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Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur (/jɔːm, joʊm, jɒm ˈkɪpər, kɪˈpʊər/;[1] Hebrew: יוֹם כִּיפּוּר‬, IPA: [ˈjom kiˈpuʁ], or יום הכיפורים‬), also known as the Day of Atonement, is the holiest day of the year in Judaism.[2] Its central themes are atonement and repentance
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Jewish Ethics
Jewish
Jewish
ethics is the moral philosophy particular to one or both of the Jewish
Jewish
religion and peoples. Serving as a convergence of Judaism
Judaism
and the Western philosophical tradition of ethics, the diverse literature of Jewish
Jewish
ethics's broad range of moral concern classifies it as a type of normative ethics. For two millennia, Jewish
Jewish
thought has focussed on the interplay of ethics with the rule of law
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Reform Judaism
Reform Judaism
Judaism
(also known as Liberal Judaism
Judaism
or Progressive Judaism) is a major Jewish denomination that emphasizes the evolving nature of the faith, the superiority of its ethical aspects to the ceremonial ones, and a belief in a continuous revelation not centered on the theophany at Mount Sinai. A liberal strand of Judaism, it is characterized by a lesser stress on ritual and personal observance, regarding Jewish Law as non-binding and the individual Jew as autonomous, and openness to external influences and progressive values
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Mishnah
—— Tannaitic ——Mishnah Tosefta—— Amoraic (Gemara) ——Jerusalem Talmud Babylonian Talmud—— Later ——Minor TractatesHalakhic Midrash—— Exodus ——Mekhilta of Rabbi
Rabbi
Ishmael Mekhilta of Rabbi Shimon
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Rabbinic Literature
Rabbinic literature, in its broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history. However, the term often refers specifically to literature from the Talmudic era, as opposed to medieval and modern rabbinic writing, and thus corresponds with the Hebrew term Sifrut Hazal (Hebrew: ספרות חז"ל‎ "Literature [of our] sages," where Hazal normally refers only to the sages of the Talmudic era). This more specific sense of "Rabbinic literature"—referring to the Talmudim, Midrash
Midrash
(Hebrew: מדרש‎), and related writings, but hardly ever to later texts—is how the term is generally intended when used in contemporary academic writing. On the other hand, the terms meforshim and parshanim (commentaries/commentators) almost always refer to later, post-Talmudic writers of Rabbinic glosses on Biblical and Talmudic texts. This article discusses rabbinic literature in both senses
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Zohar
The Zohar
Zohar
(Hebrew: זֹהַר‬, lit. "Splendor" or "Radiance") is the foundational work in the literature of Jewish mystical thought known as Kabbalah.[1] It is a group of books including commentary on the mystical aspects of the Torah
Torah
(the five books of Moses) and scriptural interpretations as well as material on mysticism, mythical cosmogony, and mystical psychology. The Zohar
Zohar
contains discussions of the nature of God, the origin and structure of the universe, the nature of souls, redemption, the relationship of Ego to Darkness and "true self" to "The Light of God", and the relationship between the "universal energy" and man
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Ketuvim
Ketuvim
Ketuvim
(/kətuːˈviːm, kəˈtuːvɪm/;[1] Biblical Hebrew: כְּתוּבִים‎ Kəṯûḇîm, "writings") is the third and final section of the Tanakh
Tanakh
(Hebrew Bible), after Torah
Torah
(instruction) and Nevi'im
Nevi'im
(prophets)
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Nevi'im
Outline of Bible-related topics   Bible
Bible
book    Bible
Bible
portalv t e Nevi'im
Nevi'im
(/nəviˈiːm, nəˈviːɪm/;[1] Hebrew: נְבִיאִים‬ Nəḇî'îm, lit. "spokespersons", "Prophets") is the second main division of the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
(the Tanakh), between the Torah (instruction) and Ketuvim
Ketuvim
(writings). The Nevi'im
Nevi'im
are divided into two groups
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Jews As The Chosen People
In Judaism, "chosenness" is the belief that the Jews, via descent from the ancient Israelites, are the chosen people, i.e. chosen to be in a covenant with God. The idea of the Israelites
Israelites
being chosen by God
God
is found most directly in the Book
