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SHABBAT (/ʃəˈbɑːt/ ; Hebrew : שַׁבָּת‎‎ , "rest" or "cessation") or SHABBOS ( , Yiddish : שבת‎) or THE SABBATH is Judaism
Judaism
's day of rest and seventh day of the week , on which religious Jews
Jews
and certain Christians (such as Seventh Day Adventists and Seventh Day Baptists) remember the Biblical creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the Exodus of the Hebrews, and look forward to a future Messianic Age
Messianic Age
. Shabbat
Shabbat
observance entails refraining from work activities , often with great rigor , and engaging in restful activities to honor the day. Judaism's traditional position is that unbroken seventh-day Shabbat
Shabbat
originated among the Jewish people, as their first and most sacred institution, though some suggest other origins. Variations upon Shabbat
Shabbat
are widespread in Judaism
Judaism
and, with adaptations, throughout the Abrahamic and many other religions .

According to _halakha _ (Jewish religious law), Shabbat
Shabbat
is observed from a few minutes before sunset on Friday
Friday
evening until the appearance of three stars in the sky on Saturday night. Shabbat
Shabbat
is ushered in by lighting candles and reciting a blessing. Traditionally, three festive meals are eaten: in the evening, in the early afternoon, and late in the afternoon. The evening meal typically begins with a blessing called _kiddush _ and another blessing recited over two loaves of challah . Shabbat
Shabbat
is closed the following evening with a _havdalah _ blessing. Shabbat
Shabbat
is a festive day when Jews
Jews
exercise their freedom from the regular labors of everyday life. It offers an opportunity to contemplate the spiritual aspects of life and to spend time with family.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Etymology * 1.2 Biblical sources * 1.3 Origins * 1.4 Status as a holy day

* 2 Rituals

* 2.1 Welcoming Sabbath * 2.2 Other rituals * 2.3 Bidding farewell

* 3 Prohibited activities

* 3.1 Orthodox and Conservative

* 3.1.1 Electricity
Electricity
* 3.1.2 Automobiles * 3.1.3 Modifications * 3.1.4 Permissions

* 3.2 Reform and Reconstructionist

* 4 Encouraged activities * 5 Special
Special
Shabbatoth * 6 Sabbath adaptation * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links

HISTORY

ETYMOLOGY

Main article: Sabbath etymology

The word "Shabbat" derives from the Hebrew verb _shavat_ (Hebrew : שָׁבַת‎‎). Although frequently translated as "rest" (noun or verb), another accurate translation of these words is "ceasing ", as resting is not necessarily denoted. The related modern Hebrew word _shevita_ (labor strike ), has the same implication of active rather than passive abstinence from work. The notion of active cessation from labor is also regarded as more consistent with an omnipotent God 's activity on the seventh day of Creation according to Genesis .

BIBLICAL SOURCES

Main article: Biblical Sabbath

Sabbath is given special status as a holy day at the very beginning of the Torah
Torah
in Genesis 2:1–3. It is first commanded after the Exodus from Egypt, in Exodus 16:26 (relating to the cessation of manna ) and in Exodus 16:29 (relating to the distance one may travel by foot on the Sabbath), as also in Exodus 20:8–11 (as the fourth of the Ten Commandments ). Sabbath is commanded and commended many more times in the Torah
Torah
and Tanakh ; double the normal number of animal sacrifices are to be offered on the day. Sabbath is also described by the prophets Isaiah
Isaiah
, Jeremiah , Ezekiel
Ezekiel
, Hosea , Amos , and Nehemiah
Nehemiah
.

ORIGINS

A silver matchbox holder for Shabbat
Shabbat
from the Republic of Macedonia

The longstanding traditional Jewish position is that unbroken seventh-day Shabbat
Shabbat
originated among the Jewish people, as their first and most sacred institution. The Mosaic tradition quotes an origin from the Bible of special creation , though some suggest a later, naturalistic origin.

Seventh-day Shabbat
Shabbat
did not originate with the Egyptians , to whom it was unknown; and other origin theories based on the day of Saturn
Saturn
, or on the planets generally, have also been abandoned.

