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CSSCI
Chinese Social Sciences Citation Index (CSSCI, Chinese: 中文社会科学引文索引) is an interdisciplinary citation index program in China. It was developed by Nanjing University of China Academy of Social Sciences Research Evaluation Center and the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology in 1998 and was established in 2000. This citation database covers about 500 Chinese academic journals of humanities and social sciences. Now many leading Chinese universities and institutes use CSSCI as a basis for the evaluation of academic achievements and promotion. According to a 2017 book written by Junping Qiu and other authors, CSSCI "is an important research project of the state and Ministry of Education and an important tool for information inquiry and evaluation of the main documents and information in China." The book said that CSSCI "addresses the blanks" in the Social Sciences Citation Index. Jiangqiu Ge wrote in a 2019 book that people from Nanjin University choose "the t ...
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Chinese Character
Chinese characters, also called ''Hanzi'' (), are logograms developed for the writing of Chinese. They have been adapted to write other East-Asian languages, and remain a key component of the Japanese writing system where they are known as ''kanji''. Chinese characters are the oldest continuously used system of writing in the world. By virtue of their widespread current use in East Asia, and historic use throughout the Sinosphere, Chinese characters are among the most widely adopted writing systems in the world by number of users. The total number of Chinese characters ever to appear in a dictionary is in the tens of thousands, though most are graphic variants, or were used historically and passed out of use, or are of a specialized nature. A college graduate who is literate in written Chinese knows between three and four thousand characters, though more are required for specialized fields. In Japan, 2,136 are taught through secondary school (the ''Jōyō kanji''); hundr ...
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Citation Index
A citation index is a kind of bibliographic index, an index of citations between publications, allowing the user to easily establish which later documents cite which earlier documents. A form of citation index is first found in 12th-century Hebrew religious literature. Legal citation indexes are found in the 18th century and were made popular by citators such as Shepard's Citations (1873). In 1960, Eugene Garfield's Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) introduced the first citation index for papers published in academic journals, first the ''Science Citation Index'' (SCI), and later the ''Social Sciences Citation Index'' (SSCI) and the ''Arts and Humanities Citation Index'' (AHCI). The first automated citation indexing was done by CiteSeer in 1997 and was patented. Other sources for such data include Google Scholar, Elsevier's Scopus, and the National Institutes of Health's iCite'. History The earliest known citation index is an index of biblical citations in rabbinic literatu ...
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