Constructive Proof
In mathematics, a constructive proof is a method of proof that demonstrates the existence of a mathematical object by creating or providing a method for creating the object. This is in contrast to a nonconstructive proof (also known as an existence proof or ''pure existence theorem''), which proves the existence of a particular kind of object without providing an example. For avoiding confusion with the stronger concept that follows, such a constructive proof is sometimes called an effective proof. A constructive proof may also refer to the stronger concept of a proof that is valid in constructive mathematics. Constructivism is a mathematical philosophy that rejects all proof methods that involve the existence of objects that are not explicitly built. This excludes, in particular, the use of the law of the excluded middle, the axiom of infinity, and the axiom of choice, and induces a different meaning for some terminology (for example, the term "or" has a stronger meaning in con ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Intuitionistic Type Theory
Intuitionistic type theory (also known as constructive type theory, or MartinLöf type theory) is a type theory and an alternative foundation of mathematics. Intuitionistic type theory was created by Per MartinLöf, a Swedish mathematician and philosopher, who first published it in 1972. There are multiple versions of the type theory: MartinLöf proposed both intensional and extensional variants of the theory and early impredicative versions, shown to be inconsistent by Girard's paradox, gave way to predicative versions. However, all versions keep the core design of constructive logic using dependent types. Design MartinLöf designed the type theory on the principles of mathematical constructivism. Constructivism requires any existence proof to contain a "witness". So, any proof of "there exists a prime greater than 1000" must identify a specific number that is both prime and greater than 1000. Intuitionistic type theory accomplished this design goal by internalizi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Grete Hermann
Grete Hermann (2 March 1901 – 15 April 1984) was a German mathematician and philosopher noted for her work in mathematics, physics, philosophy and education. She is noted for her early philosophical work on the foundations of quantum mechanics, and is now known most of all for an early, but longignored critique of a " no hiddenvariables theorem" by John von Neumann. It has been suggested that, had her critique not remained nearly unknown for decades, the historical development of quantum mechanics might have been very different. Mathematics Hermann studied mathematics at Göttingen under Emmy Noether and Edmund Landau, where she achieved her PhD in 1926. Her doctoral thesis, "Die Frage der endlich vielen Schritte in der Theorie der Polynomideale" (in English "The Question of Finitely Many Steps in Polynomial Ideal Theory"), published in ''Mathematische Annalen'', is the foundational paper for computer algebra. It first established the existence of algorithms (incl ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Paul Gordan
__NOTOC__ Paul Albert Gordan (27 April 1837 – 21 December 1912) was a JewishGerman mathematician, a student of Carl Jacobi at the University of Königsberg before obtaining his PhD at the University of Breslau (1862),. and a professor at the University of ErlangenNuremberg. He was born in Breslau, Germany (now Wrocław, Poland), and died in Erlangen, Germany. He was known as "the king of invariant theory"... His most famous result is that the ring of invariants of binary forms of fixed degree is finitely generated. Clebsch–Gordan coefficients are named after him and Alfred Clebsch. Gordan also served as the thesis advisor for Emmy Noether. A famous quote attributed to Gordan about David Hilbert's proof of Hilbert's basis theorem, a result which vastly generalized his result on invariants, is "This is not mathematics; this is theology."Hermann Weyl, ''David Hilbert. 18621943'', Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society (1944). The proof in question w ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Zero Of A Function
In mathematics, a zero (also sometimes called a root) of a real, complex, or generally vectorvalued function f, is a member x of the domain of f such that f(x) ''vanishes'' at x; that is, the function f attains the value of 0 at x, or equivalently, x is the solution to the equation f(x) = 0. A "zero" of a function is thus an input value that produces an output of 0. A root of a polynomial is a zero of the corresponding polynomial function. The fundamental theorem of algebra shows that any nonzero polynomial has a number of roots at most equal to its degree, and that the number of roots and the degree are equal when one considers the complex roots (or more generally, the roots in an algebraically closed extension) counted with their multiplicities. For example, the polynomial f of degree two, defined by f(x)=x^25x+6 has the two roots (or zeros) that are 2 and 3. f(2)=2^25\times 2+6= 0\textf(3)=3^25\times 3+6=0. If the function maps real numbers to real numbers, th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Complex Number
