Digital Signal (signal Processing)
In the context of digital signal processing (DSP), a digital signal is a discrete time, quantized amplitude signal. In other words, it is a sampled signal consisting of samples that take on values from a discrete set (a countable set that can be mapped onetoone to a subset of integers). If that discrete set is finite, the discrete values can be represented with digital words of a finite width. Most commonly, these discrete values are represented as fixedpoint words (either proportional to the waveform values or companded) or floatingpoint words. The process of analogtodigital conversion produces a digital signal. The conversion process can be thought of as occurring in two steps: # sampling, which produces a continuousvalued discretetime signal, and # quantization, which replaces each sample value with an approximation selected from a given discrete set (for example, by truncating or rounding). It can be shown that an analog signal can be reconstructed after c ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Digital
Digital usually refers to something using discrete digits, often binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics, electronic circuits which operate using digital signals **Digital camera, which captures and stores digital images ***Digital versus film photography **Digital computer, a computer that handles information represented by discrete values **Digital recording, information recorded using a digital signal Socioeconomic phenomena *Digital culture, the anthropological dimension of the digital social changes * Digital divide, a form of economic and social inequality in access to or use of information and communication technologies * Digital economy, an economy based on computing and telecommunications resources Other uses in technology and computing * Digital data, discrete data, usually represented using binary numbers *Digital marketing, search engine & social media presence booster, usually represented using online visibility. * Digital media, media ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Discrete Cosine
Discrete may refer to: *Discrete particle or quantum in physics, for example in quantum theory *Discrete device, an electronic component with just one circuit element, either passive or active, other than an integrated circuit *Discrete group, a group with the discrete topology *Discrete category, category whose only arrows are identity arrows *Discrete mathematics, the study of structures without continuity *Discrete optimization, a branch of optimization in applied mathematics and computer science *Discrete probability distribution, a random variable that can be counted *Discrete space, a simple example of a topological space *Discrete spline interpolation, the discrete analog of ordinary spline interpolation *Discrete time, noncontinuous time, which results in discretetime samples *Discrete variable In mathematics and statistics, a quantitative variable may be continuous or discrete if they are typically obtained by ''measuring'' or ''counting'', respectively. If it can ta ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Power Of Two
A power of two is a number of the form where is an integer, that is, the result of exponentiation with number two as the base and integer as the exponent. In a context where only integers are considered, is restricted to nonnegative values, so there are 1, 2, and 2 multiplied by itself a certain number of times. The first ten powers of 2 for nonnegative values of are: : 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, ... Because two is the base of the binary numeral system, powers of two are common in computer science. Written in binary, a power of two always has the form 100...000 or 0.00...001, just like a power of 10 in the decimal system. Computer science Two to the exponent of , written as , is the number of ways the bits in a binary word of length can be arranged. A word, interpreted as an unsigned integer, can represent values from 0 () to () inclusively. Corresponding signed integer values can be positive, negative and zero; see signed n ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Pulsecode Modulation
Pulsecode modulation (PCM) is a method used to digitally represent sampled analog signals. It is the standard form of digital audio in computers, compact discs, digital telephony and other digital audio applications. In a PCM stream, the amplitude of the analog signal is sampled regularly at uniform intervals, and each sample is quantized to the nearest value within a range of digital steps. Linear pulsecode modulation (LPCM) is a specific type of PCM in which the quantization levels are linearly uniform. This is in contrast to PCM encodings in which quantization levels vary as a function of amplitude (as with the Alaw algorithm or the Î¼law algorithm). Though ''PCM'' is a more general term, it is often used to describe data encoded as LPCM. A PCM stream has two basic properties that determine the stream's fidelity to the original analog signal: the sampling rate, which is the number of times per second that samples are taken; and the bit depth, which determines the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

32bit
In computer architecture, 32bit computing refers to computer systems with a processor, memory, and other major system components that operate on data in 32bit units. Compared to smaller bit widths, 32bit computers can perform large calculations more efficiently and process more data per clock cycle. Typical 32bit personal computers also have a 32bit address bus, permitting up to 4 GB of RAM to be accessed; far more than previous generations of system architecture allowed. 32bit designs have been used since the earliest days of electronic computing, in experimental systems and then in large mainframe and minicomputer systems. The first hybrid 16/32bit microprocessor, the Motorola 68000, was introduced in the late 1970s and used in systems such as the original Apple Macintosh. Fully 32bit microprocessors such as the Motorola 68020 and Intel 80386 were launched in the early to mid 1980s and became dominant by the early 1990s. This generation of personal computers coincided ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

24bit
Notable 24bit machines include the CDC 924 â€“ a 24bit version of the CDC 1604, CDC lower 3000 series, SDS 930 and SDS 940, the ICT 1900 series, the Elliott 4100 series, and the Datacraft minicomputers/Harris H series. The term SWORD is sometimes used to describe a 24bit data type with the S prefix referring to sesqui. The range of unsigned integers that can be represented in 24 bits is 0 to 16,777,215 ( in hexadecimal). The range of signed integers that can be represented in 24 bits is âˆ’8,388,608 to 8,388,607. Usage The IBM System/360, announced in 1964, was a popular computer system with 24bit addressing and 32bit general registers and arithmetic. The early 1980s saw the first popular personal computers, including the IBM PC/AT with an Intel 80286 processor using 24bit addressing and 16bit general registers and arithmetic, and the Apple Macintosh 128K with a Motorola 68000 processor featuring 24bit addressing and 32bit registers. The eZ80 is a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