The first non-Biblical reference to Sabbath is in an ostracon found in excavations at Mesad Hashavyahu , which is dated 630 BCE.

Connection to Sabbath observance has been suggested in the designation of the seventh, fourteenth, nineteenth, twenty-first and twenty-eight days of a lunar month in an Assyrian religious calendar as a 'holy day', also called ‘evil days’ (meaning "unsuitable" for prohibited activities). The prohibitions on these days, spaced seven days apart, include abstaining from chariot riding, and the avoidance of eating meat by the King. On these days officials were prohibited from various activities and common men were forbidden to "make a wish", and at least the 28th was known as a "rest-day". The _ Universal Jewish Encyclopedia _ advanced a theory of Assyriologists like Friedrich Delitzsch (and of Marcello Craveri ) that Shabbat originally arose from the lunar cycle in the Babylonian calendar containing four weeks ending in Sabbath, plus one or two additional unreckoned days per month. The difficulties of this theory include reconciling the differences between an unbroken week and a lunar week, and explaining the absence of texts naming the lunar week as Sabbath in any language.

STATUS AS A HOLY DAY

A challah cover with Hebrew inscription

The Tanakh and siddur describe Shabbat
Shabbat
as having three purposes:

* To commemorate God\'s creation of the universe , on the seventh day of which God rested from (or ceased) his work; * To commemorate the Israelites' redemption from slavery in ancient Egypt ; * As a "taste" of Olam Haba
Olam Haba
(the Messianic Age
Messianic Age
).

Judaism
Judaism
accords Shabbat
Shabbat
the status of a joyous holy day. In many ways, Jewish law gives Shabbat
Shabbat
the status of being the most important holy day in the Jewish calendar:

* It is the first holy day mentioned in the Bible, and God was the first to observe it with the cessation of Creation (Genesis 2:1–3). * Jewish liturgy treats Shabbat
Shabbat
as a "bride" and "queen" (see Shekhinah ). * The Sefer Torah
Torah
is read during the Torah
Torah
reading which is part of the Shabbat
Shabbat
morning services, with a longer reading than during the week. The Torah
Torah
is read over a yearly cycle of 54 _parashioth _, one for each Shabbat
Shabbat
(sometimes they are doubled). On Shabbat, the reading is divided into seven sections, more than on any other holy day, including Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur
. Then, the Haftarah reading from the Hebrew prophets is read. * A tradition states that the Jewish Messiah
Jewish Messiah
will come if every Jew properly observes two consecutive Shabbatoth. * The punishment in ancient times for desecrating Shabbat
Shabbat
(stoning ) is the most severe punishment in Jewish law.

RITUALS

WELCOMING SABBATH

Reciting blessing over Shabbat candles
Shabbat candles

Honoring Shabbat
Shabbat
(_kavod Shabbat_) on Preparation Day (Friday) includes bathing, having a haircut and cleaning and beautifying the home (with flowers, for example).

According to Jewish law, Shabbat
Shabbat
starts a few minutes before sunset. Candles are lit at this time. It is customary in many communities to light the candles 18 minutes before sundown (_tosefet Shabbat_, though sometimes 36 minutes), and most printed Jewish calendars adhere to this custom. The Kabbalat Shabbat
Shabbat
service is a prayer service welcoming the arrival of Shabbat. Before Friday
Friday
night dinner, it is customary to sing two songs, one "greeting" two Shabbat
Shabbat
angels into the house and the other praising the woman of the house for all the work she has done over the past week. After blessings over the wine and challah, a festive meal is served. Singing is traditional at Sabbath meals. In modern times, many composers have written sacred music for use during the Kabbalat Shabbat
Shabbat
observance, including Robert Strassburg .

According to rabbinic literature , God via the Torah
Torah
commands Jews
Jews
to _observe_ (refrain from forbidden activity) and _remember_ (with words, thoughts, and actions) Shabbat, and these two actions are symbolized by the customary two Shabbat candles
Shabbat candles
. Candles are lit usually by the woman of the house (or else by a man who lives alone). Some families light more candles, sometimes in accordance with the number of children.