Book
of Deuteronomy[1][2] as the verb bahar (בָּחַ֣ר (Hebrew)), and is alluded to elsewhere in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
using other terms such as "holy people".[3] Much is written about these topics in rabbinic literature. The three largest Jewish denominations— Orthodox Judaism, Conservative Judaism
Judaism
and Reform Judaism—maintain the belief that the Jews
Jews
have been chosen by God
God
for a purpose
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Arba'ah Turim
Arba'ah Turim
Arba'ah Turim
(Hebrew: אַרְבַּעָה טוּרִים‬), often called simply the Tur, is an important Halakhic code composed by Jacob ben Asher (Cologne, 1270 – Toledo, Spain
Toledo, Spain
c. 1340, also referred to as Ba'al Ha-Turim). The four-part structure of the Tur and its division into chapters (simanim) were adopted by the later code Shulchan Aruch.Contents1 Meaning of the name 2 Arrangement and contents 3 Later developments 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksMeaning of the name[edit] The title of the work in Hebrew means "four rows", in allusion to the jewels on the High Priest's breastplate
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Messiah In Judaism
In Judaism, messiah (Hebrew: מָשִׁיחַ‎, translit. māšîaḥ; Greek: χριστός, translit. khristós, lit. 'anointed, covered in oil') is a title for a savior and liberator of the Jewish people
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Tosefta
—— Tannaitic ——Mishnah Tosefta—— Amoraic (Gemara) ——Jerusalem Talmud Babylonian Talmud—— Later ——Minor TractatesHalakhic Midrash—— Exodus ——Mekhilta of Rabbi Ishmael Mekhilta of Rabbi Shimon
Mekhilta of Rabbi Shimon
bar Yohai—— Leviticus —— Sifra
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Reconstructionist Judaism
Reconstructionist Judaism
Judaism
(Hebrew: יהדות רקונסטרוקציוניסטית‬, yahadút rekonstruktsyonistit, or יהדות מתחדשת‬, yahadút mitkhadéshet) is a modern Jewish movement that views Judaism
Judaism
as a progressively evolving civilization and is based on the conceptions developed by Mordecai Kaplan (1881–1983). The movement originated as a semi-organized stream within Conservative Judaism
Conservative Judaism
and developed from the late 1920s to 1940s, before it seceded in 1955[1] and established a rabbinical college in 1967.[2] There is substantial theological diversity within the movement. Halakha, the collective body of Jewish Law, is not considered binding, but is treated as a valuable cultural remnant that should be upheld unless there is reason for the contrary
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Karaite Judaism
Karaite Judaism
Judaism
or Karaism (also spelt Qaraite Judaism
Judaism
or Qaraism), (/ˈkærə.aɪt/ or /ˈkærə.ɪzəm/; Hebrew: יהדות קראית‬‬, Modern Yahadut Qara'it from, Tiberian Qārāʾîm, meaning "Readers")[a] is a Jewish religious movement characterized by the recognition of the Tanakh
Tanakh
alone as its supreme authority in Halakha (Jewish religious law) and theology. It is distinct from mainstream Rabbinic Judaism, which considers the Oral Torah, as codified in the Talmud
Talmud
and subsequent works, to be authoritative interpretations of the Torah. Karaites maintain that all of the divine commandments handed down to Moses
Moses
by God
God
were recorded in the written Torah
Torah
without additional Oral Law or explanation
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Shulchan Aruch
The Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
(Hebrew: שֻׁלְחָן עָרוּך‬ [ʃulˈħan ʕaˈʁuχ], literally: "Set Table"),[1] also known by various Jewish communities but not all as "the Code of Jewish Law," is the most widely consulted of the various legal codes in Judaism
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Conservative Judaism
Conservative Judaism
Judaism
(known as Masorti Judaism
Judaism
outside North America) is a major Jewish denomination, which views Jewish Law, or Halakha, as both binding and subject to historical development. The Conservative rabbinate therefore employs modern historical-critical research, rather than only traditional methods and sources, and lends great weight to its constituency when determining its stance on matters of Law. The movement considers its approach as the authentic and most appropriate continuation of halakhic discourse, maintaining both fealty to received forms and flexibility in their interpretation
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