is parallel to the distinction between sense and reference. Overview Logic is the study of proof and deduction as manifested in language (abstracting from any underlying psychological or biological processes). Logic is not a closed, completed science, and presumably, it will never stop developing: the logical analysis can penetrate into varying depths of the language (sentences regarded as atomic, or splitting them to predicates applied to individual terms, or even revealing such fine logical structures like modal, temporal, dynamic, epistemic ones). In order to achieve its special goal, logic was forced to develop its own formal tools ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Bing] [Yahoo] [DuckDuckGo] [Baidu] 

Extensional Set
In mathematics, a setoid (''X'', ~) is a set (or type) ''X'' equipped with an equivalence relation ~. A setoid may also be called Eset, Bishop set, or extensional set. Setoids are studied especially in proof theory and in typetheoretic foundations of mathematics. Often in mathematics, when one defines an equivalence relation on a set, one immediately forms the quotient set (turning equivalence into equality). In contrast, setoids may be used when a difference between identity and equivalence must be maintained, often with an interpretation of intensional equality (the equality on the original set) and extensional equality (the equivalence relation, or the equality on the quotient set). Proof theory In proof theory, particularly the proof theory of constructive mathematics based on the Curry–Howard correspondence, one often identifies a mathematical proposition with its set of proofs (if any). A given proposition may have many proofs, of course; according to the prin ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Bing] [Yahoo] [DuckDuckGo] [Baidu] 

Extensionality
In logic, extensionality, or extensional equality, refers to principles that judge objects to be equal if they have the same external properties. It stands in contrast to the concept of intensionality, which is concerned with whether the internal definitions of objects are the same. Example Consider the two functions ''f'' and ''g'' mapping from and to natural numbers, defined as follows: * To find ''f''(''n''), first add 5 to ''n'', then multiply by 2. * To find ''g''(''n''), first multiply ''n'' by 2, then add 10. These functions are extensionally equal; given the same input, both functions always produce the same value. But the definitions of the functions are not equal, and in that intensional sense the functions are not the same. Similarly, in natural language there are many predicates (relations) that are intensionally different but are extensionally identical. For example, suppose that a town has one person named Joe, who is also the oldest person in the town. Then, t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Bing] [Yahoo] [DuckDuckGo] [Baidu] 