OTHER RITUALS

Shabbat
Shabbat
is a day of celebration as well as prayer . It is customary to eat three festive meals: Dinner on Shabbat
Shabbat
eve ( Friday
Friday
night), lunch on Shabbat
Shabbat
day (Saturday), and a third meal (a _Seudah Shlishit _) in the late afternoon (Saturday). It is also customary to wear nice clothing (different from during the week) on Shabbat
Shabbat
to honor the day.

Many Jews
Jews
attend synagogue services on Shabbat
Shabbat
even if they do not do so during the week. Services are held on Shabbat
Shabbat
eve ( Friday
Friday
night), Shabbat
Shabbat
morning (Saturday morning), and late Shabbat
Shabbat
afternoon (Saturday afternoon).

With the exception of Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur
, which is referred to in the Torah (Lev 23:32) as " Shabbat
Shabbat
of Shabbatoth", days of public fasting are postponed or advanced if they coincide with Shabbat. Mourners sitting _shivah _ (week of mourning subsequent to the death of a spouse or first-degree relative) outwardly conduct themselves normally for the duration of the day and are forbidden to display public signs of mourning.

Although most Shabbat
Shabbat
laws are restrictive, the fourth of the Ten Commandments in Exodus is taken by the Talmud and Maimonides
Maimonides
to allude to the _positive_ commandments of Shabbat. These include:

* Honoring Shabbat
Shabbat
(_kavod Shabbat_): on Shabbat, wearing festive clothing and refraining from unpleasant conversation. It is customary to avoid talk about money or business matters on Shabbat. * Recitation of _kiddush _ over a cup of wine at the beginning of Shabbat
Shabbat
meals, or at a reception after the conclusion of morning prayers (see the list of Jewish prayers and blessings ). * _ Two homemade whole-wheat challahs covered by traditional embroidered Shabbat
Shabbat
challah cover Eating three festive meals. Meals begin with a blessing over two loaves of bread (lechem mishneh _, "double bread"), usually of braided challah , which is symbolic of the double portion of manna that fell for the Jewish people on the day before Sabbath during their 40 years in the desert after the Exodus from Egypt . It is customary to serve meat or fish, and sometimes both, for Shabbat
Shabbat
evening and morning meals. _ Seudah Shlishit _ (literally, "third meal"), generally a light meal that may be pareve or dairy , is eaten late Shabbat
Shabbat
afternoon. * Enjoying Shabbat
Shabbat
(_oneg Shabbat_): Engaging in pleasurable activities such as eating, singing, spending time with the family and marital relations. * Recitation of _havdalah _.

BIDDING FAREWELL

Main article: Havdalah _ Observing the closing havdalah _ ritual in 14th-century Spain

_ Havdalah _ (Hebrew: הַבְדָּלָה, "separation") is a Jewish religious ceremony that marks the symbolic end of Shabbat, and ushers in the new week. At the conclusion of Shabbat
Shabbat
at nightfall, after the appearance of three stars in the sky, the _havdalah_ blessings are recited over a cup of wine, and with the use of fragrant spices and a candle, usually braided. Some communities delay _havdalah_ later into the night in order to prolong Shabbat.

PROHIBITED ACTIVITIES

Main article: Activities prohibited on Shabbat

Jewish law (halakha) prohibits doing any form of _melakhah_ (מְלָאכָה, plural _melakhoth_) on Shabbat, unless an urgent human or medical need is life-threatening. Though _melakhah_ is commonly translated as "work" in English , a better definition is "deliberate activity" or "skill and craftmanship". There are 39 categories of prohibited activities (_melakhoth_) listed in Mishnah Tractate Shabbat
Shabbat
7:2.

The term _shomer Shabbat
Shabbat
_ is used for a person (or organization) who adheres to Shabbat
Shabbat
laws consistently. The _shomer Shabbat_ is an archetype mentioned in Jewish songs (e.g., _Baruch El Elyon_) and the intended audience for various treatises on Jewish law and practice for _Shabbat_ (e.g., _Shemirat Shabbat
Shabbat
ke-Hilkhata_).