16bit
16bit microcomputers are microcomputers that use 16bit microprocessors. A 16bit register can store 216 different values. The range of integer values that can be stored in 16 bits depends on the integer representation used. With the two most common representations, the range is 0 through 65,535 (216 âˆ’ 1) for representation as an (unsigned) binary number, and âˆ’32,768 (âˆ’1 Ã— 215) through 32,767 (215 âˆ’ 1) for representation as two's complement. Since 216 is 65,536, a processor with 16bit memory addresses can directly access 64 KB (65,536 bytes) of byteaddressable memory. If a system uses segmentation with 16bit segment offsets, more can be accessed. 16bit architecture The MIT Whirlwind ( 1951) was quite possibly the firstever 16bit computer. It was an unusual word size for the era; most systems used sixbit character code and used a word length of some multiple of 6bits. This changed with the effort to introduce ASCII, which used a 7bit code and naturally led ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

8bit
In computer architecture, 8bit Integer (computer science), integers or other Data (computing), data units are those that are 8 bits wide (1 octet (computing), octet). Also, 8bit central processing unit (CPU) and arithmetic logic unit (ALU) architectures are those that are based on processor register, registers or Bus (computing), data buses of that size. Memory addresses (and thus address buses) for 8bit CPUs are generally larger than 8bit, usually 16bit. 8bit microcomputers are microcomputers that use 8bit microprocessors. The term '8bit' is also applied to the character sets that could be used on computers with 8bit bytes, the best known being various forms of extended ASCII, including the ISO/IEC 8859 series of national character sets especially ISO/IEC 88591, Latin 1 for English and Western European languages. The IBM System/360 introduced byteaddressable memory with 8bit bytes, as opposed to bitaddressable or decimal digitaddressable or wordaddressable memory ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Saturation Arithmetic
Saturation arithmetic is a version of arithmetic in which all operations, such as addition and multiplication, are limited to a fixed range between a minimum and maximum value. If the result of an operation is greater than the maximum, it is set (" clamped") to the maximum; if it is below the minimum, it is clamped to the minimum. The name comes from how the value becomes "saturated" once it reaches the extreme values; further additions to a maximum or subtractions from a minimum will not change the result. For example, if the valid range of values is from âˆ’100 to 100, the following ''saturating arithmetic operations'' produce the following values: *60 + 30 â†’ 90. *60 + 43 â†’ 100. (''not'' the expected 103.) *(60 + 43) âˆ’ (75 + 25) â†’ 0. (''not'' the expected 3.) (100 âˆ’ 100 â†’ 0.) *10 Ã— 11 â†’ 100. (''not'' the expected 110.) *99 Ã— 99 â†’ 100. (''not'' the expected 9801.) *30 Ã— (5 âˆ’ 1) â†’ 100. (''not'' the expected 120.) (30 Ã— 4 â†’ 100.) *(30 Ã— 5) âˆ’ (30 Ã— 1) â ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Nyquist Limit
In signal processing, the Nyquist frequency (or folding frequency), named after Harry Nyquist, is a characteristic of a sampler, which converts a continuous function or signal into a discrete sequence. In units of cycles per second ( Hz), its value is onehalf of the sampling rate (samples per second). When the highest frequency (bandwidth) of a signal is less than the Nyquist frequency of the sampler, the resulting discretetime sequence is said to be free of the distortion known as aliasing, and the corresponding sample rate is said to be above the Nyquist rate for that particular signal. In a typical application of sampling, one first chooses the highest frequency to be preserved and recreated, based on the expected content (voice, music, etc.) and desired fidelity. Then one inserts an antialiasing filter ahead of the sampler. Its job is to attenuate the frequencies above that limit. Finally, based on the characteristics of the filter, one chooses a sample rate (and corre ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Quantization (signal Processing)
Quantization, in mathematics and digital signal processing, is the process of mapping input values from a large set (often a continuous set) to output values in a (countable) smaller set, often with a finite number of elements. Rounding and truncation are typical examples of quantization processes. Quantization is involved to some degree in nearly all digital signal processing, as the process of representing a signal in digital form ordinarily involves rounding. Quantization also forms the core of essentially all lossy compression algorithms. The difference between an input value and its quantized value (such as roundoff error) is referred to as quantization error. A device or algorithmic function that performs quantization is called a quantizer. An analogtodigital converter is an example of a quantizer. Example For example, rounding a real number x to the nearest integer value forms a very basic type of quantizer â€“ a ''uniform'' one. A typical (''midtread'') uni ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Sampling (signal Processing)
In signal processing, sampling is the reduction of a continuoustime signal to a discretetime signal. A common example is the conversion of a sound wave to a sequence of "samples". A sample is a value of the signal at a point in time and/or space; this definition differs from the usage in statistics, which refers to a set of such values. A sampler is a subsystem or operation that extracts samples from a continuous signal. A theoretical ideal sampler produces samples equivalent to the instantaneous value of the continuous signal at the desired points. The original signal can be reconstructed from a sequence of samples, up to the Nyquist limit, by passing the sequence of samples through a type of lowpass filter called a reconstruction filter. Theory Functions of space, time, or any other dimension can be sampled, and similarly in two or more dimensions. For functions that vary with time, let ''S''(''t'') be a continuous function (or "signal") to be sampled, and let samp ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 