In mathematics, a complex number is an element of a number system that extends the real numbers with a specific element denoted , called the imaginary unit and satisfying the equation i^= 1; every complex number can be expressed in the form a + bi, where and are real numbers. Because no real number satisfies the above equation, was called an imaginary number by René Descartes. For the complex number a+bi, is called the , and is called the . The set of complex numbers is denoted by either of the symbols \mathbb C or . Despite the historical nomenclature "imaginary", complex numbers are regarded in the mathematical sciences as just as "real" as the real numbers and are fundamental in many aspects of the scientific description of the natural world. Complex numbers allow solutions to all polynomial equations, even those that have no solutions in real numbers. More precisely, the fundamental theorem of algebra asserts that every nonconstant polynomial equation with real ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Polynomial
In mathematics, a polynomial is an expression consisting of indeterminates (also called variables) and coefficients, that involves only the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and positiveinteger powers of variables. An example of a polynomial of a single indeterminate is . An example with three indeterminates is . Polynomials appear in many areas of mathematics and science. For example, they are used to form polynomial equations, which encode a wide range of problems, from elementary word problems to complicated scientific problems; they are used to define polynomial functions, which appear in settings ranging from basic chemistry and physics to economics and social science; they are used in calculus and numerical analysis to approximate other functions. In advanced mathematics, polynomials are used to construct polynomial rings and algebraic varieties, which are central concepts in algebra and algebraic geometry. Etymology The word ''polynomial'' joi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Hilbert's Nullstellensatz
In mathematics, Hilbert's Nullstellensatz (German for "theorem of zeros," or more literally, "zerolocustheorem") is a theorem that establishes a fundamental relationship between geometry and algebra. This relationship is the basis of algebraic geometry. It relates algebraic sets to ideals in polynomial rings over algebraically closed fields. This relationship was discovered by David Hilbert, who proved the Nullstellensatz in his second major paper on invariant theory in 1893 (following his seminal 1890 paper in which he proved Hilbert's basis theorem). Formulation Let ''k'' be a field (such as the rational numbers) and ''K'' be an algebraically closed field extension (such as the complex numbers). Consider the polynomial ring k _1, \ldots, X_n/math> and let ''I'' be an ideal in this ring. The algebraic set V(''I'') defined by this ideal consists of all ''n''tuples x = (''x''1,...,''x''''n'') in ''Kn'' such that ''f''(x) = 0 for all ''f'' in ''I''. Hilbert's Nullstellensatz ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Real Number
In mathematics, a real number is a number that can be used to measure a ''continuous'' one dimensional quantity such as a distance, duration or temperature. Here, ''continuous'' means that values can have arbitrarily small variations. Every real number can be almost uniquely represented by an infinite decimal expansion. The real numbers are fundamental in calculus (and more generally in all mathematics), in particular by their role in the classical definitions of limits, continuity and derivatives. The set of real numbers is denoted or \mathbb and is sometimes called "the reals". The adjective ''real'' in this context was introduced in the 17th century by René Descartes to distinguish real numbers, associated with physical reality, from imaginary numbers (such as the square roots of ), which seemed like a theoretical contrivance unrelated to physical reality. The real numbers include the rational numbers, such as the integer and the fraction . The rest of the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Infinite Set
In set theory, an infinite set is a set that is not a finite set. Infinite sets may be countable or uncountable. Properties The set of natural numbers (whose existence is postulated by the axiom of infinity) is infinite. It is the only set that is directly required by the axioms to be infinite. The existence of any other infinite set can be proved in Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory (ZFC), but only by showing that it follows from the existence of the natural numbers. A set is infinite if and only if for every natural number, the set has a subset whose cardinality is that natural number. If the axiom of choice holds, then a set is infinite if and only if it includes a countable infinite subset. If a set of sets is infinite or contains an infinite element, then its union is infinite. The power set of an infinite set is infinite. Any superset of an infinite set is infinite. If an infinite set is partitioned into finitely many subsets, then at least one of them must be inf ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Georg Cantor
Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor ( , ; – January 6, 1918) was a German mathematician. He played a pivotal role in the creation of set theory, which has become a fundamental theory in mathematics. Cantor established the importance of onetoone correspondence between the members of two sets, defined infinite and wellordered sets, and proved that the real numbers are more numerous than the natural numbers. In fact, Cantor's method of proof of this theorem implies the existence of an infinity of infinities. He defined the cardinal and ordinal numbers and their arithmetic. Cantor's work is of great philosophical interest, a fact he was well aware of. Originally, Cantor's theory of transfinite numbers was regarded as counterintuitive – even shocking. This caused it to encounter resistance from mathematical contemporaries such as Leopold Kronecker and Henri Poincaré and later from Hermann Weyl and L. E. J. Brouwer, while Ludwig Wittgenstein rai ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 