There are often disagreements between Orthodox Jews
Jews
and non-Orthodox Jews
Jews
as to the practical observance of the Sabbath. The (strict) observance of the Sabbath is often seen as a benchmark for orthodoxy and indeed has legal bearing on the way a Jew is seen by an orthodox religious court regarding their affiliation to Judaism. See Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik 's "Beis HaLevi" commentary on parasha Ki Tissa for further elaboration regarding the legal ramifications.

The 39 categories of _melakhah_ are:

* plowing earth * sowing * reaping * binding sheaves * threshing * winnowing * selecting * grinding * sifting * kneading * baking * shearing wool * washing wool * beating wool * dyeing wool * spinning * weaving * making two loops * weaving two threads * separating two threads * tying * untying * sewing stitches * tearing * trapping * slaughtering * flaying * tanning * scraping hide * marking hide * cutting hide to shape * writing two or more letters * erasing two or more letters * building * demolishing * extinguishing a fire * kindling a fire * putting the finishing touch on an object, and * transporting an object (between private and public domains, or over 4 cubits within public domain)

The categories of labors prohibited on Shabbat
Shabbat
are exegetically derived – on account of Biblical passages juxtaposing Shabbat observance (Ex. 35:1–3) to making the Tabernacle
Tabernacle
(Ex. 35:4 ff.) – that they are the kinds of work that were necessary for the construction of the Tabernacle
Tabernacle
. They are not explicitly listed in the Torah; the Mishnah observes that "the laws of Shabbat
Shabbat
... are like mountains hanging by a hair, for they are little Scripture but many laws". Many rabbinic scholars have pointed out that these labors have in common activity that is "creative", or that exercises control or dominion over one's environment .

ORTHODOX AND CONSERVATIVE

Different streams of Judaism
Judaism
view the prohibition on work in different ways. Observant Orthodox and Conservative Jews
Jews
refrain from performing the 39 prohibited categories of activities. Each _melakhah_ has derived prohibitions of various kinds. There are, therefore, many more forbidden activities on Shabbat; all are traced back to one of the 39 above principal _melakhoth_.

Given the above, the 39 _melakhoth_ are not so much activities as "categories of activity". For example, while "winnowing" usually refers exclusively to the separation of chaff from grain , and "selecting" refers exclusively to the separation of debris from grain, they refer in the Talmudic sense to any separation of intermixed materials which renders edible that which was inedible. Thus, filtering undrinkable water to make it drinkable falls under this category, as does picking small bones from fish (gefilte fish is one solution to this problem).

Electricity

Main article: Electricity on Shabbat

Orthodox and some Conservative authorities rule that turning electric devices on or off is prohibited as a _melakhah_; however, authorities are not in agreement about exactly which one(s). One view is that tiny sparks are created in a switch when the circuit is closed, and this would constitute lighting a fire (category 37). If the appliance is purposed for light or heat (such as an incandescent bulb or electric oven), then the lighting or heating elements may be considered as a type of fire that falls under both lighting a fire (category 37) and cooking (i.e., baking, category 11). Turning lights off would be extinguishing a fire (category 36).

Another view is that a device plugged into an electrical outlet of a wall becomes part of the building, but is nonfunctional while the switch is off; turning it on would then constitute building (category 35) and turning it off would be demolishing (category 34). Some schools of thought consider the use of electricity to be forbidden only by rabbinic injunction , rather than because it violates one of the original categories.

A common solution to the problem of electricity involves preset timers ( Shabbat
Shabbat
clocks ) for electric appliances, to turn them on and off automatically, with no human intervention on Shabbat
Shabbat
itself. Some Conservative authorities reject altogether the arguments for prohibiting the use of electricity. Some Orthodox also hire a "Shabbos goy ", a Gentile to perform prohibited tasks (like operating light switches) on Shabbat.

Automobiles

Main article: Driving during Shabbat

Orthodox and many Conservative authorities completely prohibit the use of automobiles on Shabbat
Shabbat
as a violation of multiple categories, including lighting a fire, extinguishing a fire, and transferring between domains (category 39). However, the Conservative movement's Committee on Jewish Law and Standards permits driving to a synagogue on Shabbat, as an emergency measure, on the grounds that if Jews
Jews
lost contact with synagogue life they would become lost to the Jewish people.

A halakhically authorized Shabbat mode added to a power-operated mobility scooter may be used on the observance of Shabbat
Shabbat
for those with walking limitations, often referred to as a Shabbat
Shabbat
scooter. It is intended only for individuals whose limited mobility is dependent on a scooter or automobile consistently throughout the week.

Modifications

Seemingly "forbidden" acts may be performed by modifying technology such that no law is actually violated. In Sabbath mode , a "Sabbath elevator " will stop automatically at every floor, allowing people to step on and off without anyone having to press any buttons, which would normally be needed to work. ( Dynamic braking is also disabled if it is normally used, i.e., shunting energy collected from downward travel, and thus the gravitational potential energy of passengers, into a resistor network.) However, many rabbinical authorities consider the use of such elevators by those who are otherwise capable as a violation of Shabbat, with such workarounds being for the benefit of the frail and handicapped and not being in the spirit of the day.

Many observant Jews
Jews
avoid the prohibition of carrying by use of an eruv . Others make their keys into a tie bar , part of a belt buckle, or a brooch , because a legitimate article of clothing or jewelry may be worn rather than carried. An elastic band with clips on both ends, and with keys placed between them as integral links, may be considered a belt.

Shabbat
Shabbat
lamps have been developed to allow a light in a room to be turned on or off at will while the electricity remains on. A special mechanism blocks out the light when the off position is desired without violating Shabbat.

The Shabbos App is a proposed Android app claimed by its creators to enable Orthodox Jews
Jews
, and all Jewish Sabbath-observers, to use a smartphone to text on the Jewish Sabbath. It has met with resistance from some authorities.

Permissions

Main article: Pikuach nefesh

In the event that a human life is in danger (_pikuach nefesh _), a Jew is not only allowed, but required, to violate any halakhic law that stands in the way of saving that person (excluding murder, idolatry, and forbidden sexual acts). The concept of life being in danger is interpreted broadly: for example, it is mandated that one violate Shabbat
Shabbat
to bring a woman in active labor to a hospital. Lesser rabbinic restrictions are often violated under much less urgent circumstances (a patient who is ill but not critically so).

We did everything to save lives, despite Shabbat. People asked, 'Why are you here? There are no Jews
Jews
here', but we are here because the Torah
Torah
orders us to save lives .... We are desecrating Shabbat
Shabbat
with pride. — Mati Goldstein, commander of the Jewish ZAKA rescue-mission to the 2010 Haiti earthquake

Various other legal principles closely delineate which activities constitute desecration of Shabbat. Examples of these include the principle of _shinui_ ("change" or "deviation"): A violation is not regarded as severe if the prohibited act was performed in a way that would be considered abnormal on a weekday. Examples include writing with one's nondominant hand, according to many rabbinic authorities. This legal principle operates _bedi'avad_ (_ex post facto _) and does not cause a forbidden activity to be permitted barring extenuating circumstances.

REFORM AND RECONSTRUCTIONIST

Generally, adherents of Reform and Reconstructionist Judaism
Judaism
believe that the individual Jew determines whether to follow Shabbat prohibitions or not. For example, some Jews
Jews
might find activities, such as writing or cooking for leisure , to be enjoyable enhancements to Shabbat
Shabbat
and its holiness, and therefore may encourage such practices. Many Reform Jews
Jews
believe that what constitutes "work" is different for each person, and that only what the person considers "work" is forbidden. The radical Reform rabbi Samuel Holdheim advocated moving Sabbath to Sunday
Sunday
for many no longer observed it, a step taken by dozens of congregations in the United States in late 19th century.

More rabbinically traditional Reform and Reconstructionist Jews believe that these _halakhoth_ in general may be valid, but that it is up to each individual to decide how and when to apply them. A small fraction of Jews
Jews
in the Progressive Jewish community accept these laws much the same way as Orthodox Jews.

ENCOURAGED ACTIVITIES

All Jewish denominations encourage the following activities on Shabbat:

* Reading, studying, and discussing Torah
Torah
and commentary, Mishnah and Talmud , and learning some halakha and midrash . * Synagogue
Synagogue
attendance for prayers . * Spending time with other Jews
Jews
and socializing with family, friends, and guests at Shabbat
Shabbat
meals (_hachnasat orchim_, "hospitality"). * Singing _zemiroth _ or _niggunim _, special songs for Shabbat meals (commonly sung during or after a meal). * Marital relations between husband and wife. * Sleeping.

SPECIAL SHABBATOTH

Main article: Special Shabbat

The Special
Special
Shabbatoth are the Shabbatoth that precede important Jewish holidays : e.g., _ Shabbat
Shabbat
haGadol_ ( Shabbat
Shabbat
preceding Pesach ), _ Shabbat
Shabbat
Zachor_ ( Shabbat
Shabbat
preceding Purim
Purim
), and _ Shabbat
Shabbat
Shuvah_ (or _Teshuva_) (the Shabbat
Shabbat
between Rosh HaShanah and Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur
).

SABBATH ADAPTATION

Main articles: First-day Sabbath and Seventh-day Sabbath

Most Christians do not observe Saturday Sabbath, but instead observe a weekly day of worship on Sunday
Sunday
, which is often called the "Lord\'s Day ".

Several Christian
Christian
denominations, such as the Seventh-day Adventist Church , the Church of God (7th Day) , the Seventh Day Baptists , and many others , observe seventh-day Sabbath . This observance is celebrated from Friday
Friday
sunset to Saturday sunset. Some of Messianic Judaism
Judaism
considers its Sabbath to be kept according to Jewish doctrinal tradition, while most of Rabbinic Judaism
Judaism
disagrees.

The principle of weekly Sabbath also exists in other beliefs. Examples include the Babylonian calendar , the Buddhist
Buddhist
_uposatha _, the Islamic _jumu\'ah _, and the Unification Church 's Ahn Shi Il .

SEE ALSO

* Baqashoth * Hebrew calendar * Shabbat greetings * Jewish holidays * Jewish services for Sabbath * Jumu\'ah * Moed * Sabbath breaking * Sabbath in Christianity * Sabbath in seventh-day churches * Sabbath mode * Shabbat
Shabbat
in Karaism * Shabbos goy * Zemiroth

REFERENCES

* ^ Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
, Orach Chayim 293:2 * ^ _Every Person's Guide to Shabbat_, by Ronald H. Isaacs, Jason Aronson, 1998, p. 6 * ^ _A_ _B_ Landau, Judah Leo. _The Sabbath_. Johannesburg, South Africa : Ivri Publishing Society, Ltd. pp. 2, 12. Retrieved 2009-03-26. * ^ Graham, I. L. (2009). "The Origin of the Sabbath". Presbyterian Church of Eastern Australia . Archived from the original on December 3, 2008. Retrieved 2009-03-26. * ^ "Jewish religious year: The Sabbath". _Encyclopædia Britannica _. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-26. Scholars have not succeeded in tracing the origin of the seven-day week, nor can they account for the origin of the Sabbath. * ^ Bechtel, Florentine (1912). "Sabbath". _The Catholic Encyclopedia _. 13. New York City
New York City
: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 2009-03-26. * ^ _A_ _B_ Sampey, John Richard (1915). "Sabbath: Critical Theories". In Orr, James . _The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia_. Howard-Severance Company. p. 2630. Retrieved 2009-08-13. * ^ "Mezad Hashavyahu Ostracon, c. 630 BCE". Retrieved 2012-09-12. * ^ "Histoire du peuple hébreu". André Lemaire . Presses Universitaires de France 2009 (8e édition), p. 66 * ^ Eviatar Zerubavel (1985). _The Seven Day Circle: The History and Meaning of the Week_. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-98165-7 . * ^ Craveri, Marcello (1967). _The Life
Life
of Jesus_. Grove Press. p. 134. * ^ Joseph, Max (1943). "Holidays". In Landman, Isaac
Isaac
. _The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia: An authoritative and popular presentation of Jews
Jews
and Judaism
Judaism
since the earliest times_. 5. Cohen, Simon, compiler. The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, Inc. p. 410. * ^ Joseph, Max (1943). "Sabbath". In Landman, Isaac
Isaac
. _The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia: An authoritative and popular presentation of Jews
Jews
and Judaism
Judaism
since the earliest times_. 9. Cohen, Simon, compiler. The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, Inc. p. 295. * ^ Cohen, Simon (1943). "Week". In Landman, Isaac
Isaac
. _The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia: An authoritative and popular presentation of Jews and Judaism
Judaism
since the earliest times_. 10. Cohen, Simon, compiler. The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, Inc. p. 482. * ^ Shabbat
Shabbat
118 * ^ See e.g. Numbers 15:32–36. * ^ Shabbat
Shabbat
119b * ^ Proverbs 31:10–31 * ^ Ferguson, Joey (May 20, 2011). "Jewish lecture series focuses on Sabbath Course at Chabad center focuses on secrets of sabbath\'s serenity". Deseret News. The more we are able to invest in it, the more we are able to derive pleasure from the Sabbath." Jewish belief is based on understanding that observance of the Sabbath is the source of all blessing, said Rabbi
Rabbi
Zippel in an interview. He referred to the Jewish Sabbath as a time where individuals disconnect themselves from all endeavors that enslave them throughout the week and compared the day to pressing a reset button on a machine. A welcome prayer over wine or grape juice from the men and candle lighting from the women invokes the Jewish Sabbath on Friday
Friday
at sundown. * ^ http://www.milkenarchive.org/artists/view/robert-strassburg/ * ^ Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
, Orach Chaim 261. * ^ Derived from Isaiah
Isaiah
58:13–14. * ^ Chagigah 1:8. * ^ Klein, Miriam (April 27, 2011). " Sabbath Offers Serenity in a Fast-Paced World". Triblocal. Chicago Tribune. * ^ Neulander, Arthur (1950). "The Use of Electricity
Electricity
on the Sabbath". _Proceedings of the Rabbinical Assembly_. 14: 165–171. * ^ Adler, Morris; Agus, Jacob; Friedman, Theodore (1950). "Responsum on the Sabbath". _Proceedings of the Rabbinical Assembly_. 14: 112–137. * ^ Klein, Isaac. _A Guide to Jewish Religious Practice._ The Jewish Theological Seminary of America: New York, 1979. * ^ Hannah Dreyfus (October 2, 2014). "New Shabbos App Creates Uproar Among Orthodox Circles". _ The Jewish Week _. Retrieved October 12, 2014. * ^ David
David
Shamah (October 2, 2014). "App lets Jewish kids text on Sabbath – and stay in the fold; The ‘Shabbos App’ is generating controversy in the Jewish community – and a monumental on-line discussion of Jewish law". _The Times of Israel
Israel
_. Retrieved October 3, 2014. * ^ Daniel Koren (October 2, 2014). "Finally, Now You Can Text on Saturdays Thanks to New \'Shabbos App\'". _Shalom Life_. Retrieved October 12, 2014. * ^ "Will the Shabbos App Change Jewish Life, Raise Rabbinic Ire, or Both?". Jewish Business News. October 2, 2014. Retrieved October 12, 2014. * ^ 8 saved during " Shabbat
Shabbat
from hell" Archived 2010-01-19 at the Wayback Machine . (January 17, 2010) in _ Israel
Israel
21c Innovation News Service_ Retrieved 2010–01–18 * ^ ZAKA rescuemission to Haiti \'proudly desecrating Shabbat\' Religious rescue team holds Shabbat
Shabbat
prayer with members of international missions in Port au-Prince. Retrieved 2010–01–22 * ^ http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3835327,00.html * ^ Faigin, Daniel P. (2003-09-04). "Soc.Culture.Jewish Newsgroups Frequently Asked Questions and Answers". Usenet . p. 18.4.7. Retrieved 2009-03-27. * ^ The Sunday- Sabbath Movement in American Reform Judaism: Strategy or Evolution * ^ Shulkhan Arukh,